In summary, our data indicate that Hg-induced nephrotoxic- ity is related to lipid peroxidation. Coadministration of AG provided protection against HG-inducednephrotoxicity, pos- sibly by inhibiting the free radical mediated process. These protective effects of AG on renal injury induced by Hg might have a considerable impact on developing clinically feasible strategies to treat patients with toxin-induced renal failure.
, the elevated level of bilirubin concentration was noticed in the serum of mercuricchloride treated rats that shows the evidence of hepatic damage. Administration of CA attenuated mercuricchlorideinduced hepatotoxicity, as shown by the restoration of AST, ALT, ALP, and LDH activities and concentration of bilirubin to their near normal levels in mercury intoxicated rats. The present experimental result clearly indicates that CA may offer protection by stabilizing the cell membrane in hepatic disorders induced by mercuricchloride. Pari and Prasath  also observed a similar type of result in Ni intoxicated rat liver when it was treated again with CA. They are suggested that administration of CA protects the liver from Ni-induced oxidative damage by decreasing and restoring the liver marker enzymes, lipid peroxidative markers and by increasing antioxidant cascade. The above effect of CA could be due to its antioxidant nature, which includes free radical scavenging and metal chelating properties. Thus, CA might prove beneficial in alleviating the toxic effects of Ni on liver.
defense enzymes which scavenges harmful ROS. The main role of GPx enzyme is the removal and detoxification of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides in the presence of oxidized GSH [45-48]. During this reaction, the GSH is rapidly converted into oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In normal condition, the ratio of GSH/GSSG plays a vital role in adjusting the cellular redox status in animals. The disturbance occurred in the ratio of GSH/GSSG has promoting an impact on normal cellular functions . Daniel et al. also observed comparable type of result in methotrexate-treated rats, they suggested that this is due to hepatotoxic damage. Reduction in cellular GSH, in turn, reduces the effectiveness of antioxidant defense of the liver against the increased ROS and thereby leads to hepatotoxicity . In fact, GSH metabolism is one of the most essential anti-oxidative protection mechanisms in animals. During the recovery period, post-treatment of CA (mercuricchloride treatment followed by CA treatment), the decreased level of GSH content was significantly increased to reach near normal level in liver tissues of mercury-intoxicated rat. This result suggested that an administration of CA can promote the non-enzymatic antioxidant in the respective tissues leading to maintain adequate amount of GSH content in tissues. An enhanced level of GSH content has the function of protection that could provide the first line of defense against the influence of toxic heavy metals [39,51]. Moreover, an enhanced level of GSH content may be related to stop or control the oxidative challenge . In the present experimental study, the decreased level of LPO content was noticed in liver tissues of mercury-intoxicated rats when treated with CA support our results. Deshmukh  have also been reported that the administration of CA reduces the oxidative stress in liver tissues of ICV-STZ-intoxicated rats. They suggested that the role of CA attenuates ICV
This biochemical analysis showed cardioprotective effect of GA and it is supported by histopathological examinations in which DOX showed confluent necrosis and separation of muscle fibers. This type of myocardial damage including myofibrillar degeneration, mitochondrial dilatation and cellular vacuolization is specific to DOX. These legions were significantly reduced in GA treated rats prior doxorubicin administration. This effect of GA could be due to its ability to scavenge free radicals thus acting as an antioxidant but it is difficult to explain this protective effect depending on this assumption because another study was found that GA has no antioxidanteffect 3 so that more studies are needed to explain the cardioprotective of GA.
study has showed that MDA levels were significantly increased and the GSH-PX, GST activities were decreased with treated both dose of Ajuga Iva in mercuricchloride groups when compared with control groups which comformed with the histopathological evaluation of liver tissue. Flavonoids are the major component of Ajuga Iva which are able to inhibit the oxidants and to protect the cell membrane. This study assess the effects of oxygen free radical scavengers, both mercuricchloride injury and increase of TBA-reactive substance were inhibited by the treatment of free radical scavengers. Ajuga Iva extract is an effective free radical scavenger showing antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen production and protecting the damage caused by free radicals  .This result is supported with biochemical and histopathological findings which the effect of Ajuga Iva on mercuricchlorideinduced oxidative stress in rats. The effect of Ajuga Iva could be attributed to the improvement of antioxidant status of the animals of the presence of free radical scavenging substances such as flavonoid  . In conclusion, our study indicate that Ajuga Iva extract have hepatoprotective effectagainstmercuricchlorideinduced oxidative stress in rats which may be related to its antioxidanteffect.
facilitated the conjugation reaction of xenobiotics metabolism and may have increased the availability of non-critical nucleophile for inactivation of electrophiles and therefore might be playing a major role in metalloprotection. The C. Rotundus is a traditional herbal medicine used widely as antibacterial, antimalarial, sedative, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and relieve diarrhea 14,15,32 . Previous studies have been showed that C. roduntus and its ingredient compounds inhibit the free radical generation and act as antioxidant and free radical scavengers and its has also been demonstrated that treatment with C. rotundus inhibits the generation of superoxide radicals 33,11,34 and recent evidence suggested that GSH-PX and GST play a significant role in the elimination of H2O2 and lipid peroxidative stress in rats 35 . Thus, inhibition this enzymes may results in the accumulation of the H2O2 with subsequent oxidation of lipids. The present study has showed that MDA levels were significantly increased and the GSH-PX, GST activities were decreased with treated both dose of CR in mercuricchloride groups when compared with control groups which conformed with the histopathological evaluation of liver tissue. Flavonoids are the major component in the volatile oil of CR which are able to inhibit the oxidants and to protect the cell membrane by the restoration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) when compared treatment with dose of C.Rotundus. This study assess the effects of oxygen free radical scavengers, both mercuricchloride injury and increase of TBA-reactive substance were inhibited by the treatment of free radical scavengers. C.R extract is an effective free radical scavenger showing antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen production and protecting the damage caused by free radicals 36 . This result is supported with biochemical and histopathological findings which the effect of CR on mercuricchlorideinduced oxidative stress in rats. The hepatoprotective effect of CR could be attributed to the improvement of antioxidant status of the animals of the presence of free radical scavenging substances such as flavonoid oil 37 .
involved in the kidney tissue of mercury intoxicated animal. SOD inhibition may be related to a covalent attachment of mercury ions to its reactive cystine residues which are involved in the detoxification of metals like mercury. Alternatively SOD inhibition might also been consequence of excess of residue which would effect on enzyme structure . Mercury induced oxidative stress in the mercury intoxicated rats mainly due to the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissue. In the present experimental studies, we observed the level of lipidperoxidation and reduced glutathione along with kidney tissue damage with decreased level of SOD, CAT and GPx activities. In addition, these findings also indicate that free radicals generated by HgCl 2 exceeded endogenous antioxidant activity
Lipidperoxidative and antioxidative efficacy of Camellia sinensis was investigated againstmercuricchlorideinduced toxicity in Wistar rats. Toxicity was induced in Wistar rats by daily intraperitoneal injections of a freshly prepared solution of mercuricchloride at a dose of 1.25mg/kg body weight for 45 days. Levels of lipid peroxidation were assessed by estimating TBARS and lipid hydroperoxide and the antioxidant levels were assessed by estimating the levels of GSH, SOD, CAT and GPx. Significant increase was observed in the levels of TBARS, hydroperoxide in HgCl 2 treated rats. These levels were significantly decreased in HgCl 2 and Green Tea Extract
Physalis alkekengi (L.) (Unani name: Kaknaj) Fam. Solanaceae has been used in Unani system of medicine for long time to treat various kidney disorders. In this study, hydroalcoholic extract of Physalis alkekengi (PAHE) was studied for its nephroprotective activity against cisplatin induced acute renal injury in albino rats of either sex. In the experimental regimen, the animals were administered with PAHE (p.o.) at dose levels of 420mg/kg (equivalent to 3 gm of the traditional therapeutic crude dose), and 980 mg/kg (equivalent to 7g) for 10 days. Cisplatin (7mg/kg, i.p.) was administered in a single dose on 4 th day of the experiment. The results showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in the elevated blood urea, serum creatinine, uric acid, TBARS level and also normalized the histopathological changes. However, the results were comparatively better at 420mg/kg dose level. The findings suggest that the PAHE possesses marked nephroprotective activity with minimal toxicity and could offer a promising role in the treatment of acute renal injury caused by nephrotoxins like cisplatin.
An optimized culture medium is necessary for commercial production as it ensures that the required nutrients are present in appropriate forms and at non-inhibitory optimum concentrations. Taking the fact that phosphate sources play a significant role various micro and macro nutrients were screened using statistical methods like Plackett-Burman  as it is a rapid and reliable method of not only short listing nutrients but also understanding their interactions at varying concentrations. The method is significant and time saving as it screens up to n-1 variables in just n number of experiments. Microbes require micro and macro nutrients to support the biosynthesis of proteins like enzymes, and structural proteins. Dextran though an exopolysaccharide needs the enzyme dextransucrase for production . Diverse micro and macro nutrients in different concentrations influence protein (enzyme dextran sucrase) production for dextran yield. Calcium in different forms either chloride or sulfate influences both enzyme production and its stability as indicated by earlier research  The statistical method of screening facilitated identification of most significant micro and macro nutrients for dextran production The statistical design allowed to efficiently screen n-1 variables in just n number of experiments saving both time and chemicals a very important aspect in design of production medium.
GumArabic Acacia Senegal is a unique product in Sudan and over the worlds that have a wide applications and uses. It is natural exudates of two species of the acacia tree; Acacia Senegal (Hashab) and Acacia Seyal (Talha). GumArabic being a mixture of polysaccharides and glycoprotein has the properties of a glue and binder that is water soluble taste mild acid, colorless, does not dissolves in alcohol and edible by humans [6,7].GumArabic contains many elements that make it useful in many fields such as an important ingredient in soft drink, syrups, "hard" gummy candies such as gumdrops, marshmallows, chocolate candies and edible glitter, a popular modern cake-decorating staple[8,9]. Different methods are used to identify the components of GumArabic, but the limitation of these methods writes from within the components of gum materials again these methods had not sufficiently studied the optical properties of the gumArabic. This work aimed to use LIBS for characterization of GumArabic (Acacia Senegal).
CK-MB and LDH are the cardiac enzymes primarily found in the MB used to evaluate the existence and extent of myocytes injury . DOX disease control group rats increased these biomarkers in the extracellular fluid due to an increased leakage of these enzymes from mitochondria as a result of toxicity induced by DOX . Administration of DOX interferes with the metabolism or biosynthesis of lipids increasing the plasma levels of TG, CH, and LDL in Group II rats of DOX. Whereas, treatment with EBML might decrease the interference with the metabolism and thus decrease the plasma levels of TG, CH, and LDL [39,40].
revalence of mercury intoxication by food and environmental sources has risen glob- ally in the world. Pollution of soil and water by natural phenomenon such as volcanoes and industrial activities, pollution of ma- rine food resources by mercury in the water, preserva- tive compounds of vaccines and even amalgam filling of teethes are possible causes of mercury intoxication (Clarkson, 1997; Diez, 2009). Mercury has tree forms in the environment, elemental mercuric (Hg0) or mercu- ric vapour that is liquid at room temperature with high vapour pressure, mercuricchloride, and organic methyl mercury or MeHg (Clarkson, 1997; Diez, 2009). Mer-
Oxidative stress-induced free radicals that reacted with membrane phospholipids resulted in lipid peroxidation. To investigate the effect of CP, rutin and their combin- ation on the lipid peroxidation biomarkers the MDA level was measured. Cisplatin significantly increased MDA levels in kidney tissue by 230 ± 5.5 nmol/g com- pared to 68 ± 2.1 nmol/g in control group (P < 0.001). Interestingly, the administration of rutin before cisplatin resulted in a reversal of MDA level induced by CP to its normal values as in control group. Administration of rutin alone showed non-significant changes in MDA levels (70 ± 1.8 nmol/g) compared to control group. Also, the free radicals depleted the antioxidant defense GSH. Rats treated with CP had a significant decrease in GSH level by 25 ± 6.8 nmol/100 mg tissue compared to 102 ± 3.5 nmol/100 mg tissue in control group. On the other hand, the administration of rutin before CP lead to increase in the GSH levels from 25 ± 6.8 nmol/100 mg tissue in CP group to 120 ± 3.6 nmol/100 mg tissue (p < 0.05). Administration of rutin alone showed non- significant changes in MDA levels 107 ± 2.3 nmol/ 100 mg tissue compared to the control group.
The experimental results as shown reveal that the reaction rate doubles when the concentration of catalyst is doubled. The rate law equation is in conformity with all kinetic observations and proposed mechanistic steps are supported by the negligible effect of ionic strength. The high positive values of free energy of activation ( ∆ G*) indicates highly solvated transition state, while fairly high negative values of entropy of activation ( ∆ S*) suggest the formation of an activation complex with reduction in the degree of freedom. From the present investigation, it is concluded that RNHCl is the reactive species of chloramine-T in acidic medium and the reactive species of Pd(II) in acidic medium is [PdCl 2 ] under the experimental pH range.
Previous studies indicate an important role of ROS in the development of nephrotoxicity by cisplatin [9,21]. Cisplatin induced free radical production causing oxidative renal damage. Results in the present study indicated that ZE significantly reduced MDA concentration in kidney tissue. This is probably due to free radicals scavenging and antioxidant properties of ZE. Glutathione S-transferase is believed to facilitate conjugation of GSH with free radicals leading to formation of thioether bond masking their reactivity. It functions as a scavenger of ROS, including hydroxyl radicals, single oxygen, nitric oxide and peroxynitrite . Data of our study indicate that GSH increased when animals received ZE. Animals in the CIS group showed a significant loss in body weights. This reduction in body weight is attributed to reduced food intake and inhibition of protein synthesis induced by CIS. This is a well- described side effect in patients treated with chemotherapy , and was also reported in cisplatin-treated rats due to inhibition of appetite [9,11].
Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less (F : Compositae) is an annual herb that grows in India. The plant Vernonia cinerea (V. cinerea) is used by the village folk of Rayalaseema area, Andhra Pradesh, India, for curing kidney ailments [5,6] . V. cinerea is one of the herbs present in the ayurvedic polyherbal preparation, Cystone. Cystone was reported to protect kidney against cisplatin-induced toxicity and protection may be mediated through its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation . The plant was reported to possess anticancer activity against sarcoma 180 in mice . The plant is reported to be used in traditional medicine as tonic, astringent, diaphoretic, antirheumatic, anthelmintic and antidiarrheal .
Cymbopogon citratus commonly known as lemongrass is a tall, coarse grass with a strong lemon taste and has a wide range of therapeutic, nutritional, and cosmetic uses. The plant is used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, hypoglycemic, and cardioprotective agent in folk medicine (Akande et al. 2011). Nutritionally, lemon- grass is used as a flavoring spice in many cuisines and con- fections. Its essential oil enters in many cosmetic preparations as perfumes, soaps, detergents, and body lo- tions. The infusions prepared from its dry or fresh leaves are extensively used in recent years as a diuretic for treat- ment of urinary tract disorders as cystitis, renal stones, and urine retention and for treatment of hypertension and asso- ciated cardiovascular disorders; it is also used in the treat- ment of gout (Mirghani et al. 2012).
Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for solid tumors; however its use is limited by nephrotoxicity. The current study investigated the effect of Butea monosperma in cisplatin-inducednephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Kidneys have a vital role in the normal physiology of humans. Worldwide chronic kidney disease has become a major cause for disability and in worst circumstances leads to death. Major renal disorders occur due to diabetes and its complications termed as diabetic nephropathy (DN). The animals were divided into four groups of six rats each (n=6). The control group (Group 1) received 1%CMC, Group 2 received only cisplatin, a 7 days of extract of Butea monosperma (200 mg/kg bwt) pre-treatment was applied to the animals in Group 3 before administration of cisplatin; a 7 days of extract of Butea monosperma was performed following administration of cisplatin for the animals in Group 4. Cisplatin (6 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected as a single dose and extract of Butea monosperma (200 and 400 mg/kg bwt) was administered by gavage in 1%CMC. Biochemical and histopathological methods were utilized for evaluation of the nephrotoxicity. The concentrations of creatinine, uric acid and blood urine nitrogen, in plasma and levels of malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione as well as glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were determined in kidney tissue. Administration of cisplatin to rats induced a marked renal failure, characterized with a significant increase in plasma creatinine and uric acid and Blood urea nitrogen. levels of rats received cisplatin alone were significantly different compared to control group but they had higher kidney malondialdehyde, and lower reduce glutathione concentrations, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Extract of Butea monosperma administration produced amelioration in biochemical indices of nephrotoxicity in both serum and kidney tissues when compared to toxic inducer group; pre-treatment with extract of Butea monosperma being more effective. Results from this study indicated that the novel natural antioxidant extract of Butea monosperma might have protective effectagainst cisplatin-inducednephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rat. Keywords: Butea monosperma, Cisplatin, Kidneys, Nephrotoxicity, Malondialdehyde
Green tea is considered a dietary source of antioxidant nutrients: green tea is rich in polyphenols (catechins and gallic acid, particularly), but it also contains carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), minerals such as Cr, Mn, Se or Zn, and certain phytochemical compounds. These compounds could increase the GTE antioxidant potential. GTP present antioxidant activity in vitro by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and chelating red ox active transition metal ions; GTP can chelaete metal ions like iron and copper to prevent their participation in Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions. [57,58]