The present investigation revealed that mercuricchloride intoxication causes significant increase in lipid peroxidation and glucose, billirubin levels, AST, ALT and ALP activities, and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-s- transferase in liver. The principal toxic effects of mercury involve interaction with a large number of cellular processes, including the formation of complexes with free thiols and protein thiol groups, which may lead to oxidativestress  . Due to its sulfhydryl group binding capability, HgCl 2 can also inhibit the activities of many enzymes, especially those
than ascorbic acid and other phenolic acid such as p- coumaric acid, since the electron donating methoxy group allows increased stabilization of the resulting aryloxyl radical through electron delocalization after hydrogen donation by the hydroxyl group 28 . This showed that, the direct inhibition of trans-conjugated dienehydroperoxyde isomer formation is related to the H-donating ability of the phenol 29 . Argan oil, but not olive or sunflower oil, also contains another important phenolic acid: syringic acid (68±4µg/kg), this antioxidant compound protects against lipid peroxidation 30 .
(TNF- α level), as well as the expression of COX-2 in the ethanol group. However, a significant depletion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed, such as, GPx (72%), SOD (57.5%), CAT (41.6%) and -SH (50%). The lesions were associated with severe histopathological damage. The both Citrus sinensis peel aqueousextract (CSPE) and hesperidin significantly protect against all gastric damages caused by ethanol administration in rats. Conclusions: We propose that CSPE and hesperidin exhibit protective effects in EtOH-induced peptic ulcer in rat. This protection might be related in to part its antioxidant properties as well as its opposite effects on some studied intracellular mediators.
The study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of aqueousextract of Ajugaiva in mercuricchlorideinduced renal stress, by using biochemical approaches. The effects of aqueousextract of Ajugaiva on mercuricchlorideinducedoxidative and renal stress were evaluated by serum creatinine, urea and uric acid levels, kidney tissue lipid peroxidation, GSH levels, GSH-Px and GST activities. Administration of mercuricchlorideinduced significant increase in serum: creatinine, urea and uric acid concentration showing renal stress. Mercuricchloride also inducedoxidativestress, as indicate by decreased kidney tissue of GSH level, GSH-Px and GST activities along with increase the level of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, treatment with mercuricchloride caused a marked elevation of kidney weight and decreased body weight. Aqueousextract of Ajugaiva treatment markedly reduced elevated serum: creatinine, urea and uric acid levels and counteracted the deterious effects of mercuricchloride on oxidativestress markers and attenuated histological changes caused by HgCl 2 in kidney. Our results indicate that aqueousextract of Ajugaiva could have a
Thus effective formulations of anti-epileptic drugs which can reduce free radical-inducedoxidative damage and modulates the neurotransmitter function towards cessation of convulsive seizures are in great demand . Researches on dietary antioxidants and herbal extracts have demonstrated that many of them are effective in attenuating the development of post-traumatic epilepsy and are also advantageous for their frequent dietary consumption and having no adverse effects . MO, commonly known as drumstick tree is used as medicinal food in South Asian countries and in Africa . Different parts of the plant have been found to exhibit anti-diabetic, wound healing, anti-ulcerative  and anti- inflammatory activity with rich contents of antioxidants . Earlier our laboratory has provided evidence that, aqueous root extract of MO at a dose of 350 mg/kg body weight inhibited excitatory neurotransmission in penicillin-induced convulsions [13, 14]. Thus, in the present we are using the dose 350 mg/kg body weight. This study might possibly be the first to examine the effect of the aqueous root extract of MO on preventing iron-inducedoxidative damage in brain and thereby preventing post-traumatic epilepsy. Another aim of the study is to investigate that whether MO extract has any beneficial effect on post-traumatic epilepsy by modulating the concentration of neuroprotective biogenic amines (such as, dopamine, serotonin and nor epinephrine) in different brain regions of rats.
Sida cordifolia Linn. and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. are two well-known rejuvenator medicinal plants which have been ascribed many medicinal properties in Ayurvedic literature. Their roots contain many polyphenols, Flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and glycosidic compounds. Their pharmacological actions include hypoglycaemic, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-mutagenic, hepato- protective, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, in vivo antioxidant analysis of aqueousextract of the combination of roots of Sida cordifolia Linn. and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. has been evaluated in animals, especially rats, after inducing acute and chronic oxidativestress using potassium dichromate. Total phenol content determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was found to be 28.60 µg Gallic acid/mg. Acute toxicity study using mice showed no significant toxic symptoms or mortality up to 1500 mg/kg dose. Total Antioxidant Capacity by Phosphomolybdate Assay in concentrations of 3, 6 and 9 mg/ml was evaluated to be 16.48 ± 80, 18.97 ± 8.87 and 20.98 ± 8.93 (µg/mg) equivalents of ascorbic acid. Determination of Reactive Oxygen Metabolites (d-ROMs Test) to evaluate the level of hydroperoxides in terms of U. CARR units indicated that effect of agents causing chronic or acute oxidativestress can be mostly neutralized by research drug polyherbal formulation administration. Similarly, Determination of Reactive Oxygen Species by ELISA kit in the form of Optical Density values suggests that effect of acute and chronic oxidativestress is drastically reduced due to simultaneous administration of research drug. Therefore, experimental evaluation of in vivo antioxidant properties of aqueousextract of the polyherbal formulation using the chronic and acute oxidativestress models in rats indicated its significant efficacy as an antioxidant which is non-toxic and able to counter the negative effects of inducedoxidativestress in animals, possibly due to presence of polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids in high concentrations in its abstract.
Chenopodium album Linn was collected from the agri- cultural and cultivated fields of Charsadda, Pakistan. The plant was identified by Dr. Mir Ajab (Depart- ment of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad) and the voucher specimen (0623451) was deposited at the Herbarium of Pakistan, Quaid-i- Azam University Islamabad. Seeds, together with the funicles, were air dried under the shade. They were stored in sealed bags until the preparation of the ex- tract. Seeds were incubated at 25 °C, ground, and then sieved. The dried powder was then added to ethanol and placed at 4 °C in the dark for a week and was stirred every day for 30 min. The mixture was filtered with Whatman filter paper number 41 having a diam- eter of 150 mm. The filtrate was placed at room temperature until the solvent was evaporated. A 200 mg/kg dose of C. album was selected based on the previous study in which the effect of the same dose was observed on sexual behavior and sperm count in male rats [25, 26]. The ethanolic extract was sus- pended in 2% polyvinyl pyrrolidone and 100% stock solution was prepared.
This study has demonstrated that exposure to lead could have generated oxidativestress which resulted in the elevation of transaminases, creatinine in serum, and the decrease of total protein level. The lower of HDL and the increase of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides, as well as lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney associated with the reduction in the antioxidant status were also obtained. The pre-treatment with the aqueousextract of the formulation of the three kind of mushrooms studied resulted in the prevention of the lead-induced hepato-renal damages and his antihyperlipemic and antioxidant properties. The protective effects of this extract may be due to the radical scavenging activity of its components demonstrated. Consequently, the aqueousextract of the formulation of the three kind of mushrooms commonly consumed in Cameroon (Pleurotus pulmonarius, Pleurotus floridanus and Pleurotus sajor-caju) could be useful in the preventive treatment of lead toxicity as well as the vitamin C used as a reference.
Ethical approval of this experimental study was obtained from the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee of Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, with Reg. No 1217/PO/Re/S/08/CPCSEA. Thirty-six albino rats with average body weight (b.w) from 150 to 250 g were utilized in this study. They were procured from Teena labs, Plot no 41, SV cooperative industrial estates, Bachupally (V), Quthbullapur. The rats were housed in polypropylene cages and maintained under standard conditions (12 h light and dark cycles at 25 ±3°C and 35–60% humidity).
Abstract: The effects of Arabic gum (AG) against nephrotoxicity of mercury (Hg), an oxidative- stress inducing substance, in rats were investigated. A single dose of mercuricchloride (5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection) induced renal toxicity, manifested biochemically by a significant increase in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite production in kidney tissues. In addition, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase enzymes in renal tissues were significantly decreased. Pretreatment of rats with AG (7.5 g/kg/day per oral administration), starting 5 days before mercuricchloride injection and continuing through the experimental period, resulted in a complete reversal of Hg-induced increase in creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and total nitrate/nitrite to control values. Histopathologic examination of kidney tissues confirmed the biochemical data; pretreatment of AG prevented Hg-induced degenerative changes of kidney tissues. These results indicate that AG is an efficient cytoprotective agent against Hg-induced nephrotoxicity by a mechanism related at least in part to its ability to decrease oxidative and nitrosative stress and preserve the activity of antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissues.
Effect of ethanolic extracts of roots of Smilax zeylanica on brain tissues like, hippocampus cortex and cerebellum SOD and CAT level results is shown in Tables 2 & 3 and Fig.2 &3 respectively. The activities of SOD and CAT in the tissue like hippocampus cortex and cerebellum, significantly (P<0.001) lowered in rats fed with AlCl3-treated animals (group II) than control group animals. Metals such as copper, iron, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, nickel and Al induced their toxic effects due to their ability to transfer electrons and free radicals production. Chronic exposure of Al could leads to the disruptions of mineral balance by replacing iron and magnesium ions 33 . Previous reports
Clinical assessment of hepatocellular injury and health status of liver is done routinely by measuring the activity level of Aspartate transaminase (AST) and Alanine transaminase (ALT). The result of this study revealed that there is a significant increase in serum AST and ALT level in rats treated with cadmium chloride alone as compared with control. Increase in serum AST and ALT levels may be as a result of metabolic changes in the liver, administration of xenobiotic, cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis and liver cancer causing the leaking out of these enzymes from the liver to the blood system . Administration of aqueousextract of Telfairia occidentalis significantly attenuates these adverse effects.
All chemicals used in this work were purchased from sigma chemical company. Laboratory animals, Albinos Wistar female rats, were brought from the Algiers Pasteur institute at the age of 4 weeks, with an average live weight of 200g. They were located in a room with an ambient temperature of 21±1°C and up to 12h of light daily. The rats were divided into four experimental groups; each consists of six rats. The first group was served as the control. The second group was given aqueousextract of Cyperus rotundus at a dose of 200mg/kg body weight, while the third group (HgCl 2 ) was
Animal models: Sixty male Wistar albino rats (150–200gm), 6–8 weeks old, were obtained from the King Fahd Medical Research Centre of King Abdulaziz University, KSA. Rats were housed in an animal care facility under room temperature (25± 1 °C) with 12h light/dark cycles and were given free access to standard pellet diet and tap water ad labium. Before the treatment, rats were left for 7 days to acclimatize. Rats received human care in accordance with the guidelines of the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). The present research protocol was inspected, revised and allowed by the Scientific Ethical Committee of King Abdulaziz University, S.A.
For many years, it has been proposed that the life long production and accumulation of free radicals as by- product of oxidative metabolism is the basis of aging process [ 40]. In the present study, the increase in MDA content was observed in the hearts of aged control rats compared to young control rats. Muscari et al. (1990) proposed that the increase in MDA levels is the final products of lipid peroxidation which are metabolized in the cells [ 41]. Others showed several damages in the aged heart caused by free radical generation [ 7], such as greater formation of both hydrogen peroxide and 8- hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine. Our results are in agree- ment with that of other authors [ 42, 43], who found an increase in MDA levels in the heart, which affects the membranes and is responsible for the age-related changes. In animals treated with aqueousextract of T. chebula, there was considerable decrease in the level of MDA, suggesting a decrease in lipid peroxidation and protects the myocardium from oxidative damage. Fla- vonoids can make complexes with metals, and inhibit metal-initiating lipid peroxidation [ 44].
An acute toxicity study was performed for Asparagus racemosus according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines by acute toxic classic method 10 . Three female (Sprague dawley) SD rats were used for each step in this study. The animals were fasted for overnight with only water available, after which the extracts were administered intragastrically at different doses of 50 and 300 mg/kg. Food and water was withheld for a further 1-2 h after drug administration. Rats were closely observed for the initial 4 h after administration, and then once daily for 14 days to observe mortality. If mortality occurred in two of the three animals at any dose, then this dose was assigned as a toxic dose. If mortality occurred in one animal then the same dose was repeated to confirm the
antioxidant properties [10, 11, 13]. Quecitine can also prevent cell smooth muscle proliferation and migration . We can also think of the calcium blocker activity of the plant that has been demonstrated . All this might have contributed at least in part in the process of the plant extract to prevent the induction of hypertension by L-NAME administration. The fact that none of the treatment has affected the heart rate is in accordance with previous studies that have shown that, the chronic administration of L -NAME did not alter the heart rate . Since no changes in the heart rate were also found in rats treated concomitantly with L-NAME and Bp ex- tract, it seems that the lowering of blood pressure may be predominantly due to its effects on vessels. Though Dimo et al.  have demonstrated that Bidens pilosa reduced heart rate and the force of contraction; other studies using other extracts of Bidens pilosa showed that the plant does not really affect the heart, but mostly the vessels . This difference may be due to the difference in extraction. Therefore, we can suggest that the antihy- pertensive effect of our plant extract might be mainly
In recent years, researchers turned attention specifically to oxidativestress and the key role it plays, as a common element in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. Hyperglycemia generates reactive oxygen species which, in turn, causes membrane lipid peroxidation and degradation. Many of the complications of diabetes, including vascular atherosclerosis, major cause of mortality in DM, are closely related to oxidativestress and, thus, antioxidants play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. Herbal remedies contain large amounts of antioxidants such as flavonoids, polyphenolic acids, carotenoids, Vitamins C and E; experimental research has shown that the antioxidant activity may be an important property of medicinal plants used for their hypoglycemic effect in the treatment of D.M. The most common symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus are those of hypoglycemia, loss of weight, ketosis, and arterio sclerosis, pathological changes in eyes, neuropathy, renal disease and coma 5 . In the previous study, biochemical parameters like oxidativestress and enzymic activities were not evaluated 6 .
Effect of aflatoxin and Cynodon dactylon leaf extract either alone or in different combination on hematological variables in albino rats are illustrated in table 2. Supplementation of aflatoxin led to significant fall (P<0.01) in Hb, PCV, RBC, lymphocyte count and remarkable rise (P<0.01) in WBC, platelet and neutrophil count as compared to respective values of normal rats. Co-administration of different treatment of C. dactylon leaf extract along with aflatoxin led significant improvement in Hb, RBC content and bought them back near to normal. Whereas, PCV and lymphocyte count were also significantly elevated (P<0.01) in these groups as compared to group aflatoxin treated rats. Moreover C. dactylon leaf extract led to significant fall (P<0.01) in WBC, platelet and neutrophil count as compared to respective values of aflatoxin alone receiving group of rats. Administration of Cynodon dactylon leaf extract was effective in reducing the adverse effect of aflatoxin on hemopoitic system supporting the hypothesis that plant extract exhibits effective antioxidant property. The plant extract showed improvement in biochemical variables with an increase in TEC, Hb and PCV in current study indicated that component present in Cynodon dactylon leaf extract prevent oxidative damage, such as lipid peroxidation associated with many diseases, including cancer and immune deficiency.
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is known to decompose in aqueous solution at physiological pH (7.2) producing NO. SNP spontaneously releases nitric oxide (NO) in solution and the amount of NO released can be inferred by using the Griess’ reagent. This reagent reacts with nitrite, which is one of two primary, stable and nonvolatile breakdown products of NO, and therefore allows an indirect estimation of the amount of NO released in the solution [8, 22]. RPE and RPW significantly inhibited nitric oxide in dose dependent manner (Fig. 1). IC 50 values of RPH, RPE and RPW were 37.53 ± 1.85, 20.66 ± 1.73 and 24.34 ± 1.67 µg/mL, respectively. IC 50 value of standard ascorbic acid was 4.9 µg/mL.