(2 points). It includes evidence for both countries related to the thesis (2 points) and makes a relevant, direct comparison (1 point). The essay lacks comparative analysis, however. It is strong on evidence but does not take the extra step to link that evidence to an analysis of difference or similarity between the two revolutions.
(a) At 25 ° C and 1 atm, F 2 is a gas, whereas I 2 is a solid. Both F 2 and I 2 are nonpolar, so the only intermolecular attractive forces are London dispersion forces. I 2 is solid because the electrons in the I 2 molecule occupy a larger volume and are more polarizable compared to the electrons in the F 2 molecule. As a result, the dispersion forces are considerably stronger in I 2 compared to F 2 .
The potential in volts has been measured for many different reduction half- reactions. The potential value is measured against the standard hydrogen elec- trode, which is assigned a value of zero. For consistency, these half-reactions are always written in the direction of the reduction. A half-reaction that has a posi- tive reduction potential proceeds in the direction of the reduction when it is cou- pled with a hydrogen electrode. A reaction that has a negative reduction potential proceeds in the oxidation direction when it is coupled with a hydrogen electrode. Table 1 gives some common standard reduction potentials.
more skeletal material that can be confidently attributed to Ianthodon. We identify the synapsid material on the entire block as a single disarticulated partial skeleton of I. schultzei, accompanied by a partial Petrolacosaurus skeleton, in con- trast with the previous mistaken interpretation of certain el- ements as belonging to Haptodus garnettensis (Kissel and Reisz, 2004). This identification is based largely on a de- tailed reevaluation of the available anatomical information. However, our interpretation is also supported by the follow- ing evidence: (1) there is no duplication of any of the non- Petrolacosaurus elements; (2) there is no discrepancy in size or stage of ossification among the cranial or postcranial el- ements that are not attributed to Petrolacosaurus; (3) it is unlikely that two synapsid skeletons of the same size and ontogenetic stage would be present without any overlap be- tween the preserved elements. The assignment of the den- tary to Haptodus garnettensis is questionable on anatomical grounds. After additional preparation and study of all known specimens from the locality, the surface texture characteris- tics used to identify the elements on this block as Hapto- dus garnettensis, as suggested by Kissel and Reisz (2004, p. 412), are rejected. Here, we provide a comprehensive re- description of I. schultzei and discuss the phylogenetic im- plications of this new data for sphenacodont evolution.
its conjugate base (chloride) has no effect on pH because it does not hydrolyze in water. Any acid whose strength is between hydronium and water (e.g. ammonium) is a weak acid, and its conjugate is a weak base. Similarly, for bases, any base with K b greater than that of hydroxide, which is = 1, (e.g., oxide ion as K 2 O) is a strong base, and its conjugate acid (K + ) has no effect on
1. The role of dehydration synthesis in the formation of organic compounds and hydrolysis in the digestion of organic compounds 2. How to recognize the four biologically important organic compounds (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids) by their structural formulas.
1 point for naming a toxic metal, 1 point for describing how it is introduced into the environment, and 1 point for describing a sublethal effect on humans. If no toxic metal was identified, no points could be earned in this part. (Lead was the most common answer given; following is the rubric used for lead. Many other metals could be used to earn credit in this part.)
4. For each of the following three reactions, write a balanced equation for the reaction in part (i) and answer the question about the reaction in part (ii). In part (i), coefficients should be in terms of lowest whole numbers. Assume that solutions are aqueous unless otherwise indicated. Represent substances in solutions as ions if the substances are extensively ionized. Omit formulas for any ions or molecules that are unchanged by the reaction. You may use the empty space at the bottom of the next page for scratch work, but only equations that are written in the answer boxes provided will be scored.
The present study analyzes the evaluation system for the compulsory subject of English at undergrad level in Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. The study considered how different evaluators assign scores to the same writing tasks in certain answer scripts. Mainly, the study concentrated on the reliability of scoring with reference to the paper A of the annual examination conducted for the candidates of Arts subjects at graduation level. Paper „A‟ was chosen because it contained descriptive and subjective type questions and these types of questions are prone to subjective marking. This study has been conducted with the help of randomly selected university approved examiners and answer scripts. A total of 50 scripts were marked by five examiners one after the other. This data was analyzed using the SPSS software in order to apply the ANOVA technique analysis. The analyses were made question wise as well as on the total marks awarded by the five examiners to the fifty scripts. The ANOVA technique was applied on the data in order to compare the performance of all the five examiners. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the marking of all the five examiners on the total marks awarded. However, small differences were recorded in the marking of the individual questions.