represents spending on the free entitlement to part-time early years education and childcare, which amounted to £3.5 billion in 2017–18. Increases in spending on the free entitlement over time have mainly reflected extensions in hours offered, with the latest extension in 2017–18 increasing the offer to 30 hours for most working parents. There are two main related challenges for early years funding over the next few years. First, successful implementation of the new 30 hours extended entitlement will require providers to be willing to offer it, given the funding available. To date, many have, but there is significant geographical variation in take-up rates. The government should therefore continue to monitor overall levels and variation in take-up of the new extended entitlement. Second, it is not clear how and whether the new Early Years National Funding Formula can be used to promote high-quality provision. Whilst the new funding system is welcome in ensuring transparency and consistency in funding allocations, it is currently difficult for the funding formula to incentivise and support high-quality provision as there is no agreed definition of ‘high-quality’ provision. A focus on minimising costs could have unintended consequences by making it more difficult for childcare settings to provide high-quality care that supports children’s development.
The Labour party put the cost of this package at £5.3 billion in 2021–22 (which is equivalent to £5.5 billion in today’s prices). However, IFS analysis at the time noted that this figure was highly uncertain, and was unlikely to reflect the true long-run cost of the party’s childcare package (Cattan and Farquharson, 2017). The 2020–21 figure excluded the cost of offering free or subsidised care to 1-year-olds and of extending maternity pay to 12 months. The cost of policy commitments such as ‘phasing in subsidised provision on top of free-hour entitlements’ will depend a lot on the actual programme put in place: how many hours it subsidises, at what rate of subsidy, who is eligible for the subsidies, and how many hours they choose to take up at the new, lower price. In addition, the Labour party promised higher hourly funding rates to ‘transition to a qualified, graduate-led workforce’. Ensuring that early education places are of high quality is essential if they are to support children’s development (though recent research is divided on whether a graduate-led workforce is necessary to achieve this; see footnote 20 for details). But without knowing the specific changes to the hourly funding rate that the party proposed, it is difficult to incorporate this into an independent costing of the childcare package.
Our 2018AnnualReport assesses recent progress in raising attainment throughout the phases of education in England. It also looks to carefully assess recent trends in the attainment gap between advantaged and disadvantaged children. If the debate about improving English education is to be productive, then it needs to be based on an objective assessment of the country’s strengths and weaknesses – shifts in the qualifications regime and in accountability measures can make this objective assessment more difficult to complete than might be expected.
Dedicated Schools Grant (DSG). This grant was ring-fenced. Local authorities had to pass the full amount on to schools (other than the amount held back for central LA school spending). However, in the short term, the introduction of the DSG was not a substantial restriction on LAs as the level of Dedicated Schools Grant in 2006 was determined on the basis of past spending levels rather than funding levels. In addition to limiting the short-term impact of the reform, this distinction also made the reform relatively generous. Local authorities that spent more than their SSA amounts were now compensated in the form of the grant. This also meant that it was relatively unattractive for LAs to further top up DSG allocations. Indeed, almost no LA topped up its school budget in 2013–14 (Sibieta, 2015a). Since 2006, the level of the DSG has been determined by central government. However, there was a break from the formula-based approach used to calculate the Education SSA. Instead, funding was calculated using the so-called ‘spend- plus’ methodology (see Chowdry, Muriel and Sibieta (2008) for more details), which was also introduced in response to the so-called school funding crisis of 2003. Under this approach, the level of the DSG per pupil for each LA was simply calculated as a flat-rate increase on what LAs received the previous year (i.e. last year’s DSG per pupil plus x %), with some small additional funding streams on top of this. This meant that the DSG per pupil for each LA failed to change in response to LAs’ changing characteristics from year to year. This ‘spend-plus’ methodology has been in place in one form or other ever since. As a result, LAs’ funding levels seem likely to have become increasingly divorced from their characteristics. ‘By how much?’ is an empirical question, which we address later in the report. The changes and reforms to the school funding system between 1980 and 2010 had some important, and long-lasting, effects. First, the role of LAs was reduced, with greater devolution of powers to individual schools and a greater role for central government in determining the funding and spending levels within LAs. Second, school funding policy became increasingly focused on delivering stability in funding levels for individual schools and LAs. This had the advantage of giving schools and LAs predictability, but had the adverse consequence that the funding levels of individual schools and LAs are likely to have become increasingly divorced from their changing characteristics and needs (becoming increasingly based on what they received the previous year). Third, the system also became much more complex, with a raft of specific grants and historical factors.
The strategy aims to maximise the commercial benefi ts and secure fi nancial commitment from the cities to delivering the lowest carbon FIFA World Cup™. The outreach programme would include educational workshops across England and an annual stakeholder report to improve coordination and the buy-in of stakeholders. Supporters would be engaged through social media and candidate Host City-based programmes. The Environmental Sustainability Advisory Board would have overall responsibility for ensuring a balanced approach to environmental, social and economic aspects. The integration of environmental sustainability within the LOC would be strengthened through a dedicated team and the continued education and involvement of LOC staff in environmental activities.
Most 16-19 education funding is allocated to individual providers (e.g. school sixth forms, sixth form colleges and general further education colleges) by the Education and Skills Funding Agency. The majority of each provider’s annual allocation is determined using a national funding formula which was introduced from 2013-14. Additional elements of funding are then allocated outside of the formula, including, for example, funding for high needs students, and for some student support schemes (e.g. Dance and Drama Awards).
6. We said we would act so that young people feel safe in education and can achieve their potential. Our world-leading anti-homophobic, biphobic and transphobic bullying programme exceeded our public targets — having now worked with more than 1,800 schools — and we have extended it for another year to reach even more schools. We have also completed our reforms of Relationships Education and Relationships and Sex Education, making them inclusive for all children whatever their developing sexual orientation or gender identity.
The City of Vancouver and Waste Connections Inc partner with Columbia Springs each year to bring Nature Nuts Summer Day Camp to the community. These partnerships allow students to learn the important skills of caring for our planet, while spending their days outside and immersed in nature.
related to organisation, timetabling or staffing impact upon their ability to cover all elements of National Curriculum citizenship. Most commonly, interviewees note that citizenship programmes fall short in relation to the political literacy aspects of the programmes of study. Reasons for this include that teaching staff often lack knowledge or confidence in teaching lessons related to political systems and processes, whilst others note that it can be difficult to make such topics interesting and relevant for students. As one coordinator commented: ‘We have to be careful not to make it too dry.’ The challenge here would seem to be in finding ways to make such topics relevant to young people and accessible to staff, rather than avoiding them altogether, as would appear to be the approach taken by some schools. This therefore begins to address research question 4, highlighting some existing effective methods of delivering citizenship education and the benefits that can be gained from having specialist teachers involved. This issue is discussed in greater detail in Section 5 below.
conclusions to the two parts of overarching question, namely how far has citizenship education become embedded in secondary schools in England since 2002? and what does the future hold for CE in secondary schools? It also provides an overall conclusion. The conclusions are seen through: the three interrelated lenses of the CELS data in this report (i.e. breadth, in depth and over time); and against the three contexts where citizenship learning was to be developed (i.e. in the curriculum, school culture and the wider community). The section also identifies some common factors that influence how far embedded CE has become in schools and how it will fare in the future. The third section builds from the conclusions in this chapter and from the current and forthcoming challenges (as detailed in Chapter 6) to set out recommendations for action for key groups involved with CE: namely policy-makers, practitioners and stakeholders/support agencies.
The Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology was established in June 2001. The Council is chaired by Dr. Tom Mitchell, former Provost of Trinity College and has 23 members drawn from research institutions, industry and from the science research community in third-level institutions. The new Council will oversee the spending of some € 95.23 million, over the period of the National Development Plan, to promote excellence and the highest standards in research in the three broad disciplines of science, engineering and technology. The Council will establish supports for researchers in these fields, including new and enhanced grant schemes for post-graduate and post-doctoral researchers. It will also provide funding for research projects. It will complement the existing Irish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences and other structures already in place.
PAS continued to review its recruitment and selection documentation throughout 2018 to ensure that all of its documentation supports its core diversity objective. PAS, in partnership with a range of NGO’s, also worked with a range of nationalities in Ireland (including Polish, Lithuanian, Romanian, Latvian and Brazilian nationals) to promote public service job opportunities across these communities. Re-development works have also commenced at Chapter House with a view to creating a more modern and welcoming area for candidates and a ‘shop-window’ for careers in the public service. This development has a very strong diversity theme that has been informed by stakeholder feedback, including diversity reviews conducted by Trinity College Dublin Innovation Academy. Evidence of the effectiveness of PAS diversity initiatives can be found in the group of new Gardaí who completed their training in Templemore in November 2018. 8% of this new intake are originally from outside Ireland and include recruits from England, Romania, Scotland, Latvia and Kenya.
better in between 88% and 94% of schools and learning was considered to be good or better in between 89% and 96% of lessons, depending on the model of inspection used. These figures represent an improvement on the previous “Chief Inspector’s Report 2010-2012” where, for example, during Incidental Inspections, the quality of teaching was satisfactory or better in over 86% of all schools while the quality of learning was satisfactory or better in 87% of all schools. At post-primary level, the overall quality of teaching was evaluated as good or better in between 88% and 94% of lessons, and the quality of learning was good or better in 85% to 91% of lessons visited, depending on the model of inspection used. This was better than in the 2010-2012 report in which the quality of learning was satisfactory or better in between 82% and 84% of lessons and the standard of teaching observed was satisfactory or better in over 85% of all inspections. However, at both primary and second level, inspectors noted that while overall the standards of teaching and learning were good or better, more lessons were “good” rather than “very good”. The “Chief Inspector’s Report 2013-2016” contained detailed analysis of inspection findings about the teaching of English, Mathematics and Irish, and a range of other curricular areas. It also commented that the quality of school management was generally very good, but it noted the major challenges facing voluntary boards of management and the weaknesses in the current management structures for schools. The report stated that parent questionnaires administered by the Inspectorate had indicated that in the majority of schools, student behaviour was very good and that there were good student management systems in place. Schools were reported to be doing good work to tackle bullying and there was a marked improvement since the last report in the percentage of post-primary parents and students that are confident that schools would deal with bullying promptly and effectively.
In recent years, a key aspect of the debate has been the relative success of London pupils. As our analysis shows, certain ethnic groups and those who are registered as having English as an additional language do better than others, so perhaps it is no wonder that London with its large ethnic mix does better than anywhere else in the country. Research by Simon Burgess at the University of Bristol suggests that London’s success in GCSE scores and progress from the end of Key Stage 2 is largely attributable to its ethnic composition. 49 However, another recent report by the LSE attributes London’s
We measure the disadvantage gap by comparing attainment between pupils eligible for Pupil Premium funding due to deprivation and the rest. This is consistent with the definition used by the Department for Education. We present the disadvantage gap in terms of months of progress. Our analysis covers the period from 2011 to 2018 (for the early years, our time series starts in 2013 in order to coincide with the introduction of the current EYFSP). Over this period the gap has closed in all three phases, as shown in Figure 1.1. The largest closures are observed in the early years (since 2013) and primary phases (by three3 per cent and 14 per cent respectively).
The Ministry of Education and Training with the support of the Vanuatu Education Sector Program (VESP) has been implementing a lot of activities in 2017. The table beneath sums up the overall progress against the key out-puts of the VESP/MoET plans. (Note that the progress beneath is structured according to the VESP theory of change & reporting and additions were made to include reporting on progress of activities supported by the recurrent budget. Meanwhile a draft overall theory of change for the MoET is in place and will be established in 2018, whereby all reportings will be streamline to use standard approaches, thus enable ease of reporting).
TFHO’s mission is to be a truly Ghanaian organization that works to improve the health of people, primarily through the social marketing of health products and services as well as health communications in a measurable and impactful way. With PSI as prime, TFHO is a sub-award recipient of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Support for International Family Planning and Health Organization 2: Sustainable Networks (SIFPO 2), funding the Ghana Social Marketing Program (GSMP). TFHO’s covered subcontract covers the period of July 1- December 31, 2018.
At school level, the implementation of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategy to 2020 was progressed with the expansion of standardised testing in schools, an increase in the time spent on literacy and numeracy in the classroom and the development of literacy and numeracy units on initial and continuing teacher training courses. The rollout of Project Maths also continued in second level schools with a view to its full implementation for the Leaving Certificate 2014. Work on Junior Cycle Reform included the development of the new Junior Cycle Student Awards programme, along with the provision of support services and training for teachers and principals on the reforms, which will remain in place throughout the transition to the new programme. In September 2013, I published a draft General Scheme for an Education (Admission to Schools) Bill, 2013 as well as draft regulations for discussion ahead of enacting legislation. These proposed regulations will underpin a fair and transparent enrolment process which is understood by all parents. It will, among other things, preclude school places being allocated on the basis of waiting lists and stop schools seeking deposits or payments as part of the admission process. The aim of this is to ensure that the way schools decide on applications is structured, fair and transparent and we also seek to remove the burden from parents of appealing school decisions.
Depot Road, and Sunset Hill Farm. Subtidal arrays were located on extensions of intertidal transects at an average elevation of -1.5 meters NADV 88. Each array consisted of nine sampling stations – one central station surrounded by the others in eight directions (Figure 3). Stations at cardinal directions were six meters from the center, whereas stations at primary intercardinal directions were four meters from the center. In 2018, all subtidal sites were sampled for percent cover and biomass in August and October. At each site, the center of the array was located using a GPS. The locations of surrounding stations were found using a compass to determine the bearing and pre-measured PVC tubes to find the distance of the station from the center of the array. At each station, percent cover in a 0.25m 2 quadrat was recorded to the genus or species level through visual estimation using
Spending has varied less when expressed as a proportion of GDP (below). It fell for much of the 1980s from 4.8% in 1980-81 to 3.8% in 1988-89. It increased to more than 4.4% again in the early 1990s due to increased spending and falling GDP. The lowest level since the late 1980s was in 1998-99 at 3.9% due to several years little or no real spending increases and a strong economy. The increases since then have been less dramatic than in absolute spending levels. Educationspending exceeded 5.0% of GDP in 2008-09 and peaked at 5.5% in 2010-11. These particularly high figures reflect increases in spending during a recession and the accounting adjustments for student loans (2010-11) mentioned earlier.