The various extracts were prepared from Buxus Wallichiana.The anti-inflammatoryactivity of various doses of petroleum ether ,chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated in rats. The percentage of edema inhibition was found better in petroleum ether extract than other extracts. It was concluded that anti-inflammatoryactivity of petroleum ether extract of BuxusWallichiana is mediated through three phase mechanism.
Inflammatory model using monocyte differentiation to macrophage-like cells was established in the study. Characterization of macrophage-like cells to indicate inflammatory effects is important, since these cells play important role in inflammatory and immune responses and also responsible for various immune functions such as secretion of inflammatory mediators. U937 cell is a suitable model since differentiation of this precursor cell into macrophage-like cells can be studied conveniently in response to various stimuli . Differentiation was determined by cell morphology and by physiological markers. The number of differentiated cell increased when U937 cells were induced to differentiate with increasing concentration of PMA (1–50 nM) and longer incubation period (24–48 hours). In our study, we used viable, intact and metabolically active differentiated U937 cells. During differentiation of the U937 cells, cells were scored for the percentage of viable cells. A dose- dependent reduction in cell viability of the differentiated U937 cells was observed when the cells was induced to differentiate with increasing concentration of PMA (1– 50 nM) and longer incubation period (24–48 hours). Based on these results, U937 cells were induced to differentiate with 10 nM PMA for 24 hours in all the subsequent experiments. This study conditions were chosen to ensure monocytic cells were more than 50% differentiated to macrophage-like cells without affecting cell viability and metabolic activity.
techniques of choice in order to coat the drug so as to improve bioavailability and stability and also target a drug at specific sites. The ratio of (1:3) drug to polymer from all polymers used from solid dispersions systems and the best ratio from microbeads were selected to conduct further in vivo evaluation, since it was the best ratio which achieved significant reduction in the release of diclofenac at acidic pH of the stomach and maximal release at alkaline pH of the intestine. The obtained In vivo results indicate that microencapsulation technique was able to protect the stomach from ulcerogenic effect of diclofenac compared to solid dispersion technique.
However, in subacute inflammation models, "Sarenta" at doses of 67 mg/kg/day, 100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day for 7 days did not seem to possess an anti- inflammatoryactivity. Indeed, in the formation of granulomas induced by cotton pellets, responses can be divided into three phases. The first phase, called transudative, from 0 to 3 hours after the implantation of cotton pellets, is defined as a leakage of liquid into the blood vessels caused by an increase in vascular permeability. The second phase, known as the exudative phase, from 3 to 72 hours after the implantation of cotton pellets, is defined as the influx of low molecular weight proteins from blood circulation around the granuloma, caused by intensive maintenance of vascular permeability change. The proliferative final phase, from day 3 to day 6, is defined as the production of granulomatous tissues caused by the continuous release of a pro-inflammatory mediator [7,20]. According to Swingle and Shideman , steroids could significantly inhibit the transudative and proliferative phases.
Antiulcerogenic effect of the panchalavana mezhugu was studied in aspirin + pylorus ligated rat models and analyzed for gastric volume, ulcer index, free and total acidity. Biochemical parameters like total proteins, total hexoses, hexosamine and fructose were also estimated. At the dose level of 400mg/kg it is significantly reduced both the gastric volume and the acidity of gastric juice. It also significantly promoted gastric mucus secretion by increasing total carbohydrates and decreasing the protein concentration in aspirin + pylorus ligated rats. The results suggest that panchalavana mezhugu at the dose level of 400mg/kg possess antiulcer activity. The results were compared with the standard drug Ranitidine (50mg/kg), a H 2 receptor antagonist. It is
were reported as δ ppm values relative to TMS as internal reference. UV analyses were measured in MeOH and dif- ferent UV shift reagents for pure samples using Shimadzu UV-VIS.1800 spectrophotometer. UV-visible spectropho- tometer (Milton Roy, Spectronic 1201) was used for antioxidant activity. For column chromatography, poly- amide S (Fluka Chemie AG, Switzerland), sephadex LH-20 (Sigma-Aldrich Steinheim, Germany) and micro- crystalline cellulose (E. Merck-Darmstadt, Germany) were used. Whatman No.1 (Whatman Ltd., Maidstone, Kent, England) was used for paper chromatography. Ferric chloride spray reagent was used for visualization of tannins compounds, while Naturstoff reagent and aluminum chloride were used for flavonoids under UV light. n-BuOH/ HOAc/H 2 O; 4:1:5 v/v/v, top layer (S 1 ) and
Phenolic compounds increase a plant biological value because they exhibit a range of pharmacological properties, such as anti-diabetic, anti-allergenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-thrombotic, and vasodilator effects [24, 25]. Oxidative stress activates in- flammatory pathways in stem cells and progenitor cells, leading to exhaustion of these cells due to increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) . Cellular exhaustion in turn leads to the development of several diseases, such as gastrointestinal ulcers, hyperglycemia, and hepatic dysfunction . Thus, natural antioxi- dants provide cellular protection and lead to favorable effects in diabetes mellitus  and the majority of in- flammatory and cardiovascular diseases . Examples of naturally occurring antioxidants are flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarin, isorhamnetin and quercetin that were separated and identified from P. angustifolia extract with promising anti-inflammatory agents. This activity may be due to their inhibitory action on neutro- phils infiltration, cyclooxygenase-2 activity and inflamma- tory cytokines release [30 – 32]. The anti-ulcerogenic
Ulcerogenicactivity: The Albino rats of either sex (100-150g) were fasted for 12 hours. They’re administered orally an aqueous suspension of the drug twice a day over a two-day period. The rats were then sacrificed the day after giving the final dose. To determine the gastric mucosal damage, rat stomachs were removed, opened along the length of greater curvature and cleaned of the debris, washed and examined under a microscope (10 x) & the ulcers were scored as;
However, the efficacy of such combinations involving various opioids and NSAIDs in the treatment of inflammatory disorders is not clearly documented. Though morphine has been investigated for its anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and ulcerogenicactivity, similar information regarding other commonly used opioids viz., pethidine and pentazocine appears to be scanty. Therefore in the present study morphine (a mixed agonist),pethidine (predominantly µ agonist) and pentazocine (a powerful k agonist), have been investigated for their effect on acute and subacute inflammation as well as gastric mucosa and their interaction with aspirin a commonly used NSAID in male Wistar rats.
activity (23.85%–61.45%) compared with the reference drug indomethacin (22.43%) (P = 0.049 for 1a, 0.0015 for 1d, and 0.033 for 1f; P = 0.00067 for 1e and 0.00081 for 1h). Notably, 1e and 1h showed the most potent anti- inflammatoryactivity (61.45% and 51.76%, respectively). The data observed for ulcerogenic properties clearly dem- onstrate that ulcerogenic potentials (ulcer incidence of 20% for 1e and 1h) were lower than those of the standard drug indomethacin (ulcer incidence of 80%). In particular, com- pound 1e, with an ulcer index of 0.2, showed significantly reduced ulcerogenicity when compared with indomethacin (ulcer index 0.6, P = 0.014). Moreover, PGE 2 inhibition was found to be highest with 1e and 1h, which were found to have PGE 2 levels of 68.32 pg/mL and 54.15 pg/mL, respectively. Notably, the PGE 2 inhibition of 1h was significantly different from that of the placebo control group (P , 0.001) and the indomethacin group, which decreased PGE 2 synthesis to a
Peptic ulcer is one of common diseases spreading throughout the world. Man kind lived with it since ancient times. Peptic ulcers are seemed as holes extend from mucosal surface to submucosa. It include gastric ulcers (Gus) and duodenal ulcers (DUs) which are resemble in common features in term of pathogensis, diagnosis and treatment. It is chronic inflammatory conditions in which injury to stomach and duodenal is caused by offending factors that disturb the gastric mucosal parrier and thus promote ulcer development. These conditions include ulcer secondary to the use of conventional nonsteroidal antiinflamatory drugs (NSAIDs), gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori bacterium, ulcer due to Zollinger-ellison syndrome (ZES) due to gastrin producing tumer, gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), benign & malignant peptic ulcer, stress related mucosal injuries &injuries due to other factors e,g alcohol consumption, sigarette smoking,spicey diet etc. Treatment of symptomatologies related to gastric ulcer or gastritis with medicinal plants are quite common in traditional medicine worldwide e.g. extract of licorice (Fabaceae) has been used for treatment of peptic ulcer since ancient Egyptian, Greek, Roman and in traditional Chinese medicine, The Glinus lotoidus plant (Aizoaceae) distributed in warm temperate areas worldwide. It grows in tropical and subtropical Eurasia and Africa. It used to treat many diseases in such areas. used as antidiabetic and skin ailments (El-Hamidi, 1967).Treat diarrhea, abdominal diseases and weekness in children (Kirtikar and Basu, 1995). Antihelmintic. The present study is conducted to evaluate the traditional use of Bergia suffruticosa to treat gastric disorders.
Indian gooseberry or Amla or Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, one of the most important medicinal plant in the Ayurveda which is the world’s most ancient traditional medicine system. Various parts of this plant are used in different diseases, but the most important and potent part is the fruit which contains majority of active constituent. Amla or Emblica officinalis is used either alone or in combination with other plants to treat several ailments like cancers, chronic inflammotary diseases like hypertension, high Cholesterol, Diabetes, influenza, Chronic cough, cold, Chronic infections, Chronic fatigue, liver problems, heart disease, ulcer, anemia and various other diseases. The major properties of Amla are Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, free radical scavenging , Antidepressant, Antifungal, Anti-diabetic, hypoglycemic, Antiulcerogenic, Antimutagenic, Anti-cancer,anti- proliferative, Cytotoxic effects, Insecticidal, Larvicidal, mosquitocidal , Immunomodulatory, Hepato-protective, Radioprotective, Hypolipidemic and several other activities as demonstrated in numerous preclinical studies. This review summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research establishing its activity and utility in different disease conditions specially in humans.
We evaluated for the first time the anti-inflammatoryactivity of pseudopterosins, seco-pseudopterosins and the related IMNGD (Figure 1) isolated from the two chemo- types of P. elisabethae collected at the Providencia and San Andrés Islands (SW Caribbean) [16,17]. The extracts and fractions from the two chemotypes were assayed using the in vivo model "12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-acetate (TPA)- induced mouse ear oedema" . Compounds PsG, PsK, PsP, PsQ, PsS, PsT, PsU, seco-PsK and IMNGD were evalu- ated using in vitro anti-inflammatory screenings as mye- loperoxidase (MPO) assay (released by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs)) [19,20], nitric oxide release (cell based assay) and scavenger activity on this radical .
was less potent than these two drugs, it had compara- ble efficacy. The compound appeared to act, at least, in part by inhibiting the up-regulation of the mRNA for TNF-α as well as that of the prostanoid-synthetic enzyme, cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, like dexamethasone, but unlike indomethacin, CEE-1 did not affect COX-2 enzyme function. Thus, the profile of activity of CEE-1 is similar to that of steroids ra- ther than the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Structure-activity study showed that the presence of a simple aromatic ring attached via an NH-NH group was critical for activity. At the concentrations that completely inhibited mediator release, the compound displayed no significant in vitro toxicity on the cells. These results show that CEE-1 is a dual inhibitor of
Coriander is an ancient plant that is popularly known for its distinct flavor when added to food. The plant has been used from pre-historic time for its medicinal properties. Nowadays, there is great emphasis on integrating medicinal and aromatic plants with nutraceutical properties which pave way for the prevention of chronic diseases such as obesity, CVDs, diabetes e.t.c.One of such plants with such great potential is coriander. It is also known to be nutritionally endowed basically due to its green leaves and dried fruits. Like all other green leafy vegetables, its leaves are a rich source of vitamins, minerals and iron. Its leaves contain high amount of vitamin A (β-carotene) and vitamin C. The green herbs contain vitamin C upto 160 mg/100 g and vitamin A up to 12 mg/100g. It is very low in saturated fat and cholesterol and a very good source of thiamine, zinc and dietary fiber. Green coriander contains 84% water. This pre-historic herb is also know to for its antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-convulsant, anti- inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, anti-anxiety, antimicrobial activity, hepatoprotective activity amongst others along with hormone balancing effect and analgesic properties thus promoting its use in foods.The aim of this study was to buttress the health benefits of coriander and draw further attention to the herbal plant.
distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia and Africa 10 . The entire plant has been used in the treatment of stiffness, lumbago, diuretic, stomachic, ear infection, cough, emetic, purgative and rheumatic. The seeds are utilized a diaphoretic 11 , anti-malarial 12 , anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory 13,14 . C. halicacabum roots have been utilized for the treatment of epilepsy and tension disorders 15 . D. viscosa is placed in the family Sapindaceae and distributed in India and Nepal. It is utilized for different therapeutic purposes such as diuretic, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐ulcer 16-17 , snake bites 18
In the present work, the chemical constituents present in the methanolic extracts of seed and fruit pulp of Passiflora foetida L were evaluated. Based on the findings, was concluded that the presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannin and saponin were present in the extracts of seed and fruit pulp. Naturally occurring plant bioactive compounds are a great source, to treat various diseases. The extracts also possess biologically active constituents worthy, responsible for antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activity. Further study the purification of individual compounds in the methanolic extract of seed and pulp in needed to evaluate their bioactivities.
used as nutrition supplement, cardiac diseases etc. Solanesol is extremely interesting compound and exerts various biological activities. The purity of Solanesol was increased about 90% than earlier method and it is considered as one of “the greatest drug with potential growth in coming centuries”. Its semi synthetic derivatives are confirmed by IR and NMR. Antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of the semi synthetic compounds like SC-I, SB-II, SI-III, SN-IV, SNT-V, ST-VI and SCA-VII showed greater improvement than parent. These semi synthetic derivatives are confirmed by IR (Spectro 2060+, Analytical technologies limited) and NMR (Varian Gemini-200, Varian unity-400 and Avance 300MHz Bruker Ux-NMR instrument).
Elaeagnusangustifolia: E.Angustifolia (communal name is Oleaster in English) is a member of Elaeagnaceae family . The efficiency of Oleaster in the action of oral lichen planus (OLP) lesion has been appraised in an RCT with 28 patients. Seventy five percent and 50–75% tempering in pain and abrasion size, respectively, have been observed in the case group . In additional randomized clinical trial which has been supported out on 90 knee OA female patients, a significant weakening in TNF- andmatrixmetalloprotein1 (MMP-1) (proinflammatory mediators) and alleviation in IL-10 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine) have been narrated in active therapy group . Oleastercutting has established an anti- inflammatory consequence in an innateperfect but this significance was not important in evaluation with sodium salicylate . Aqueous extract of this fruit has shown anti- inflammatory belonging sinmice through COX-1 and COX-2 reserve; the indication has exerted no relationship between corticosterone level and that of anti-inflammatory action .
pigs, PCT was increased in methanolic extract of L. aspera as compared to control group. Methanolic extract of Leucas aspera significantaly raised the PCT in histamine induced bronchospasm. Thus, anti-histaminic activity and bronchodilating activity was obtained. It also prevented paw edema in passive paw anaphylaxis model. The egg albumin induced paw edema leads to inflammation in hind paw of rat. The differences in hind paw volume after egg albumin injection was decreased in rats treated with methanolic extract of L. aspera. It reveals that the plant having anti-inflammatoryactivity. Milk induced leucocytosis and eosinophilia was not significantaly decreased that much in mice pre-treated with methanolic extract of L. aspera before and 24 hour after milk injection. The drug treatment also significantly prevented the disruption of mast cells and release of several mediators. Acetylcholine and histamine induced contractions in guinea pig ileum and tracheal chain preparation were also significantaly inhibited by administration of methanolic extract of L. aspera.