mg/mL e 5,68 mg/mL.
Unitermos: Syzygiumjambos, Myrtaceae, atividade antiúlcera, atividade antioxidante.
ABSTRACT: “Antiulcerogenic and antioxidantactivities of leafextract of Syzygiumjambos (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae)”. Syzygiumjambos (L.) Alston, Myrtaceae, is commonly employed in folk medicine as digestive and anti-inflammatory. Phytochemical screening of the powdered dried leaves indicates the presence of flavonoids, tannins and essential oil. Hydroethanol extracts (70%) were prepared by percolation and freeze-drying. The tannin content of dried leaves and extract was, respectively, 21.9% and 43.3%. The flavonoid content was 0.6% (dried leaves) and 1.2% (extract). Previous oral administration of S. jambos leaves extract (400 mg/kg) to rats reduced significantly gastric injury induced by HCl/ethanol. At the subcronic ulcer model by induction with 30% acetic acid the results were not significant. In vitro antioxidant activity of S.
Phytochemical screening provides fundamental informa- tion about the medicinal importance of the plant ex- tracts. Phenolic compounds play an important role in plant defence mechanisms against invading bacteria and other types of environmental stress, such as wounding and excessive light or ultraviolet radiation [31, 32]. These compounds can act as antioxidants by chelating metal ions, preventing radical formation and improving the antioxidant endogenous system . Antioxidants which predominantly originate from phytochemicals have been reported to play an important role in the treatment of diabetes . Our results also in accord- ance with previous report that showed high phenol con- tent in S. aqueum leaf ethanol extracts may be the reason for its high anti-glycation activity .
Phytochemicals are non nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties. They are non essential nutrients but the plants that produce these chemicals protect humans against diseases. The phytochemical studies shows that the ethanolic leafextract is rich in flavonoid, phenols, tannins, alkaloids, steroids and terpenoids. These secondary metabolites act as an effective antimicrobial substance against wide range of microorganisms.  Terpenoids acts as bronchodilator in humans and exhibit anti- inflammatory, antibacterial and antibiotic properties. Alkaloids possess numerous functions, among them the most important are their analgesic, antispasmodic and bactericidal effects.  Flavonoids, another constituent of leafextract of Costus speciosus exhibited a wide range of biological activity like antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and antioxidant properties.  Polyphenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins are known antioxidant and possess organ protective functions. Flavonoids are potent free radical scavengers, which prevent oxidative cell damage, have anticancer activity. 
produced at 25 and 60 o C, respectively. Banerjee et al. (2014) studied the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of three plants, Musa balbisiana (banana), Azadirachta indica (neem), and Ocimum tenuiflorum (black tulsi) . A change in colour has been achieved from colourless to yellowish brown to reddish brown to colloidal brown indicating AgNPs formation. The UV/Vis maximum of the produced AgNPs has been detected in the range 425 to 475nm due to surface plasma resonance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement was used to determine the size of silver nanoparticles synthesized by using the leafextract of S. jambos and it has been found that AgNPs sizes of 6-23nm were synthesized (Figure4). Figure 5 showing the characteristic peaks of metallic Ag located at 37.8 ° , 43.3 ° , and 63.5 ° corresponding to the crystallographic planes (1 1 1), (0 0 2), and (0 2 2) of silver, respectively establishes a characteristic of crystalline metallic Ag phase .Based on the line width of the peak from crystalline plane (1 1 1), crystallite sizes were found to be around 20 nm for Ag. Silver nanoparticles synthesized by tobacco leafextract exhibited an average size of 8.43±1.15nm as measured by transmission electron microscopy . On the other hand, AgNPs with a cubic shapes and in the sizes ranged from 35-55nm were produced by using Catharanthus roseus leafextract . Several investigations studied the XRD of the plant leafextract biosynthesized AgNPs have been done to study the production of metallic silver (in nano state) and their purity [43, 44].
Previous researchers who have investigated the plant have documented its potential pharmacological value. Acetone and aqueous bark extracts of this plant have been reported to be active against Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylo- coccus cohnii and Staphylococcus warneri . In another study, the scientists have investigated the antimicrobial activity of both acetone and aqueous extracts of the leaves, bark and seeds against eight microorganisms namely, S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneu- moniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sal- monella typhi and Vibrio cholera. The acetone bark extract showed growth inhibitory activity against all the microorganisms tested whereas, the leafextract inhibited only S. aureus and the seed extract did not show any inhibitory activity. The aqueous bark extract exhibited growth inhibitory effect against S. aureus, E. coli and S. typhi, whereas, the seed extract inhibited the growth of P. aeruginosa and V. cholerae, and leafextract exhibited an inhibitory effect only against S. typhi . In a study done by Kuiate et al. , it was found that the ethanol bark extract of S. jambos and its isolated triterpenoids such as friedelin, β -amyrin acetate, betulinic acid and lupeol exhibited antidermatophytic activity against Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton soudanense.
About 0.2 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.2 M sodium hydroxide solutions were prepared as per the Indian Pharmacopoeia 1996 standards. 50 ml potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution was placed in a 200 ml volumetric flask and 39.1 ml of 0.2 M sodium hydroxide solution was added, and finally, volume was made up to 200 ml with distilled water to prepare phosphate buffer (pH-7.4). 50 ml of phosphate buffer solution was added to equal amount of hydrogen peroxide to generate the free radicals and solution was kept aside at room temperature for 5 minutes to complete the reaction. Extracts (1 ml) in distilled water were added to 0.6 ml hydrogen peroxide solution, and the absorbance was measured at 230 nm in a spectrophotometer (UV-1800, UV-VIS spectrophotometer, Shimadzu) against a blank solution containing phosphate buffer solution without hydrogen peroxide [22,23]. Concentrations selected for extract were ranging from 20 to 100 mg/ml. Ascorbic acid was used as standard. The experiments were repeated in triplicate. The percentage of scavenging of H 2 O 2 of extract was measured using the following equation:
Animals were placed one by one on the rotating rod of Rota- Rod apparatus (INCO, Ambala) and fall off time (sec.) when mice falls from the rotating rod were noted. After one hour of oral treatment (with extract) or thirty minutes of i.p. treatment (with the standard), again the animals were placed one by one on the rotating rod and fall off time was recorded. The fall off time before and after drug treatment was compared and percent change in activity was calculated 10 . Anti-anxiety activity:
Theses compounds possess many characteristic therapeutic, such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, antiallergenic, antimicrobial effects , anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic [18,19,20]. Moreover, are associated with a reduced risk of chronic inflammation, cancer and cardiovascular diseases [21,22,23]. On the other hand, the using of synthetic antioxidant, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), are extensively applied for the exhibit oxidative degradation of lipids due to their high oxidative potential. However, safety concerns regarding the use of synthetic antioxidants have increased globally and are inappropriate for chronically ill patients, and the prolonged usage of synthetic antioxidants is harmful to humans, potentially provoking the onset of degenerative diseases [24,25,26].
3.10 Effects of extracts on -glucosidase activity in vitro The definitive role played by free radicals and the antioxidant defence system of the body in the pathology of diabetes has been extensively studied off late. The tissue damage resulting from the on slaught of oxidative stress plays a very critical role in the initiation as well as the progression of diabetes (Baynes, 1991). Drugs like a carbose that inhibit - glucosidase and amylase in the epithelium of the small intestine have been demonstrated to decrease post- prandial hyperglycemia (Sima and Chakrabarti, 2004) and recover compromised glucose metabolism without stimulating insulin secretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ( NIDMM ) patients (Carrascosa et al., 2001). These medications have proved as a bone which is ailing from type II diabetes. Thus, the hindrance offered to the carbohydrate absorption with a plant based - glu cosidase inhibitors opens n ew avenues and mech anistic opportunities for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. Natural products are still one of the best and readily available sources of molecules which inhibit -glucosidase enzyme. In recent studies on medicinal plants, polymeric polyph enols were found to contribute to high -glucosidase inhibition (Subramanian et al., 2008; Ma Cue et al., 2004; Onal et al., 2005). Therefore, we investigated the inhibition activity in different extracts of C. pareira. Our findings revealed that CPA extract of the herb efficiently inhibits a -glucosidase enzyme in vitro. It was observed that CPA achieved the -glucosidase inhibition, followed a concentration-dependent pattern. At a concentration of 200 g/ml, the percentage inhibition reached upto 91.35% and the IC 50 value was found to be 98.23±0.47 (Figure 7). Although the activity was lesser in comparison to the standard drug, Metformin (100% at 10µg/ml), which may be due to the crude nature of the extract and this effect can be further enhanced by the purification. It is worth to mention that the other extracts of C. pareira did not show -glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity in this study. The results of this study indicated the administration of CPA can probably manage the postprandial blood glucose levels and, thereby, confirmed the usage of this herb of its antidiabetic potential.
As the results of preliminary phytochemical screening shown the presence of phenols and flavonoids, total flavonoid and phenolic content estimation was also performed in ethanolic extract of S.grandiflora leaves .The total flavonoid content of EESG was determined by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method. The total flavonoid content in 10mg of EESG was found to be equivalent to 0.9560 mg of standard quercetin. The total phenolic content in EESG was determined by Folin Cio-calteau method and 10mg of EESG was found to be equivalent to 0.1365 mg of standard gallic acid. Phenolics are secondary plant metabolites which possess a wide range of therapeutic uses such as antioxidant, anti-mutagenic, anti- carcinogenic and free radical scavenging activities while flavonoids are a group of phenolic compounds which exhibit several biological effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti- hepatotoxic, antiulcer, anti-allergic, anti-viral, free radical scavenging and anticancer activities.
disturbances in redox homeostasis occurring when antioxidant defenses are inadequate can damage lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and DNA.Synthetic BHA (Butylated Hydroxy Toluene) and BHA (Butylated Hydroxyl Anisole)) are carcinogenic in nature. On the basis of above facts, natural antioxidants would be promising alternatives for synthetic antioxidants (Brown et al., 1998; Liu et al.,1997).The development of alternative natural antioxidants such as those found in plants origin is of worthy consideration for our health industry and hold promising commercial potential. Medicinal plants possess a variety of compounds of known therapeutic property (Chopra et al., 1992; Ahmad et al., 1995; Harborne et al., 1995). Antioxidants have been reported to prevent oxidative damage by free
The methanol extract was performed GC-MS analysis previously developed a method with minor modification,  using Agilent Technologies (GC) 5975C Agilent with mass selective detector (MS), HP-5MS (5% phenyl methyl siloxane) capillary column of dimension 30m x 250µm x 0.25 µm and used helium carrier gas 1 mL /min. and the column temperature was programmed initially at 500C for 10 min, followed by an increase of 30C/ min to 2400C and then it was kept isothermally for 5 min. The mass spectrometry was working with 70eV. The active components were identified with a comparison of their mass spectral data analysis by those from NIST 0.5 spectral library matches.
In conclusion, the phytochemical, antioxidant and antidiabetic screening of leaves of A. tetracantha provides substantial information for the proper identificationand scientific evaluation of the medicinal plant. The present study results showed the phytochemical and its antidiabetic activity of hexane, Aqueous and Ethanol extracts ofA. Tetracantha exhibited a significant antioxidant and antidiabetic activity which is suggesting the presence of bioactive metabolites and also exhibited the good antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials of the extracts. The observed tendency of the extract to inhibit α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase enzymes showed that A. tetracantha contain interesting bio-medicinal substances capable of attracting significant scientific attention against diabetes. This study also revealed that the extracts of A. tetracantha exhibited phytochemical, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of natural origin which may offer promising anti-diabetic agents. Investigation will be carried on the pharmacologic activity of the compounds from A. tetracantha responsible for these activities to be elucidated.
Ulcerogenesis in the case of pyloric ligature is due to the accumulated gastric juice in the stomach. The accumulated acid, in addition to its corrosive action on gastric glandular epithelium, provides the optimum pH (1.6-3.2) for the conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin. Both HCl and pepsin are important ingredients for the formation of pylorus-ligated ulcers (Shay et al., 1945). Agents that decrease gastric acid secretion and/or increase mucus secretion are efficient in protecting the ulcers induced by this method (Devaraj et al., 2007). In this study, the oral administration of the extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) produced significant dose-dependent reductions in ulcer indices (36.94, 54.95 and 77.47 % inhibition), accompanied by significant dose-dependent increases in gastric mucus production (92.38, 100.13 and 114.06 mg) compared with the controls (69.13 mg). These results underline the protective role of mucus in the gastric mucosal. Moreover, gastric acid secretion reduced dose-dependently in extract-treated rats (56.57, 53.96 and 49.42 mEq/l) compared with the controls (81.20 mEq/l). Omeprazol treatment also significantly decreased gastric acidity to 32.5 mEq/l. The reduced gastric acidity measured after pylorus ligation suggests that the cytoprotective mechanism of action of the extract on gastric mucosa may involve direct inhibition of gastric secretion or a simple neutralization of the acid secreted by parietal cells. Gastric pH values obtained in all the experiments in response to extract administration ranged between 3.81 and 4.09. However, pepsin inactivation occurs at about pH 6. Between pH 4 and 6, pepsin is still stable but inactive (Vatier and Vallot, 1998). These results suggest that the extract may deactivate gastric pepsin and interfere with protein digestion.
The present study results can be concluded that this plant showed the presence of significant amount of phenols, flavonoids and important trace elements were within the permissible limit, which directly influence the quality of secondary metabolites. The present study also confirmed the antioxidant properties of EEAAL through DPPH and FRAP assay, which suggests that the leaves of the plant might be a potential source of natural antioxidants to combat the diseases in which there is an increased free radical production. Further studies are needed in this direction to explore more pharmacological actions of this plant.
layer chromatography (TLC). Ferric chloride, ammonium molybdate, aluminum chloride, sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, and ascorbic acid were purchased from (Merck Chemical Co.), D-glucose and L-rhamnose (Merck, Germany). For column chromatography (CC), Silica gel (70-230 mesh) (Merck), Sephadex LH-20 (Sigma-Aldrich/ Germany) and polyamide 6S (Sigma) were used. Methanol, n-BuOH, methylene chloride, acetone, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and petroleum ether purchased from El-Nasr Pharmaceutical Chemicals Co. Adwic; Egypt. The absorbance measurements for antioxidant activity were registered using the UV-V is spectrophotometer Spectronic 601 (Milton Roy, USA).
The antioxydative activity of the aqueous extract was estimated in the presence of the free radical DPPH (1, 1- Diphenyl-2, Picryl-Hydrazyl) free radicals. The (DPPH) was prepared at the concentration of 10 mg/250 mL  . 10 mL of DPPH were mixed with 100 μl of methanol and also with methanolic solutions of the aqueous extract of C.odorata at the concentrations of 1.25; 2.5 and 5 mg/mL. The absorbance was given 30 min after in dark condition and at the ambient temperature at 517 nm  . Gallic acid at the concentrations of 0.3125; 0.625 and 1.25 mg/mL was used like a standard antioxidatve. Radical scavenging activity was calculated by the following equation:
Erythrina variegata leaf, flower and seed extracts were further analysed for the presence of antioxidants. Table 6 shows the qualitative antioxidant analysis in the leaf, flower and seed extracts of Erythrina variegata collected from Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu. The results revealed that the strong positive response was obtained in the aqueous leafextract followed by seed and flower extracts (Table.5). Scavenging activity for free radicals of DPPH has been widely used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of natural products from plant and natural sources. Among five different solvent extracts leaf, flower and seed extract of Erythrina variegata, the aqueous leafextract of Erythrina variegata recorded the most effective DPPH radical scavenging activity (91.3 %) followed by seed extract (79.5%) and flower (77.9%). (Figure 2,3,4). Erythrina variegata value being very close to synthetic antioxidant (BHT) as positive control (98.4 %). The leaf, flower and seed samples of Erythrina variegata, aqueous leaf, seed and flower extracts recorded higher percentage of free radical scavenging activity followed by ethanolic, acetone, chloroform and petroleum ether.
Cochlospermum religiosum (L.) Alston (synonym C. gossypium DC) is one of the medicinal tree species belonging to the botanical family Bixaceae (Figure 1). The plant is known by the names Golden silk cotton tree/butter cup tree in English, Gabdi in Hindi, Girisalmalika in Sanskrit, and Arasina buruga in Kannada. In India, C. religiosum is grown near temples because of the bright yellow flowers that are to be used for offerings to god and also for aesthetic purpose. C. religiosum is traditionally used in syphilis, gonorrhea, trachoma, cough, jaundice etc. The gum katira or gum kondagogu, obtained from the stem, is used for treating diarrhea, dysentery, pharyngitis, eye problems, asthma and stomachache. Besides, the plant finds a wide range of ethnoveterinary use 34-43 . When literature survey was carried
Oral administration of the ethanol extract of Pluchea indica L at 300 mg/kg suppressed the oedematous response 30 minutes after carrageenan injection and the effect continued up to 4 hours (Figure 1). The observed effect was similar to 10 mg/kg indomethacin, a well known NSAID, which is also a COX-1 inhibitor. In fact, the ethanol extract caused a statistically significant reduction at optimum oedema (90 minutes) at 300 mg/kg (Table 2,). The inhibitory effect was comparable in magnitude with the inhibition action of indomethacin. Based on the result obtained, it is likely that the mechanisms of action of the Pluchea indica L leaves at higher dose (300 mg/kg) are similar to that of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, namely inhibition of prostaglandins biosynthesis. However, this can only be clarified by doing further study on determining its prostaglandin or COX contents in rat paw in the end of the experiment.