antagonists and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has shown adverse effects, relapses, drug interactions. Medicinal plants containing active chemical constituents are useful in prevention and treatment of various diseases. Literatures suggest that herbal formulations of medicinal plants are considered to be potential source for the treatment of ulcers. This study was focused to evaluate the protective activity of Diospyrosvirginiana leaf and bark ethanolic extracts against HCL- ethanol induced ulcers. This plant both extracts significantly reduced the ulceration induced by acid alcohol when compared to that of standard ranitidine.
ABSTRACT: Objective: Oecophylla smaradina (Formicidae) is an ant evaluated for its variety of medicinal uses. The objective of this study to evaluate the anti-ulceractivity using albino rats. Methods: The albino rats of either sex were divided into four groups. Ethanolicextract of Oecophylla smaradina (EEOS) was tested in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. respectively against by pylorus ligation induced ulcer models in albino rats. Results: Both the concentration (200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) of extract have provided significant activity but EEOS 200 mg/kg, p.o, extracts were less effective when compared to EEOS 400 mg/kg, p.o. The antiulcer activity was accessed by evaluate the ulcer index in the test and standard drug treated group and also estimated the gastric volume, total acid, and free acid in the pylorus-ligated rats. Conclusion: The present study was revealed that ethanolicextract of Oecophylla smaradina have antiulcer activity.
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antiulcer activity of Trianthema triquetra roots ethanolicextract in Wistar albino rats using NSAIDs & Ethanol induced ulcer models. Plant material was collected from Tirupati A.P, during the month of June 2014. The roots were made free from dust and foreign material and dried under shade at room temperature. After a week the roots were powdered and passed through a sieve. The powder was weighed (500 gm) and was extracted by successive solvent extraction process. The yield of ethanolicextract of trianthema triquetra was found to be 7.31% W/W. Phytochemical screening was carried out for the detection of the phytoconstituents by simple qualitative methods. The dosing was designed as per the acute toxicity study reported earlier. The anti-ulceractivity was performed by NSAID and ethanol induced ulcer model at two different doses, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg. Wistar rats weighing(130-150gm) of either sex were used for the study. There was significant reduction of ulcers in the test groups observed in both NSAID and ethanol induced ulcer models. TTEE exhibited anti-ulceractivity in both curative and prophylactic experimental models which provides the evidence of its use as a potent antiulcer drug.
Albino rats of either sex were divided into six groups of six animals each. Animals were fasted for 24 h before the study, but had free access to water. Animals in the control group received only 0.1% of Tween 80 (10 ml/kg orally). Aqueous and Ethanolicextract of C. ternatea at 200 and 400 mg/kg, (p.o.) for each extract were given to the animals in the treatment group. Omeprazole (10 mg/kg) was used as a standard. After 1h of drugs treatment, they were anaesthetized with the help of anaesthetic ether; the abdomen was opened by a small midline incision below the lipoid process. Pyloric portion of the stomach was slightly lifted out and ligated according to method of Shay et al. avoiding traction to the pylorus or damage to its blood supply. The stomach was replaced carefully and the abdominal wall was closed by interrupted sutures. Rats were sacrificed by an over dose of anaesthetic ether after four hours of pylorus ligation.
Three groups of Wistar albino rats (150–200 g), with each group containing six animals, were used. The first group served as a control (normal saline at 2 ml/kg orally), second group served as standard (omeprazole at 20 mg/kg), and third group served as the test group (EEPU at 500 mg/kg). All treatments were administered 1 h before stress in restraint cages that were kept at 3°C±1°C in a refrigerator for 4 h treatment. After 4 h, the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and gastric lesions were enumerated after opening the stomach along the greater curvature, and ulcer scoring was done . Statistical analysis
Casuarina equisetifolia (L.) is a member of the Casuarinaceae. It is common along the coast on beaches, rocky coasts, limestone outcroppings, dry hillsides and open forests in both wet and dry zones from sea-level to mid-montane. It is native to South-East Asia, Australia and Polynesia. It is also cultivated as an ornamental, for wind-breaks, or as a medicinal plant in some tropical countries in the South Pacific. To investigate the phytoconstituents, acute oral toxicity and anti-ulcer profile of the Ethanol extract of Casuarina equisetifolia (L.) extract in albino rats. Ethanolicextract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o administered to evaluate anti-ulceractivity by using Ethanol, indomethacin, and cold-restraint stress induced gastric ulcer models in Albino rats. Ethanol extract gave positive results for the alkaloids, reducing sugars, triterpenoids, and flavonoids. Study on acute toxicity of extract was found to be safe at the doses 2000mg/kg p.o. Ethanol extract dose dependent inhibition in ethanol induced gastric lesions, ethanol extract showed 70.37 % protection at 400 mg/kg, and 52.7% protection at 200 mg/kg, In indomethacin induced gastric lesions, Ethanol extract showed 68.3% protection at 400 mg/kg and 51.7% protection at 200 mg/kg, it also dose dependent inhibition in Cold-restraint stress induced gastric lesions, ethanol extract showed 75.02% protection at 400 mg/kg, and 45.86% protection at 200 mg/kg. All the results are found to be statistically significant (p≤0.05). Hence we suggest that ethanol extract possess anti-ulcerogenic properties that may be due to cytoprotective mechanism. These results support the ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.
Morinda citrifolia is a member of the Rubiaceae. It is a Shrub or compacted to twisted small tree up to 8 m high with square stems and large stipules between nodes and petioles. Leaves are opposite, petiolate, glossy, mostly ovate, 15-35 cm long. Flowers white, up to 15 mm long, with a tubular corolla and 5 spreading lobes, the flowers borne on a globose syncarp. Fruit a large fleshy syncarp up to 15 cm long, at first green but becoming white, juicy, and pungent when mature. Flowers and fruits are available throughout the year. To investigate the phytoconstituents, acute oral toxicity and anti-ulcer profile of the Ethanol extract of Morinda citrifolia leaf extract in albino rats. Ethanolicextract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o administered to evaluate anti-ulceractivity by using Ethanol, indomethacin, and cold-restraint stress induced gastric ulcer models in Albino rats. Ethanol extract gave positive results for the alkaloids, reducing sugars, triterpenoids, and flavonoids. Study on acute toxicity of extract was found to be safe at the doses 2000mg/kg p.o. Ethanol extract dose dependent inhibition in ethanol induced gastric lesions, ethanol extract showed 68.3% % protection at 400 mg/kg, and 51.7% protection at 200 mg/kg, In indomethacin induced gastric lesions, Ethanol extract showed 75.02% protection at 400 mg/kg and 45.86% protection at 200 mg/kg, it also dose dependent inhibition in Cold-restraint stress induced gastric lesions, ethanol extract showed 75.45% protection at 400 mg/kg, and 50.34% protection at 200 mg/kg. All the results are found to be statistically significant (p≤0.05). Hence we suggest that ethanol extract possess anti- ulcerogenic properties that may be due to cytoprotective mechanism. These results support the ethnomedical uses of the plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.
The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-ulceractivity of ethanolicextract of Mangifera indica kernel (EEMI) alone and in combination with Menadione, Zinc sulphate and Vitamin C in ethanol and pylorus ligation induced peptic ulcers in rats. The ethanolicextract of Mangifera indica kernel was studied in two dose levels (200 and 400mg/kg, oral). The effect of extract was studied by measuring the ulcer index, percentage protection, in vivo antioxidant levels and histological changes in the stomach tissue of treated animals. The volumes of gastric secretion, free and total acidity were also estimated in pylorus ligated rats. In the present study EEMI, Menadione, Zinc sulphate and Vitamin C showed a significant gastroprotective activity and antioxidant property in a dose dependent manner. The ethanolicextract of Mangifera indica kernel (EEMI) with a dose of 400mg/kg body weight has shown better gastroprotective activity than 200mg/kg body weight in both ethanol and pylorus ligation induced ulcer models in rats. Treatment in combination of EEMI with Menadione, Zinc sulphate and Vitamin C has shown no significant higher gastroprotective potential than the individual treatment.
Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis a well-known member of the family Malvaceae, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis grows as an evergreen herbaceous plant. It is an easily available plant for natural remedies. H. rosa sinensis has been used for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Traditional uses of this plant are refrigerant" emollient and emmenagogue, aphrodisiac; decoction given in bronchial catarrh; infusion of petals is a refrigerant drink in fever, demulcent in cough and useful in strangury, cystitis and other genito- urinary troubles· Oil from the fresh petals and olive oil in equal proprotion find application in alopecia, anodyne, emollient and aperient; juice beneficial in gonorrhoea, alopecia and also used for blackening hair. Several articles and ancient literature have shown that the flowers of this plant possess antifertility activity, like antimplantation, abortifacient, in rodents. The aqueous-ethanolicextract of aerial parts of H. rosa sinensis was reported for its use in constipation and diarrhea . Antiulcer activity of Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis yet has not been scintifically reported, hence the present study was planned to evaluate antiulcer
Plant Material and Preparation of the Crude Extract Fresh Parkia speciosa leaves were obtained from Ethno Resources (Selangor, Malaysia). The identity of the plant was confirmed at the Rimba Ilmu Herbarium, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya through a comparison with the voucher specimen. Fresh leaves were hung upside down in a warm, dry place (away from direct sunlight) with good air circulation for two weeks to dry. Then, using an electrical blender, the dried leaves were converted to a fine powder. A quantity of 100 g of the powder was soaked for 3 days in a flask that contained 500 ml of 95% ethanol. The mixture was filtered using a fine muslin cloth and filter paper (Whatman No. 1). The filtered mixture was distilled using a rotary evaporator (Eyela, USA) and yielded nearly 17.4% dried mass. The dried extract was diluted in CMC and orally administered to the rats at a dose of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight (in 0.5% CMC, 5 ml/kg body weight), in accord with earlier reports .
This formulation was selected to exploit the medicinal plant potential for the treatment and management of ulcers. Since the formulation is effectively used for the treatment of ulcers in human beings. Formulation contains powdered seeds of Solanum niagram, Physalis alkekengi. Pistacia integerimmia and Tribulus terrestris. The anti-ulcerogenic activity has been performed in Indomethacin induced ulcers model and Pylorus ligation ulcer model in rats.The ethanolicextract of Traditional Herbal Formulation in the dose of 300 mg/kg body weight showed significant protective effect in both the models. The results revealed significant activity when compared to control and standard groups.
In the present study, free radicals were scavenged by the ethanol extract of Diospyros malabarica bark in a con- centration dependent manner in the DPPH assay, so it is concluded that the Diospyros malabarica bark ethanol extract has potent in vitro antioxidant potential, which is our primary outcome measure. This antioxidant poten- tial of extract is attributed due to the presence of flavo- noids and terpenoids like constituents present therein. The Overall findings show that ethanol extract of Dio- spyros malabarica bark possesses marked antihypergly- cemic activity which was proved by improvement of glucose tolerance test and by lowering the blood glu- cose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats in single dose (acute) and multi dose (sub acute) treatment studies, which is our secondary outcome measure. The etha- nol extract of bark of Diospyros malabarica and Gliben- clamide exhibited remarkable blood glucose lowering effect in glucose tolerance test. The hypoglycemic effect of plant extract comparable to Glibenclamide, suggests that the test extracts may act by regenerating the β cells in alloxan- β induced diabetes. 17 Alloxan causes diabe-
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activities of the Diospyros mlanoxylon Roxb. Methanolic leaf extract (DMMLE) by using the acetic acid induced writhing test for peripheral pharmacological action, carragenan induced paw oedema and the pyloric ligation methods respectively. The results showed that DMMLE has significantly (p< 0.001) reduced inflammation at 100, 200 mg/kg. body weight (p.o) (i.e 35%,42%) when compared with control group, standard drug Diclofenac sodium(10mg/kg) has maximum anti-inflammatory effect (99%) and DMMLE also possessed significant (p< 0.001) analgesic activity in mice in dose dependent manner at 100 , 200 mg/kg.body weight (p.o). in pyloric ligation method for anti-ulceractivity the DMMLE showed significant (p< 0.05) anti-ulceractivity at dose 200mg/kg. body weight. at the dose 100mg/kg showed non- significant with compared to control . The standard drug ranitidine (50mg/kg) showed significant anti- ulceractivity (i.e 85%).
DISCUSSION: The evaluation of the Anti-Ulcer and Antioxidant activity of the ethanolic leaves and fruit extract of Smilax peroliata in albino rats was conducted by means of pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcers model and by DPPH free radical scavenging antioxidant method. The phytochemical evaluations of the leaves and fruit extract obtained showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins and amino acids. Literature survey suggests that Smilax perfoliata is reported for its antidiabetic 8 , antiepileptic 9 , and hepatoprotective
considered as an important parameter of analgesic activity in acetic acid induced writhing test . Anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in the acute phase of inflammation and chronic phase of inflammation. Carrageenan was selected because of its sensitivity in detecting orally acting anti- inflammatory agents in the acute phase of inflammation . The cotton pellet granuloma method is a model of chronic inflammation and the dry weight has been shown to correlate with the amount of granulomatous tissue formed. Carrageenan induced edema is well established model and is believed to be biphasic. The initial phase has been known (1-2h) to be induced due to the action of mediators such as histamine, serotonin and increased synthesis of prostaglandins in the damaged tissue surroundings. The late phase is sustained by prostaglandins release and mediated by bradykinin, leukotrienes, polymorhonuclear cells and prostaglandins produced by tissue macrophages. All the extract showed significant inhibition of paw edema induced by carrageenan and histamine by inhibition of Cycloxygenase synthesis. The cotton pellet granuloma method has been widely used to evaluate transudative, exudative and proliferative components of chronic inflammation , because the dried weight of the pellets correlates with the amount of granulomatous tissue, all the extract showed dose-dependent inhibition of granuloma formation in mice.
Herbs like Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae), Peganum harmala (Nitrariaceae), Teucrium polium (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Artemasia herba-alba (Asteraceae) and Arum palaestinum (Araceae) have been studied for its various biological activities, the extract of fresh aerial parts of plant have not been reported for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our aim was to study the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal activity of ethanolicextract of fresh aerial parts of the plant. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method, DPPH free radical scavenging activity (antioxidant) and effect of extract on gastro-intestinal tract motility was studied. Phenolic content of Verbena officinalis was higher (652.5 mg GAE %) than the other plant extracts. Whereas antioxidant activity is concerned the Rosmarinus officinalis exhibited highest antioxidant activity (IC 50 = 6.25 µg/ml), and showed excellent anti-inflammatory (65.5% ) as compared to ascorbic acid (6.14 ± 0.09 µg/ml) and diclofenac sodium (70.1%) respectively. Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract showed significant inhibition of the gastrointestinal activity (31.3 %) when compared to all the other ethanolic extracts. The ethanolicextract of Arum palaestinum Bioss did not show any significant anti-inflammatory activity and had no significant effect on gastrointestinal tract inhibition.
Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. (Verbenaceae) is an important and widely used medicinal plant. Though variously used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homeopathy system of medicine in case of ailments like diarrhoea, skin disorders, venereal and scrofulous complaints, wounds, post-natal complications, as antihelminthic, external applications on tumours, etc., the plant needs thorough investigation for its specific medicinal activity. This study evaluates the acute anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolicextract of the leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.(EECI) in experimental animals. Acute toxicity test was done following the OECD guidelines. Following the Phytochemical analysis of the plant extract for specific plant constituents, EECI (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, and 400mg/kg body weight b.w. p.o) was evaluated for acute anti-inflammatory activity against the carrageenan induced rat paw edema and the effects compared with reference drug aspirin (300mg/kg b.w). In acute inflammation, EECI produced significant reduction (p<0.01) at 5th hr in all the doses.This may be attributed to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, phospholipase A2, and TNF alpha. Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. as a commercial source of anti-inflammatory drug should be subjected to further research.
To study the antidiabetic activity of Chicory roots methanolic extract (MEC) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. MEC of root was subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical investigations by using standard procedures. The extract (400 mg/kg p.o.) was screened for antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats (30 mg/kg, i.p.). Acute oral toxicity study for the test extract of the plant root was carried out using OECD/OCED guideline 425. Phytochemical analysis of MEC of roots revealed the presence of inulin, sucrose, cellulose, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, alkaloids, glycosides and tannins compounds. In acute toxicity study, no toxic symptoms were observed for MEC up to dose 2000 mg/kg. Oral administration of MEC for 21 days exhibited highly significant (P < 0.01) hypoglycemic activity and also correction of altered biochemical parameters, namely cholesterol and triglycerides significantly (P < 0.05). Urine analysis on 1st day showed the presence of glucose and traces of ketone in the entire group except normal control group. However, on 21st day glucose and ketone traces were absent in MEC and glibenclamide-treated groups while they were present in diabetic control. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance followed by Dunnett’s test. The observations confirm that methanolic extract of the root of the plant has antidiabetic activity and is also involved in correction of altered biological parameters. It also warrants further investigation to isolate and identify the hypoglycemic principles in this Chicory root so as to elucidate their mode of action.
The currently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause several adverse side effects and toxicity. The greatest disadvantage of (NSAIDs) lies in reapperence of inflammatory disorders after the discontinuation of drugs. Hence, as an alternate measure indigenous medicinal plants are being screened by many investigators to develop anti-inflammatory drugs. In this context, the statement of Durmowicz and Stenmak 6 gains prominence that a plant contains a multitude of different molecules that affect complex cellular pathways by acting synergistically. Therefore plants have become the best source of wide variety of active compounds extensively used as crude extracts for treating various diseases.