Top PDF Anti malarial effect of gum arabic

Anti malarial effect of gum arabic

Anti malarial effect of gum arabic

Gum arabic, butyrate and/or foetal haemoglobin may affect parasitaemia and host survival by accelerating the suicidal death of infected erythrocytes [67]. Phosphatidyl- serine-exposing erythrocytes are phagocytosed [41,42] and thus rapidly cleared from circulating blood [43]. Eryptosis is triggered by a wide variety of substances [68-74]. Several of those substances have been shown to decrease parasitaemia and to extend the survival of infected mice [52,75-78]. Moreover, eryptosis is enhanced in several clinical conditions, such as iron deficiency [43], sickle-cell anaemia [79,80], beta-thalassaemia [22], glu- cose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficiency [22],
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Effect of Arabic Gum as Prebiotics and Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) as Probiotic on Oxidative Stress and Renal Function in Adenine–Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats

Effect of Arabic Gum as Prebiotics and Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) as Probiotic on Oxidative Stress and Renal Function in Adenine–Induced Chronic Renal Failure in Rats

The nephroprotective effect of GA against many nephrotoxic agents was noted in numerous previous researches [41,42]. The antioxidation induced by GA might be one of the most likely mechanisms contributing to its beneficial effect against renal injury. This antioxidant effect of GA was confirmed previously by in vitro studies, which showed that GA had dose-dependent scavenging of superoxide radicals generated enzymatically and nonenzymatically. It could be suggested that GA scavenges Adenine free- radical generation and, in turn, inhibits lipid peroxidation–induced injury in renal tissues, which has been suggested to protect renal structure and function. Therefore, the protective effect is provided by GA on renal tissue through antioxidants as well as by scavenging free radicals in vivo.
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Heating gum arabic above 60 0c

Heating gum arabic above 60 0c

The presence of gum arabic is observed as a mixed salt having polysaccharidic acid. Its pharmacological usefulness has been reported as an anti-oxidant and the protector of renal, hepatic, and cardiac toxicities. It has also reported adverse effects including hypersensitivity, effects on vitamin D and electrolyte balance [11]. The study of Mocak et al. [12] found that it is possible to classify the gums using chemometric methods. The gums can be classified into adulterants in food usage and those conforming to food additives specification. Despite the extensive research concerning chemical structure of gum arabic, it is seen that processing of gum arabiccould not answer the question,in which fractions (AG,AG and Gp), breaking of protein occurred. Hence, the effects of processing by heating above 60 0 C on weight average molecular weight and structure of gum arabic was investigated.
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Ameliorating effect of gum arabic and lemongrass on chronic kidney disease induced experimentally in rats

Ameliorating effect of gum arabic and lemongrass on chronic kidney disease induced experimentally in rats

Moreover, anti-inflammatory properties of GA was ob- served in maintaining, to some extent, the balance be- tween renal expression of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in rats received daily oral dose of GA concomitant with i.p injection of adenine when compared to the adenine group as illus- trated in Table 4. Adenine-induced CKD was proven to induce inflammatory reaction in kidney tissue in the form of increased serum CRP and increased TNF-α in CRF subjects while using GA in both studies mitigated this action (Mahmoud et al. 2012; Ali et al. 2013a). A possible contributing mechanism to the effect of GA on nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, which consequently affect the level of TNF-α, in rats with renal failure might result from the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of GA (Al Suleimani et al. 2015). On the other hand, GA has been reported to suppress gut inflammation in IL-10-deficient mice (Bassaganya-Riera et al. 2011).
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Antioxidant effect of Arabic gum against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity

Antioxidant effect of Arabic gum against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity

To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies concern- ing the nephroprotective effect of AG against Hg intoxication. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate: 1) the adverse effect of acute Hg intoxication on the kidneys based on serum biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, and histopathologic alterations; and 2) the possible mitigating effect of AG against acute Hg intoxication in rats.

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Gum Arabic as novel anti-oxidant agent in sickle cell anemia, phase II trial

Gum Arabic as novel anti-oxidant agent in sickle cell anemia, phase II trial

gummy exudate from the stems and branches of Acacia Senegal and Acacia Seyal. Oral intake of GA has been shown to provide several health benefits [12], such as prebiotic effects [13]. GA significantly increases Bifido- bacteria, Lactobacteria, and Bacteriodes in the gut [13]. GA is claimed to have anti-cancer [13], anti-malarial [14] and immune-modulatory effects [14, 15]. GA is considered to act as an anti-oxidant and cytoprotective agent [16] and it can protect against experimental hep- atic, renal and cardiac toxicities in rats [19]. GA is as- sumed to be effective mainly due to strong anti-oxidant properties [17, 20, 21]; GA may enhance the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in kidney [22]. Amino acids tyrosine, histidine and methionine seem to be respon- sible for the antioxidant capacity of GA against ROS [23]. In experimental chronic renal failure (CRF) in rats GA administration decreased the superoxide production to control levels and raised the level of GSH and TAC. Alyahia et al. revealed that GA offers protection against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder cytotoxicity in a rat model by neutralizing ROS and mitigating oxida- tive stress [16]. GA was effective as a potent superoxide scavenger in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity murine model [24]. Moreover, GA was found to decrease MDA renal level on Cisplatin-Induced nephrotoxicity rat model [25].
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The effect of malaria and anti malarial drugs on skeletal and cardiac muscles

The effect of malaria and anti malarial drugs on skeletal and cardiac muscles

The human malaria is caused by five different species and Plasmodium falciparum can result in severe malaria and death if adequate treatment is not provided quickly. The pathogenesis mechanisms of several diseases caused by protozoan and nematode parasites have shown to cause detrimental effect on cardiac and skeletal muscles (i.e., Chagas disease, toxoplasmosis, trichinosis, leish- maniosis, and malaria) [4–7]. Parasitic infestations by Trypanossoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis cause cardiomyopathy in the immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Besides those para- sites, Plasmodium falciparum infection can also cause parasitic coronary artery occlusion [8].
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Study on Sudan’s gum arabic industry development

Study on Sudan’s gum arabic industry development

Gum Contribution to Household Income in the Gum Region: Gum Arabic is found along the African desert from Senegal, Mali and Nigeria to the west of Ethiopia and northern Kenya. Sudan is the largest producer of Gum Arabic in the world (see figure 2 and 3) and most of its production is from the traditional rained areas of western and central Sudan. The decline of productivity is the re-cultivation of grasslands, and the trees resist the scarcity of rain. However, the convergence of drought in the mid-seventies and eighties with civil conflicts and population movements The change in agricultural methods has adversely affected the production of gum in the gum belt areas of western Sudan, as a result of which the gum belt has moved southward towards the most rainy clay land, and the tree begins to produce gum after 5-7 years of cultivation and begins to decline after 20- 18 years old. It was found that gum was produced and exported to neighboring regions and
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Anti malarial effect of novel chloroquine derivatives as agents for the treatment of malaria

Anti malarial effect of novel chloroquine derivatives as agents for the treatment of malaria

To assess the effect of the compounds on malarial para- site growth, the parasites were seeded in 48-well plates at a density of 0.5 in 2% haematocrit. The CQ compounds were then serially diluted in medium and incubated with the parasites for 48 h without any medium change. Finally, 100 μL of the P. falciparum cultures were with- drawn from each well of the 48-well plate and 1 μL of the blood pellet was mixed in 5 mM SYTOX green solution to obtain a final volume of 1.5 mL. The mixture was left to stand in the dark for 30 min at room temperature and the anti-malarial activity of the compounds was analysed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using a FACS Calibur flow cytometer (BD Biosciences, Franklin Lakes, USA).
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Characteristics of Gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal) Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

Characteristics of Gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal) Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

As gum Arabic is a natural polysaccharide, it was expected to observe spectral emission lines for elements likes (H, O, C, S and N) with high intensities. Other elements like (Fe, Na, Ca, Mg and K) appeared in all samples with considerable amounts. These are in

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`EFFECTS OF GUM ARABIC ON THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYACYLAMIDE

`EFFECTS OF GUM ARABIC ON THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYACYLAMIDE

Polyacrylamide molecule is a flexible chain structure sometimes knows as random coil in polymer chemistry 6 . There is essentially no permanent secondary structure in polyacrylamide which affords it some degree of rigidity in the way that helical structure acts in xanthan. The most striking feature concerning the mechanical stability of polymer commonly used in the oil industry operation is that xanthan appears to be extremely shear stable and polyacrylamide appears to be very sensitive to shear degradation 6-10 .Among hydrocolloids, gum Arabic is unique

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EFFECT OF COMBINED ADMINISTRATION OF ARTEQUIN AND PEFLOXACIN ON SOME INDICES OF LIVER AND RENAL FUNCTIONS  OF MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

EFFECT OF COMBINED ADMINISTRATION OF ARTEQUIN AND PEFLOXACIN ON SOME INDICES OF LIVER AND RENAL FUNCTIONS OF MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

Co-infection with malaria and typhoid fever is a common presentation in many endemic regions of the world including Nigeria. Affected persons are often treated by co-administration of suitable antibacterial and anti- malarial agents. The present study investigated the effect of simultaneous administration of pefloxacin (a second generation quinolone antibiotic) and artequin ® (an artemisinin combination anti-malarial drug) on

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Design , Synthesis of some Novel Cinnoline derivatives and Screening for its Anti-malarial, Anti-tubercular and Anti-microbial activity.

Design , Synthesis of some Novel Cinnoline derivatives and Screening for its Anti-malarial, Anti-tubercular and Anti-microbial activity.

Yet, in this age of tremendous technological and medical advancements, its a big surprise that human knowledge power have not been able to control this disease, if not eradicate it. The intolerable impact of malaria have been sometimes fully or partially attributed to their increasing resistance of the Plasmodium parasite to chemoprophylactic and chemotherapeutic agents, and their resistance of the Anopheles species mosquito vector to insecticides, including the pyrethroids used in insecticide impregnated bednets. Adding to these its the inability of health, public and civil work departments of the affected countries in mobilizing and sustaining the resources required to malarial control.
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The effect of varying analytical methods on estimates of anti malarial clinical efficacy

The effect of varying analytical methods on estimates of anti malarial clinical efficacy

problems related to protocol adherence, anti-malarial clinical trials are also confounded by interrupted follow- up resulting from recurrent infections, either by the same or different malaria species. The statistical approach to deal with these challenges can vary according to the rationale of the study [3,12]. For instance, in comparative studies a conservative approach (i.e. intention to treat, ITT), in which all patients are included in the analysis but those with incomplete follow-up are classified as a treat- ment failure, is often advocated. In contrast, when moni- toring anti-malarial drug resistance, the objective is to determine the risk of failure, with failure limited to those with a clearly inadequate response to therapy. Patients with incomplete follow-up can be either dropped from the analysis (e.g. per protocol, PP), or included in a sur- vival analysis with censoring as "non-failures" on the last day of follow-up (modified intention to treat, mITT). The WHO currently recommends the latter as the preferred method of analysis of malaria drug efficacy studies [8], although accepts the option of per protocol analysis. In this paper, three analytical methods were compared from drug trials conducted in Thailand, Uganda, and Burkina Faso to determine the degree of variation in the derived estimates of efficacy and factors underlying this.
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Psychiatric effects of malaria and anti malarial drugs: historical and modern perspectives

Psychiatric effects of malaria and anti malarial drugs: historical and modern perspectives

As with earlier generations of quinoline anti-malarials, and consistent with product label warnings of encepha- lopathy, case reports of psychiatric effects from meflo- quine typically describe a complex and diverse range of effects on mood, personality, thought, cognition, sleep, and behaviour [191]. These include asthenia [192], mel- ancholia [193], anxiety [194], phobias [195, 196], feel- ings of unrest [197, 198], paranoia [199], increased self-esteem [200, 201], impaired judgment [198], social disinhibition [192, 202], giddiness [203], altered sexual libido [204], manic behaviour and paranoid delusions or psychosis [194, 200, 202, 204], hyperreligiosity [204], depersonalization [192, 198, 205], concentration and cog- nitive problems [197], problems with word finding [201], disorientation [193, 198, 206], symptoms of amnesia and confusion or disorientation [192, 193, 203], sleep disor- ders [207, 208], severe nightmares, [209] sleep paralysis and “flashbacks” [201], suicidal ideation [210], and sui- cide [176, 211–213].
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Effect of Compactive Effort on Strength Characteristics of Black Cotton Soil Admixed with Eggshell Powder  Gum Arabic

Effect of Compactive Effort on Strength Characteristics of Black Cotton Soil Admixed with Eggshell Powder Gum Arabic

Gum Arabic is a Biopolymer obtained from leguminous tree species that is well adapted to Sudan and sahellian agro- ecology of Africa, and it produces a natural gum made of hardened sap(17). Generally, there are two main types of gum Arabic used as hydrocolloids: Acacia Senegal and Acacia Seyal. The gum Arabic consists of a mixture of polysaccharides and glycoproteins which gives it the properties of glue binding that is edible by humans. The gums are sought after by the intentional buyers as Grade 1 (Acacia Senegal), Grade 2 (Acacia seyal), Grade 3 (Acacia Combretum) and Special Grade (Acacia Polycantha). (17).
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Spray-drying performance and thermal stability of L- ascorbic acid microencapsulated with sodium alginate and gum arabic

Spray-drying performance and thermal stability of L- ascorbic acid microencapsulated with sodium alginate and gum arabic

In general, the water release process was perceived in all the analysed microparticles as a main and broad endothermic peak between 30 and 150 ºC. On the one hand, the AA:ALG-based microparticles revealed a peak temperature for the water release between 67 and 82 ºC. While the effect of the total solid content was irrelevant on this temperature, the increase in the ALG concentration slightly increased the peak temperature, given the stronger interactions within the water molecules. As well, the enthalpy associated to this transition increased as the ALG content did, which may suggest higher humidity retention, as found in the previous section. The glass transition was unperceivable on the AA:ALG-based microparticles.
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Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some2-Phenyl-4-(Substituted Phenylamines)-Benzo-1,3-Diazine Derivatives with Antimicrobial Activities

Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some2-Phenyl-4-(Substituted Phenylamines)-Benzo-1,3-Diazine Derivatives with Antimicrobial Activities

The 4-(3H) Quinazolinones are an important class of fused heterocyclic with a wide range of biological activities such as, antimicrobial, anti bacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, anti- convulsant, anti-hypertensive, anti-malarial, anti-HIV, anti-cancer etc. agents. Quinazolinone derivatives are used in a number of dyes. They are also found applications in industry as sensitizers, co-polymer etc. In Agriculture quinazolinone derivatives are used as Herbicides, Insectisides, Bacteriacides etc.

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Effect of gum arabic on stallion sperm survival during cold storage and post freezing

Effect of gum arabic on stallion sperm survival during cold storage and post freezing

To our knowledge, this is the first study to use GA as a substitute for EY in stallion semen extenders. In the present study, we describe the effect of changing the concentration of GA on the viscosity of extenders and motility of spermatozoa evaluated by ISAS. Due to the nature of generating data for sub-populations of spermatozoa in a given sample, any factor that changes the pattern of sperm motion can affect parameters like percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa. It is well known that the viscosity in the medium surrounding the spermatozoa affects the pattern of sperm motion (15).
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Drug repositioning as a route to anti malarial drug discovery: preliminary investigation of the in vitro anti malarial efficacy of emetine dihydrochloride hydrate

Drug repositioning as a route to anti malarial drug discovery: preliminary investigation of the in vitro anti malarial efficacy of emetine dihydrochloride hydrate

The use of SYBR Green to monitor drug susceptibility exploits the fact that the parasites reside in red cells, which are devoid of a nucleus. A potential source of error would be the indiscriminate binding of SYBR Green to non-parasite DNA from white blood cells in the blood. However, the blood washing steps outlined in the methods section have helped to overcome this problem. Two SYBR Green fluorescence-based assays enabling the accurate and reproducible estimation of the effects of the drugs on the intracellular parasite stages were optimized. The higher throughput 96 well microtitre plate fluorescent assay tends to overestimate parasitaemia due to fluorescence from extra-erythrocytic parasite DNA. Optimizations achieved increased method reproducibility by identifying the very significant contribution of the albumax supplement from the parasite culture medium to variations in background fluorescence. The SYBR Green flow cytometry method uses a single tube format for analysis and offers a robust, albeit lower throughput route for the more in depth second phase inquiry of anti-malarial drug candidates selected from preliminary screens. Furthermore, stage-specific perturbations introduced by the drug could be accurately monitored. Hence in combination, the two methods described here would be valuable tools to screen and investigate the anti-malarial efficacy of compound libraries.
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