The stomach was carefully removed and the gastric contents were collected. The gastric juice was centrifuged at 1000rpm and gastric volume was measured. Free and total acidities of the supernatant were determined by titration with 0.01 N NaOH by using phenopthalein as indicator and expressed as mEq/ L /100 gms. The stomach was cut open along the greater curvature and pinned onto a soft board for evaluating the Gastric ulcers and to calculate ulcer index. Ulcer scoring is done according to the scale mentioned below. (Vogel et al., 2002).
Recent screening of plants revealed many compounds like Flavonoids, alkaloids, Saponins, terpenoids, monoterpenoids (linalol), glycoprotein’s, polysaccharides, tannins, essential fatty acids, phenolic compounds and vitamins having pronounced antioxidant, antineoplastic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulating potential . Scientific literature is continuously reporting herbal drugs having anti-ulcer potential. There is need to evaluate the potential of ayurvedic remedies as adjuvant to counteract side effects of modern therapy. The present investigation is aimed at studying the anti-ulceractivity of the aqueousextract of bark of Tiliacora acuminate.in order to justify the traditional claims endowed upon this herbal drug as a rasayana.
This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-depressant activity of Ethanolic root extract of Annonasquamosa (EREAS) belongs to the family Annonaceae by oral administration at dose according to the body weight in a sequential manner in healthy albino rats. Extracts were studied for its anti-depressant activity by using Imipramine as standard drug. Forced swim test (FST) and Tail suspension tests (TST) are used for the study. Imipramine decreases the immobility time of the animals. Plant extract given in three doses (100, 200 and 300mg/kg) were in a dose dependent manner. 300mg/kg plant extract showed decreased immobility time near as to that of the standard drug. The decrease in immobility period in both the models was observed starting from 200 mg/kg. But the increase in dose from 200 to 300 mg/kg produces further reduction in immobility period. At the dose 100 & 200mg/kg, ASRE showed a little antidepressant effect when comparable to that of Imipramine. At the dose 300 mg/kg, ASRE showed antidepressant effect which is comparable to that of Imipramine. This evaluation may suggest that the antidepressant action is because of the possible involvement of either nor-adrenergic or serotonergic system.
absorption spectrum without involvement of any intermediary radical. The antioxidant activity of the extract by this assay implies that the action may be either inhibiting or scavenging radicals. Compared to aqueousextract (69.23%), the best ABTS radical activity was obtained with methanolic extract (79.56%) at a concentration of 500 ug/ml. Excess concentration of NO is associated with several diseases. Oxygen reacts with the excess nitric oxide to generate nitrite and peroxynitrite anions, which acts as free radicals. The results revealed that methanolic extract exhibit better ( 66.93%) NO scavenging activity as Compared to aqueous with an IC50 of 324 at a concentration of 500 ug/ml.
The precise causes of psoriasis, a relatively common, chronic, inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin disease, are still not known, thus making it very difficult for treatment. We previously found an in vitro anti-psoriatic activity in ethanolic extract of Annonasquamosa L. leaves. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its ligand, transforming growth factor (TGF)-α, have been demonstrated to be strikingly upregulated in active psoriatic plaques, thus implicating their functional roles in psoriatic hyperplasia. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular effect of ethanolic extract derived from Annonasquamosa L. leaves on the EGFR expression using HaCaT keratinocyte cell line as a model. Based on RT-PCR, concentrations at 3.15 and 1.575 µg/mL (IC 50 = 6.3 µg/mL) significantly reduced the EGFR mRNA expression (P<0.05) as compared to control
NIDDM was induced in overnight fasted adult wistar strain albino male rats by a single intra-peritoneal injection of Alloxan (120 mg/kg) body weight (Merck Pharmaceuticals, Karachi). Hyperglycemia was confirmed by the elevated glucose levels in plasma, determined at 72 hours and then on day 7 after injection. The rats found with Permanent NIDDM were used for the anti-diabetic study .
In indomethacin induced model, the control animals produced characteristic lesions in the glandular portion of rat stomach which appeared as elongated bands of thick, black & dark red lesions. Methanolic extract of Hibiscus cannabinus treated animals showed significant protection index of 54% and 66% with the dose of 1.6and 3.2g/kg respectively in comparison to control (Results are tabulated in Table-II). In indomethacin induced model, ulcers are caused due to inhibition of synthesis of endogenous cytoprotective Prostaglandin(PG). The excess gastric acid formation by prostaglandin includes both increase in mucosal resistance as well as decrease in aggressive factors, mainly acid and pepsin. Inhibition of PG synthesis by indomethacin coincides with the earlier stages of damage to the cell membrane of mucosal, parietal and endothelial cells. Indomethacin induced gastric lesion formation may be due to stasis in gastric blood flow because of vascular congestion and mucosal capillary necrosis and this contributes to the development of the hemorrhage and necrotic aspects of tissue injury. Indomethacin directly acts on gastric epithelium and produces lipid peroxidation. The extract shows protection against characteristic lesions produced by indomethacin and also showed significant decrease in ulcer index. The cytoprotection offered here might be due to significant antisecretory property of the extract and could have inhibited indomethacin induced inhibition of PG synthesis. The preliminary phytochemical studies revealed the presence of flavanoids; various flavanoids have been reported for its anti-ulcerogenic activity. So the possible mechanism of anti-ulceractivity might be due its flavanoid content[18,19]. Further studies are needed for their exact mechanism of action on gastric acid secretion and gastric cytoprotection.
The objective of present study is to evaluate the antiulceractivity of ethanol extract of leaves of Heliotropium indicum. The ethanol extract of H. indicum was investigated for its antiulceractivity against Aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats, HCl- Ethanol induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress induced ulcer in rats. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer inhibition in aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer model. The number of lesions in HCI-Ethanol induced peptic ulcer model and mean score value of ulcer inhibition in water immersion stress induced ulcer model. A significant antiulcer activity of plant extract was observed in all the models. Pylorus ligation model showed significant reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. Also extract showed significant ulcer inhibition in HCl- Ethanol induced ulcer and ulcer protection index in stress induced ulcer. This present study indicates that Heliotropium indicum leavesextract have potential antiulceractivity in the three models tested.
formation, reduce gastric acid secretion and inhibit pepsinogen production thereby reduced gastric lesions and ulcers. Flavonoids are among the cytoprotective materials for which antiulcerogenic efficacy has been extensively confirmed (Di Carlo et al., 1999; Borrelli et al., 2001; Galati et al., 2001). It is suggested that, these active compounds would be able to stimulate mucus, bicarbonate and the Prostaglandin secretion and counteract with the deteriorating effects of reactive oxidants in gastrointestinal lumen (Salvayre et al., 1982; Asuzu and Onu, 1990; Suja et al., 2002). Other components like alkaloids, saponins, and tannins are also present in the leaf extract of D. guineense which tend to exhibit some anti inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties (Ghosal et al., 1996; Nwaogu et al., 2007). It is obvious that the decrease in gastric ulceration, with concomitant in the gastric mucus secretion produced by the leaf extract of D. guineense in this study could be due to the presence of these components or some other mechanisms yet unidentified. This indicates that D. guineense can be subjected to further studies in order to isolate the active ingredients in the leaves as well as determine the mechanism of action of such active ingredients. These may ultimately yield better anti-ulcer agents than we have in the market today. In conclusion, the present study have established the anti-ulcer effects of aqueousextract of D. guineense leaves and further justifies the folkloric uses of the decoction of the leaves for the treatment of gastric ulcer.
Maximal electroshock convulsion model was used to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the extract. Convulsion was induced in mice by transauricular electroshock of 50 mA for 0.2 s by means of convulsiometer (Inco, Ambala, India), through a pair of crocodile ear clips. Eight groups of mice (n=5) each pretreated i.p., with phenytoin (reference standard) were treated after 30 min and varying p.o. doses of extract treated after 60 min for MES seizure response. Duration of tonic hind limb extension was noted in all groups.
Among several respiratory diseases affecting man, bronchial asthma is the most common disabling syndrome. Nearly 7–10% of the world population suffers from bronchial asthma. Despite the availability of a wide range of drugs, the relief offered by them is mainly symptomatic and short lived. Moreover the side effects of these drugs are also quite disturbing. Hence a continuous search is on going to identify effective and safe remedies to treat bronchial asthma. Clerodendron phlomidis (L.F.) family-Verbenaceae is deciduous and evergreen shrubs grow wild in tropical region of North Maharashtra in India. More than hundred species of Clerodendron have been discovered, but very few are in cultivation. In Indian system of medicine as leaf juice believed to have function in management of asthma. The family of Clerodendron has yielded several secondary metabolites; most notably terpenoides, steroids and flavonoids . Several species have been evaluated for their claimed medicinal properties in traditional medicine. The aqueousextract of Clerodendron phlomidis (AECP) shows significant antiulcer effect in rats . Whereas the methanolic extract inhibit caster oil induced diarrhea . Clerodendron indicum methanolic extract is a potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation . Leaf juice of the plant widely used by practitioners of the Indian system of medicine to treat respiratory diseases . The present study was undertaken as no such effort have made till time to evaluate the claimed therapeutic effect i.e. asthma relieving or antispasmodic property of Clerodendron phlomidis, in vitro on isolated goat tracheal chain and in vivo studies on milk- induced eosinophilia, mast cell degranulation and capillary permeability in mice.
D.virginiana belongs to the family Ebenaceae was collected from Coonoor, Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India and identified by the special key given Cambell flora.  The leaf and bark of D.virginiana were washed with sterile distilled water. After, the leaves and bark were shade dried and powdered by using pestle and mortar. 25g of powder was filled in the thimble and extracted successively with ethanol using a Soxhlet extractor for 48 h. The extracts were concentrated using rotary flash evaporator and preserved at 5°C in airtight bottle until further use. The ethanolic extracts of the plant was diluted with distilled water and was administered orally to mice.
especially in the southern parts of Nigeria, where it is valued for its edible fruits .There are traditional medicinal uses for the bark, roots and leaves of MI through the globe. MI is used medicinally to treat ailments such as asthma, cough, diarrhea, dysentery, leucorrhoea, jaundice, pains, and malaria. Phytochemical research from different parts of M.I has demonstrated the presence of phenolic constituents, triterpenes, flavonoids, phytosterol, and polyphenols. 11-13
Fresh leaves of Phyllanthus amarus (5 kg) were collected locally from the Bhopal district of Madhya Pradesh, India and got identified by Department of Botany, Saifia College of science and education, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Specimen voucher no. is 210/Bio/saifia/17. The leaves were shade dried and were crushed to moderately coarse powder. Aqueous solution of P. amarus was prepared in distilled water and was administered orally. Atropine used as standard drug, procured from Micro Lab, Bangalore India.
DISCUSSION: The evaluation of the Anti-Ulcer and Antioxidant activity of the ethanolic leaves and fruit extract of Smilax peroliata in albino rats was conducted by means of pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcers model and by DPPH free radical scavenging antioxidant method. The phytochemical evaluations of the leaves and fruit extract obtained showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins and amino acids. Literature survey suggests that Smilax perfoliata is reported for its antidiabetic 8 , antiepileptic 9 , and hepatoprotective
Leaves were washed well with water.The fresh /air-dried leaves (25ᵒC for 5 days in the absence of sunlight) were extracted in 1 litre of boiling water for 2 hours. The concentrate obtained was dark brown. It was cooled and filtered using Whatman No.1 filter paper. The filtrate was centrifuged and the sediment was discarded.The supernatant extract was concentrated and used for the study. Each day, the necessary amount of extract was dissolved in distilled water and administered orally.
Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinary disorder in clinical practice.  It is a defect in the lining of the stomach or the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). It becomes one of the must public health problem with high rate of morbidity and substantial mortality and has become the focus of experimental and clinical investigations, mainly due to its high prevalence in the global population.  Every year peptic ulcer affects nearly four million people worldwide and affects 10% of world population with different aetiologies. [3, 4] Ulcers are an open sore of the skin or mucus membrane characterized by sloughing of inflamed dead tissue. A gastric ulcer can give epigastric pain during the meal, as gastric acid production is increased after the meal and food enters the stomach. Symptoms of duodenal ulcers would initially be relieved by a meal, as the pyloric sphincter closes to concentrate the stomach contents; therefore acid is not reaching the duodenum. 
This study showed an anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueousextract of leaves of Annona senegalensis on the model of carrageenan inflammatory edema in rats and a significant decrease in CRP. This activity is greater at the dose of 750 mg / kg body weight and is thought to be related to the inhibition of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases in the late phase of carrageenan inflammatory edema and these different secondary metabolites. The evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract establishes the scientific basis for the use of Annona senegalensis leaves to prevent and treat various inflammatory diseases. Studies should also focus on the purification of the active ingredients responsible for the effects of this plant and on the determination of the molecular mechanisms involved for the preparation of improved forms of effective remedies based on Annona senegalensis.
Preliminary phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, phytosterols, phenols and flavonoids. Acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts were selected for the study as they contain flavonoids and tannins which were known to be potent antioxidants.
INTRODUCTION: There is a lot of plants have been used for the hepatoprotective activity by carbon tetrachloride, paracetamol or acetaminophen , ethanol, thioacetamide, rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide induced liver toxicity. The plats have hepatoprotective capability against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity are flowers of Calotropis procera 1 , fruit extract of 2 , Rhazya stricta, Balanitis aegyptiaca and Haplophylum tuberculatum 3 , Swertia chirata 4 , vegetable and its leaves extracts of Brassica oleracea 5 , Aerva lanata