Top PDF Analysis Of Road Traffic Noise At Express Highway

Analysis Of Road Traffic Noise At Express Highway

Analysis Of Road Traffic Noise At Express Highway

In world health organization (WHO) statements, “large city noise is considered to be the third most hazardous pollution”. Researches study noise problems in cities and try to find solution for these problems. At the time air pollution in incurs a large bill to pay when it comes to stop the escalation of global warming, urban noise pollution is in fact another complex issue for which academic community does not see possible short term plans to save the situation. It is only long term strategic planning that might realize some recovery to the current increasing levels of noise. However, transportation works is seen to a expanded and accelerated in the term of amount and variety, it is impractical to hinder traffic in main arterial for decrease traffic flow but it might be possible to detour traffic or to construct new roads, or other forms of end–of-pipe solutions. Noise will be a larger and serious social problem in the future if effective precautions are not taken accordingly.
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Performance Analysis of Road Traffic Noise by Using Computer Aided Modelling

Performance Analysis of Road Traffic Noise by Using Computer Aided Modelling

Prior to the release of the TNM, the Highway Traffic Noise Prediction Model, or "108 model," was in use for over 20 years. Although an effective model for its time, the "108 model" was comprised of acoustic algorithms, computer architecture, and source code that dated to the 1970s. Since that time, significant advancements have been made in the methodology and technology for noise prediction, barrier analysis and design, and computer software design and coding. A state-sponsored, pooled-fund effort supported the development of the national reference energy mean emission levels (REMEL) database for the TNM. The TNM is an entirely new, state-of-the-art computer program used for predicting noise impacts in the vicinity of highways. It uses advances in personal computer hardware and software to improve upon the accuracy and ease of modelling highway noise, including the design of effective, cost-efficient highway noise barriers. The TNM contains the following components:
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Evaluation and Analysis of Road Traffic Noise on a National Highway

Evaluation and Analysis of Road Traffic Noise on a National Highway

Due to unavailability of Doppler Radar Speedometer, manual method was used for spot speed measurement of the vehicles in the present study. For this purpose two points were marked with a known distance (75m apart) on the road at the sampling site. With the help of a stopwatch, the time taken by the vehicles to cover the above distance (i.e. 75 m) was recorded and by dividing the distance with the time taken by the vehicles, the speed in km/hr for each type of vehicle was calculated.

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Modelling Of Road Traffic Noise

Modelling Of Road Traffic Noise

In this research, continuous noise recording was used instead of SLM. H4N noise recorder was used for recording the noise data continuously. The noise recorder was kept at a distance of 3m from the edge of the pavement and at a height of about 1.5m from the ground level. The height of the recorder was selected as 1.5m to account for the average position of the human ear. The continuous noise recording was carried out for one hour in each location. Simultaneously, video of the traffic stream was also recorded using Sony Handycam. The spot speed of the vehicles was found using a Falcon HR Radar speed gun. The noise and video recording was performed with perfect synchronization so that the preliminary analysis can be done with ease.
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3D Analysis and Investigation of Traffic Noise Impact from Hemmat Highway Located in Tehran on Buildings and Surrounding Areas

3D Analysis and Investigation of Traffic Noise Impact from Hemmat Highway Located in Tehran on Buildings and Surrounding Areas

The problem of noise pollution has been a subject of great interest over the last few years. A considerable amount of work has been carried out with the aim of de- veloping models to predict noise levels generated by road traffic. Noise prediction is necessary where a future situation cannot be measured. It is also because measur- ing noise in the field is practically difficult, since nu- merous observation points are needed to obtain a com- plete picture of the noise situation and it is not a cost effective method [14]. Noise prediction is based upon relatively straightforward equations and principles. Pre- diction of noise levels is in the case when it is not possi- ble to measure at the receiver. Noise levels can be pre- dicted based on the traffic flow rate, the speed of vehicles, the proportion of heavy vehicles and the nature of road surface. In some situations noise prediction can be more accurate than measurement, since only the contribution of the process is predicted [15].
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Environmental noise exposure, early biological risk and mental health in nine to ten year old children: a cross-sectional field study

Environmental noise exposure, early biological risk and mental health in nine to ten year old children: a cross-sectional field study

The RANCH study collected data on a large number of potential confounding factors. A confounding factor was retained in the analysis if there was a significant rela- tionship between the confounding factor and aircraft noise at school and/or road traffic noise at school (p < .05). Additionally all confounding factors (except main language spoken at home and parental support) were significantly correlated (p < .05) with at least one of the mental health outcomes. Potential confounding factors assessed were: country (United Kingdom (UK), Spain or the Netherlands); gender (male or female); age (mea- sured in days); employment status (highest employment status for household, coded into a dichotomous variable, employed or not employed); crowding at home (the number of people per room in the child’s home, coded into a dichotomous variable, crowded or not crowded, according to the cut-off points for each country i.e. one and a half in the United Kingdom and Spain and one in the Netherlands); home ownership (whether the child’s home is rented or owned/mortgaged); mother ’ s educa- tional attainment (measured by using a relative inequal- ity index based on a ranked index of standard qualifications in each country [16]; long-standing illness (whether the child is reported by their main carer as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, asthma/ bronchitis, eczema, epilepsy, depression, diabetes, or dyslexia, coded into a dichotomous variable: has a long standing illness or no long standing illness); main lan- guage spoken at home (a dichotomous variable created to indicate whether the child spoke the predominant language for the country at home); parental support for
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Application of the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process in multi criteria decision in noise action plans : prioritizing road stretches

Application of the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process in multi criteria decision in noise action plans : prioritizing road stretches

Methodological validation can be soundly based on the techniques used and the case study analyzed in this work. Once road stretches that require planning solutions against road traffic noise have been sorted according to by priority in the NAP, it is possible to examine suitable alternatives and choose the most suitable option in accordance with the second phase of the proposed methodology, as described in Ruiz- Padillo et al. (2014). This decision-making problem is again of the multicriteria analysis type and is applied to the pre-selected alternatives. Of course, this choice should be reasoned and justified, meaning further research is necessary to determine criteria and their relative influence in this phase. Subsequently, actions for estimating total cost distribution should be carried out within the period of NAP validity, taking into account prioritization as established by the RSPI calculated values.
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Road traffic noise and children’s inattention

Road traffic noise and children’s inattention

Children of parents who live apart tend to split time between households, but only information on mothers address was available. To address this potential problem, we ran a sensitivity analysis were only children living with both parents were included. We also did sensitivity analyses where we excluded children who, according to the mothers, had been referred to a physician or psych- ologist due to attentional problems (to account for pos- sible diagnosis of ADHD). Further analyses compared estimates for road traffic noise with and without rail traffic noise included, with and without air pollution, and with and without children born preterm or with a birth weight of less than 2500 g. In only a few cases, not all the items were filled out. For these children, the sum score was divided by the maximum attainable score of those items completed (i.e., 7 completed items would have given a maximum score of 21). These incomplete cases were included in sensitivity analyses.
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Artificial Neural Network Modelling of Traffic Noise in Agra Firozabad Highway

Artificial Neural Network Modelling of Traffic Noise in Agra Firozabad Highway

The road traffic noise was calculated in the batch experiments as a function of volume of the traffic, speed of the traffic, number of heavy vehicles and the road traffic noise. As environmental pollution is influenced by number of process variables which holds complex non-linear relationship, any simple feed forward network may not be sufficient to handle the prediction efficiency. ANN model based on single layer recurrent back propagation algorithm for the data, generated from the above batch experiments was applied to train the Neural Network. During training, the output vector is computed by a forward pass in which the input is propagated forward through the network to compute the output value of each unit. The output vector is then compared with the desired
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REVIEW ON ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE POLLUTION

REVIEW ON ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE POLLUTION

Sound is define as the vibration that travel through the air or another medium and can be heard when they reach a person’s or animal’s ear. Noise is unwanted and unpleasant sound .In developing country like INDIA suffering from several environmental problems. These environmental problems include water, air, and noise pollution. Out of three, noise pollution is one of a major issue for people residing in urban areas. The factor contributing high noise levels because of increase in population, urbanization and increase in the traffic volume. For example the difference between normal conversation (65 dB) and someone shouting (80 dB) is only 15 dB but the shouting is 30 times as intensive. Traffic noise is create a problem for a people who residing near highway.
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An Effectual Adaboost Based Regularization Approach For Risk Prediction In Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

An Effectual Adaboost Based Regularization Approach For Risk Prediction In Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

In [6] Islam Tharwat Abdel-Halim et al. anticipated that stability is crucial to expand execution of reactive protocols, while foreseeing trajectory or vehicles location is helpful to data forwarding and upgrade position-based routing protocols. Traffic management is enhanced by anticipating travelling time, and road security takes advantages over predicting risk. But interesting VANETs characteristics emerge need to a top to bottom investigation for prediction-based protocols to conquer existing difficulties. Moreover, there are enormous research crises in mobility prediction, for example, QoS, clustering and mobility rules prediction. In [7] P. Ganeshkumar et al. anticipate an Emergency Situation Prediction Mechanism (ESPM) is to recognize the probability of accident occurrence in Indian four-lane express highway. The essential target of ESPM is to anticipate emergency circumstance ahead of time, henceforth accident prevention and decreasing the loss of life. ESPM is utilized to perform prediction of emergency circumstance in four stages. The initial three stages (reporting, monitoring and prediction stages) are utilized for expectation and fourth stage is utilized for avoidance. In ESPM, prediction accuracy is registered against vehicle density for three distinct situations. In all the three situations, it is seen that there is small gap between analytical evaluation and iterative results. The outcomes demonstrate that ESPM performance is promisingly increased towards prediction. Prediction accuracy of ESPM against vehicle density is practically over 92 percentIn [8] Swati B. Raut et al. describes about vehicle collision identification and prediction framework is displayed dependent on ICU and IVC. This strategy has been actualized on highway intersection situations. Open Street Map is productively utilized for removing and executing real mao. SUMO, OMNET++ and VEINS gives a decent domain of VANET execution. In the anticipated strategy, ICU monitors vehicles dynamics and calculates collision probability, based on gained information. ICU separates the criticality of possible
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Estimation and Analysis of Highway Traffic

Estimation and Analysis of Highway Traffic

The calculable background is taken. on the road direction, a sample tiny set of points are marked as dotted lane markers. Thin-plate splines are marked by activity its position and its distance. Between 2 consecutive points, the horizontal distances and therefore the vertical positions are calculated. The sampled points i.e., blue points are marked on the paved surface. on the road direction, the spline is fitted by vertical positions. The vertical axis is that the corresponding y coordinates and therefore the horizontal axis is the same because the variety of sampled points. Then, the spline fitted by the horizontal distances. The horizontal distance is that the corresponding scaling factors on coordinate axis.
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Benefit measures for noise abatement: calculations for road and rail traffic noise

Benefit measures for noise abatement: calculations for road and rail traffic noise

The estimated WTP used in this paper is based on [1]. Since the data were also analyzed in [1] we only pro- vide a terse description of the study and the results that are of interest to our analysis in this article. 10 To con- duct their empirical analysis Andersson et al. used a pooled data set for Lerum, a municipality close to Gothenburg, which consisted of two sources; property noise levels from a study on the health effects of traffic noise conducted in Lerum in 2004 [56] and property prices and other attributes (besides the noise variables) from the National Land Survey of Sweden. Descriptive statistics for the dif- ferent variables are listed and described in Table 5 in the Appendix. Prices are reported in 2004 price levels and the explanatory variables used in the regression are Living space, Quality index, Terraced, Linked and Detached which describe property attributes, whereas the other variables, besides the two noise variables, describe geographical attributes of the properties. Of the latter variables one is a dummy for distance to the motorway, E20 150m, a proxy for other negative effects from living close to the road besides road noise, two are measures of the distance to nearest train station and motorway entrance, Dist. station and Dist. entrance, i.e. measures of positive effects of the railway and motorway, whereas the other geographical variables define different neighborhoods.
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Smart Road Technology for Traffic Management and ITS Infrastructure Assessment: A Case Study of Muscat Express Highway

Smart Road Technology for Traffic Management and ITS Infrastructure Assessment: A Case Study of Muscat Express Highway

Increasing traffic is of serious concern to the authorities in every city around the world. Muscat the capital city in Oman is suffering with varied traffic problems. The concern issues are speeding up of cars, increasing personalized vehicles and the big personal cars with low occupancy rate. The problems arising out of increased traffic are: increased congestion levels, over speeding of personal cars, travel delay times, loss to human life and property, increased pollution levels and retarded economic development. There is need to manage all the traffic related concerns in a smart way. To address all the listed problems and to find solutions a Smart Road using intelligent transportation system (ITS) is latest development and being adopted for arterial and sub arterial roads in cities across the world. Smart road is a road, wherein a normal road is equipped with variety of sensors and electronic gadgets which help in detecting the relevant problems and find feasible solutions to improve the operational efficiency of the system.
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Prediction of Noise Levels using FHWA Model for National highway 150 A (NH 150 A)

Prediction of Noise Levels using FHWA Model for National highway 150 A (NH 150 A)

disturbance, annoyance, poor working efficiency and adverse health effects. Road traffic noise is one of the main environmental problem that has been experienced by residents in many cities in the world. The growth proportion of motor vehicles is at the rate of 10 percent per year. This high increase in motor vehicles ownership has increased environmental problems such as air pollution and noise level. The contribution of highway noise is 70%, airway contributes 20% and railway contributes about 10% to overall traffic noise. There is mixed traffic on most of the Indian highways with a wide variation in traffic volume, speed and other road and traffic related parameters. Traffic noise prediction is done with the help of Federal Highway Administration Model (FHWA Model) using traffic volume and speed recorded at several samplings stations and the FHWA model is found to be applicable for the prediction of traffic noise in India with some degree of accuracy. The enormous progress in the Road Transportation Division in India has been a key element in the economic development In India; the national highways are the primary long- distance roadways. They are upheld by the Central Government, and the majority is two-lane. India has a large road network of over 3.314 million kilometers of roadways (2.1 million miles), which makes it a country with the third largest road network in the world.
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The role of ITS in noise mapping and noise action planning.

The role of ITS in noise mapping and noise action planning.

Another example of the current practice of using traffic models for traffic noise modelling is a quick scan study carried out by TNO for the Transport Research Centre of the Dutch Ministry of Transport (15). The aim of this study was to determine the optimal speed limit on motorways near bottlenecks from the point of view of traffic throughput, safety, noise, emissions, and user acceptance. Three different speed limits were considered: 80, 90 and 100 km/h, all with strict enforcement. They have been compared with a base case of 100 km/h without strict enforcement. The study was based on the positive effects obtained at the Overschie area in Rotterdam where the speed limit on a major motorway, the A13, was reduced from 100 km/h to 80 km/h. This measure resulted in significantly reduced noise and emission levels. Here, we will focus on the method used to determine the effects of different speed limits on noise.
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Assessment and prediction of noise from construction sites

Assessment and prediction of noise from construction sites

APPENDIX E Average Distributions of Traffic and Construction Npise Levels Mean values of 11 measurements of main road traffic noise and 29 measurements of noise from the construction sit[r]

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Effect of geometric elements on Accidents' Rates

Effect of geometric elements on Accidents' Rates

Traffic accidents have been recognized as one of the major causes for human and economic losses both in developed and developing countries, therefore, they are considered as the main criterion for road safety. The three basic aspects of transport humans, roads and vehicles, are the primary factors in accidents. Human factor seems to be the dominant cause of accidents compared to the others. However, the number of accidents can be seriously reduced if the road factor is evaluated better and highway design is made correctly, [4]. In KSA, the problem of traffic accidents is very huge to the extent that more than 500000 accident was recorded during the year 2012. These accidents caused about 7200 deaths (an average of 19 deaths from accidents every single day), 39000 injuries and social costs more than 20 billion SR. In addition, the very high cost of highway accidents paid by societies around the world makes highway safety improvement an important objective of transportation engineering. Highway safety specialists can influence traffic safety either through means such as road rules, law enforcement, and education, or by applying local traffic control and geometry improvements, [7]. Therefore, highway safety must be based on both historic accident data and the risk (probability) of accidents at a location. On the other hand, numerical modelling is a common tool for estimating the frequency of road accidents. For this concern, road safety modelling has attracted considerable research interest in the past three decades because of its wide variety of applications and important practical implications. Numerous road-accident-prediction models have been developed to investigate the effects that various variables may have on the value of a pre- selected crash indicator. Transportation engineers may be interested in identifying those factors (traffic, geometric, etc.) that influence
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Noise is unacceptable level of sound that creates annoyance, hampers mental and physical peace, and may induce severe damage to the health. Transportation operations are major contribution to in the modern urban environment; traffic noise is generated by the engine and exhaust systems of vehicle, by aerodynamics friction and by the interaction between vehicles and its support system rail interactions). traffic noise, thus, is a very important element in environmental impact studies, since car is one of the most used transportation mean in developing t is one of the harmful agents for citizenships; therefore many countries have n limits for vehicles and s to reduce road traffic noise E1, 9, 13, showing an alarming rise and it exceeds the prescribed levels in most of the urban cities of developing countries like Nigeria and Akure in particular. Noise in big cities is considered by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be the third most hazardous type of pollution, right after air and Investigation in several countries shown that noise has adverse effect on human health, living in close proximity to
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Epidemiological Profile of Road Traffic Accidents on Khartoum – Medani Highway, Sudan

Epidemiological Profile of Road Traffic Accidents on Khartoum – Medani Highway, Sudan

Road traffic accidents are considered as public health problem world-wide. Each year, nearly 1.3 million people die as a result of a road traffic collision— more than 3500 deaths each day, moreover twenty to fifty million more people sustain non-fatal injuries from a collision, and these injuries are an important cause of disability worldwide (Ashish and Devang, 2011). Recent studies have shown an increase in the rate of road traffic accidents (RTA) in many developing and developed countries. This is attributed in part to urbanization, industrialization, as well as the increase in the number of motor vehicles on the roads (Charles et al, 2007).
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