The objective of present study is to evaluate the antiulceractivity of ethanol extract of leaves of Heliotropium indicum. The ethanol extract of H. indicum was investigated for its antiulceractivity against Aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats, HCl- Ethanol induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress induced ulcer in rats. The antiulcer activity was assessed by determining and comparing gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer inhibition in aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer model. The number of lesions in HCI-Ethanol induced peptic ulcer model and mean score value of ulcer inhibition in water immersion stress induced ulcer model. A significant antiulcer activity of plant extract was observed in all the models. Pylorus ligation model showed significant reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. Also extract showed significant ulcer inhibition in HCl- Ethanol induced ulcer and ulcer protection index in stress induced ulcer. This present study indicates that Heliotropium indicumleavesextract have potential antiulceractivity in the three models tested.
The anti-ulceractivity of Aqueous extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii was evaluated by using models of acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol induced, asprin induced, cold restrain stress and pylorus ligation in rats. Animals pretreated with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of Aqueous extract showed significant reduction in lesion index, total affected area and percentage of lesion in comparison with control group in the ethanol induced, asprin induced, cold restraint stress-induced ulcer and pylorus ligation models. These findings indicate that aqueous extract of the leaves of Murraya koenigii displays good antiulcer activity, corroborating the folk use of Murraya koenigii preparations, and contributing for its pharmacological validation.
224 including NSAIDs) or stimulating the mucosal defences (mucus, bicarbonate, normal blood flow, prostaglandins(PG), nitric oxide). The goals of treating peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer and prevent ulcer recurrence. Currently there is no cost-effective treatment that meets all these goals. Hence, efforts are on to find a suitable treatment from natural product sources . In this work, the anti-ulceractivity of the leaves of Hibiscus cannabinus was evaluated in wistar rats by pylorus ligation and indomethacin induced ulcer model.
Abutilon indicum (Linn) family Malvaceae, commonly known as Atibala is an important medicinal plant. The whole plant as well as specific part such as root, leaves, and flower is used to treat various health ailments. It is found as a weed in sub-Himalayan tracts, hills up to 1200 m and in hotter parts of India. The plant is found to possess immunodulatory, anticonvulsant, larvicidal, Lipid lowering, diuretic, and anti –ulceractivity. The plant contains mucilage, tannins, β-sitosterol, asparagines, flavonoids, alkaloids, hexoses, n-alkane mixtures (C 22-34 ), alkanol, gallic acid and sesquiterpenes. Thus the aim of present review is to provide detailed
Inflammation is a major cause for suffering. The most common method of treatment for inflammation are available in the form of drugs known as NSAID, that is, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that act by inhibiting the function of prostaglandin. Prostaglandin is an autocoid that is released extracellularly and initiate pain. Anti- inflammatory agents block this autocoid synthesis by either inhibiting COX enzyme or protecting lysosomal membrane from breakdown. However, the NSAIDs have side effects such as stomach pain, heart attack, ulcers, headaches and dizziness and high blood pressure and also leads to other chronic diseases (Steinmeyer, 2000).
Abutilon indicum (Linn) belonging to family Malvaceae and commonly known as “Country Mallow” (English), “Kanghi (Hindi) and “Atibala” (Sanskrit) is distributed throughout the hotter parts of India. From ancient times, this plant has been used as ayurvedic medicine with greater benefits (Table 1). In the literature, Abutilon indicum is ascribed to have wide range of medicinal applications. The aqueous extract of the plant was tested for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicities in rats. The alcohol and water extracts of leaves of Abutilon indicum showed significant hypoglycemic effects in normal rats. Seven flavanoids are isolated from flowers of A. indicum by Matalawska et al.. Eugenol ( 4-allyl-2- methoxyphenol) isolated from A. indicum has a significant analgesic activity. U-galactose and D-mannose is isolated from gum obtained from seeds by Singh and coworkers . Sharma isolated two sesquiterpene lactones from roots of A indicum. Muthu  et.al has reported the use of paste of whole plant which is applied topically to treat cuts and wounds. Jain  et.al reported the use of seed extract and stem powder in birth control and sexual diseases. Antimicrobial activity in seeds has been reported by Srinivasan  et.al. The methanolic extract of A. indicum exhibited some estrogenic potential of antifertility substances . Gossypetin – 8 & 7- glycosides and cynidin 3- rutinoside are also isolated by Sebestian.The seeds are reported as laxative. Pushpagadan has described the ethno-medicobotanical investigations in Kerala for use of leaves of A.indicum in malarial fever, cough, cold, chest pain. Gallic acid shows analgesic activity in animal models . From roots non drying oil consisting of fatty acids like linoleic, oleic, palmitic, stearic, lauric, myristic, caprylic and unusual fatty Acids having C-17 carbon skeleton are yielded. This oil showed significant analgesic activity. Caryophyllene and its oxide, cineole, pincene, geraniol, geranyl acetate, endesmol, farnesol and borneol are identified in oil .
The objective of the present study is an attempt in the scientific development of the traditional medicines as safe and effective alternatives to current drugs. In this study, the anti- ulceractivity of the alcoholic and petroleum ether-dichloromethane (PED) extracts of the leaves of Raphnus sativa (RS) and Leucas zeylanica (LZ) the traditional Indian medicinal plants claimed in folklore for anti-ulceractivity and scientifically for several pharmacological activities but not for anti-ulceractivity. The plants also reported to contain several biologically active compounds such as alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids etc.; Therefore, the plants can be scientifically investigated for their anti-ulcer potential. Ranitidine was used as reference standard for the study. [10-16]
Animals subjected to restraint plus cold for 3 h showed the presence of considerable ulcerogenicity in the form of hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in the stomach, which were confined to the glandular segment only. There was also evidence of intraluminal bleeding in the stomach of these animals. Treatment with extract produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of intraluminal bleeding and ulceration (Table 1). Stress plays an important role in aetiopathology of gastroduodenal ulceration. Stress-induced ulcers are probably mediated by histamine release with enhancement in acid secretion, a reduction in mucous production and generation of free radicals etc. Increase in gastric motility, vagal overactivity 22,23 , mast cell degranulation 23 decreased gastric mucosal blood flow 24 and decreased prostaglandin syntheses 7 are involved in genesis of stress-induced ulcers. The gastroprotective action of HLEGA against stress-induced ulceration could be due to its histamine antagonistic, anticholinergic and antisecretory effects. HLEGA has shown significant protection index of 60.8% (P < 0.01) and 65.2% (P < 0.01) with the dose of 286 and 667 mg/kg respectively in comparison to control, whereas standard drug ranitidine 20 mg/kg was 90.4%.
Antiulcer study of ethanolic extracts of Diospyros virginiana leaves and bark were performed as per the standard methods. The effect of D.virginiana on acid alcohol induced ulceration was studied and the results were tabulated in table-1. For antiulcer activity, volume of gastric juice, pH, total acidity, free acidity, ulcer lesion and ulcer index were estimated both from control and tested animals. D.virginiana both extracts significantly reduced the ulceration induced by acid alcohol. Ulceration due to administration of acid alcohol is shown in the stomach section of albino rats. The gastric damage as thick red lines and lesions as red areas were observed in the stomach. A significant (P< 0.001) reduction in volume of gastric juice was observed in both leaves, bark extracts and ranitidine treated animals when compared to control. Similarly, administration of drug and leaves, bark extracts elevated the pH level of gastric juice over control.
roots 13 . This pharmacologically- active compound has been reported to have strong antioxidant 14 , anti lipid peroxidation, radioprotective 15 , immunomodulation 16 , anti-allergic 17 , anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive 18 , antitumour 19 , antidiabetic 20 , antidegenerative, wound healing, hypotensive, cardiotonic, lipolytic 21 , antibone resorption 22 , antiviral 23 , antibacterial 24 , antifungal 25 , antiparasitic 26 , monoamine oxidase-inhibiting activity 27 , hepatoprotective 28 and gastroprotective 29 activities. Various parts of the plant are used as a dentifrice, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, stomachic, vermifuge, tonic, laxative and diuretic and to treat diarrhea, dysentery, anaemia, asthma, bronchitis, cough, hypertension, insomnia, rheumatism, toothache, leucorrhea, haemorrhage and piles. All parts are used to treat abscesses, broken horn, rabid dog or jackal bite, tumour, snakebite, stings, datura poisoning, heat stroke, miscarriage, anthrax, blisters, wounds in the mouth, tympanitis, colic, diarrhea, glossitis, indigestion, bacillosis, bloody dysentery, liver disorders, excessive urination and tetanus. Traditionally the plant is reported to have antiulcer activity 30 . In the present study, an effort has been made to establish the scientific validity to the antiulcer property of the leaves extracts of M. indica in aspirin induced ulcer in male albino rats.
Pardhasaradhi et al., 2005 investigatedthepesticidal,parasiticidal,anti-microbial, cell growth inhibitory activities. In this study, organic and aqueous extracts from thedefatted seeds of Annonasquamosa(custard apple) were tested on different human tumor cell lines for antitumouralactivity. While organic and aqueous extracts induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and K-562 cells, they failed todo so in COLO-205 cells. Treatment of MCF-7 and K-562 cells with organic and aqueous extracts resulted in nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and reduced intracellular glutathione levels. In addition down regulation of Bcl-2 and PS externalization by Annexin-V stainingsuggested induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 and K-562 cells by both the extracts through oxidative stress. Onthe contrary, COLO-205 cells showed only PS externalization but no change in ROS and glutathione levels. Theseobservations suggest that the induction of apoptosis by A. squamosaextracts can be selective for certain types of cancerous cells.
ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to provide the rationale for the use of Terminalia bellirica as an anti-inflammatory agent using carrageenan-induced inflammation and antiulcer agent using ethanol-acid induced gastric mucosal injury model in the Swiss albino rats. The anti- inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated using carrageenan (1% w/v) induced inflammation model at doses of 50, 120 and 300 mg/kg, p.o while using ibuprofen (20 mg/kg, p.o) as the standard drug. On the other hand, the antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of T. bellirica leaves at the doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. were examined against ethanol-acid induced gastric mucosal injury in the Swiss albino rats - keeping omeprazole (20 mg/kg, p.o.) as the reference. The rats were dissected, and their stomachs were macroscopically examined to identify hemorrhagic lesions in the glandular mucosa. Further, the histopathological changes of paws and stomachs were analyzed. T. bellirica significantly (P<0.01) decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema; it exhibited a reduction of 50.00%, 55.88% and 61.76% at doses of 50, 120 and 300 mg/kg respectively. The methanolic extract also disclosed a good protective effect against ethanol-acid induced gastric mucosal injury in the rats. Oral administration of the extract`s doses (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg) demonstrated a significant (P<0.05) reduction in the ethanol- acid-induced gastric erosion in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. These findings were further supported by the histological study. The study clearly shows that methanolic extract of T. bellirica leaf possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity and promotes ulcer protection as ascertained by regeneration of mucosal layer and substantial prevention of the formation of hemorrhage and edema.
DISCUSSION: The evaluation of the Anti-Ulcer and Antioxidant activity of the ethanolic leaves and fruit extract of Smilax peroliata in albino rats was conducted by means of pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcers model and by DPPH free radical scavenging antioxidant method. The phytochemical evaluations of the leaves and fruit extract obtained showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids, saponins and amino acids. Literature survey suggests that Smilax perfoliata is reported for its antidiabetic 8 , antiepileptic 9 , and hepatoprotective
The stomach was carefully removed and the gastric contents were collected. The gastric juice was centrifuged at 1000rpm and gastric volume was measured. Free and total acidities of the supernatant were determined by titration with 0.01 N NaOH by using phenopthalein as indicator and expressed as mEq/ L /100 gms. The stomach was cut open along the greater curvature and pinned onto a soft board for evaluating the Gastric ulcers and to calculate ulcer index. Ulcer scoring is done according to the scale mentioned below. (Vogel et al., 2002).
Peptic ulcer is the most common gastrointestinary disorder in clinical practice.  It is a defect in the lining of the stomach or the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). It becomes one of the must public health problem with high rate of morbidity and substantial mortality and has become the focus of experimental and clinical investigations, mainly due to its high prevalence in the global population.  Every year peptic ulcer affects nearly four million people worldwide and affects 10% of world population with different aetiologies. [3, 4] Ulcers are an open sore of the skin or mucus membrane characterized by sloughing of inflamed dead tissue. A gastric ulcer can give epigastric pain during the meal, as gastric acid production is increased after the meal and food enters the stomach. Symptoms of duodenal ulcers would initially be relieved by a meal, as the pyloric sphincter closes to concentrate the stomach contents; therefore acid is not reaching the duodenum. 
oxidative events .Free radicals are highly reactive compounds, they are chemical species associated with an odd or un paired electron and can be formed when oxygen interacts with certain molecules. Once formed these highly reactive radicals can start a chain reaction. Free radicals generated by these reactions are capable of attacking the healthy cell of the body, causing rupture of their structure and function. Free radicals are capable of damaging a lot of cellular components such as proteins, lipids and DNA of cells. Numerous physiological and biochemical process in the human body may produce oxygen centered free radicals and other reactive oxygen species as byproducts. Over production of such free radicals can cause oxidative damage to biomolecules, eventually leading to many chronic diseases such as Cancer, Diabetes, and Aging etc. So intake of antioxidants is important for human. Plants are potential sources of natural antioxidants. In the present study we have aimed at investigating the antioxidant property of Heliotropium indicum. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the correlation between phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Recently, there are numerous methods that have been developed to evaluate antioxidant activities of compounds and of complex mixtures such as plant extracts . The present work is about exploring In Vitro
1. Effect of the extract of on hypodynamic frog heart- the frog were sacrificed by pithing. hypodynamic heart developed with half calcium ringer .The hydroalcoholic extract was made into a solution by adjusted with saline to obtain various concentration of extract. The extract was administered in gradient concentration. The responses were recorded on Sherrington kymograph at a speed of 0-12 mm/sec. 2) (9). 2. Effect of extract on isolated rat heart-the rat was
Peptic ulcer disease is a deep gastrointestinal erosion disorder that involves the entire mucosal thickness and can even penetrate the muscular mucosa. Gastric hyperacidity and gastroduodenal ulcer is a very common global problem today because of unhealthy eating habits, and stress. Stress, both psychological and physical is common in everyday life and is known to induce circulatory diseases and ulceration of the digestive tract  . Gastric lesions develop when
Fresh mature leaves were collected from fully- grown plants from Khojalab near Bahry city, Khartoum, Sudan in February and authenticated by a taxonomist at the department of pharmacognosy, Khartoum. Then the plant material was dried at room temperature. Extract preparation The leaves of the plant material were crushed using pestle and mortar, then weighed and transferred to the soxhlet apparatus and the solvent (ethanol) was added. The extraction was carried out for 22 hours till the solvent became colorless in the last siphon. The product was then transferred to the rotary evaporator to separate the solvent from extract and dried at room temperature for 7 days in a porcelain dish. After complete dryness extract was transferred to an airtight container.