You have 45 minutes to complete Section II. You are responsible for pacing yourself, and may proceed freely from one question to the next. You must write your answers in the **exam** booklet using a pen with black or dark blue ink or a No. 2 pencil. If you use a pencil, be sure that your writing is dark enough to be easily read. If you need more paper during the **exam**, raise your hand. At the top of each extra piece of paper you use, be sure to write only your **AP** number and the number of the question you are working on. Do not write your name. Are there any questions? . . .

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3. Implicit statements of concepts normally receive credit. For example, if use of the equation expressing a particular concept is worth one point, and a student’s solution contains the application of that equation to the problem but the student does not write the basic equation, the point is still awarded. However, when students are asked to derive an expression it is normally expected that they will begin by writing one or more fundamental equations, such as those given on the **exam** equation sheet. For a description of the use of such terms as “derive” and “calculate” on the exams, and what is expected for each, see “The Free-Response Sections Student Presentation” in the **AP** Physics; Physics C: Mechanics, Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism Course Description or “Terms Defined” in the **AP** Physics 1: Algebra-Based and **AP** Physics 2: Algebra-Based Course and **Exam** Description.

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If you will also be taking the Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism **exam**, please listen carefully to these instructions before we take a 10-minute break. Please put all of your calculators under your chair. Your calculators and everything you placed under your chair at the beginning of the **exam** must stay there. You are not allowed to consult teachers, other students, or textbooks about the **exam** during the break. You may not make phone calls, send text messages, check email, use a social networking site, or access any electronic or communication device. If you do not follow these rules, your score could be canceled. Are there any questions? . . .

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Before Distributing Exams: Check that the title on all **exam** covers is Physics C: Mechanics. If there are any **exam** booklets with a different title, contact the **AP** coordinator immediately. Students are permitted to use rulers, straightedges, and four-function, scientific, or graphing calculators for this entire **exam** (Sections I and II). Before starting the **exam** administration, make sure each student has an appropriate calculator, and any student with a graphing calculator has a model from the approved list on page 49 of the 2016-17 **AP** Coordinator’s Manual. See pages 46–49 of the **AP** Coordinator’s Manual for more information. If a student does not have an appropriate calculator or has a graphing calculator not on the approved list, you may provide one from your supply. If the student does not want to use the calculator you provide or does not want to use a calculator at all, he or she must hand copy, date, and sign the release statement on page 47 of the **AP** Coordinator’s Manual.

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Indicate all of your answers to the multiple-choice questions on the answer sheet. No credit will be given for anything written in this **exam** booklet , but you may use the booklet for notes or scratch work. After you have decided which of the suggested answers is best, completely fill in the corresponding circle on the answer sheet. Give only one answer to each question. If you change an answer, be sure that the previous mark is erased completely. Here is a sample question and answer.

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Section II of this **exam** requires answers in essay form. Each essay will be judged on its clarity and effectiveness in dealing with the assigned topic and on the quality of the writing. In responding to Question 3, select only a work of literary merit that will be appropriate to the question. A general rule is to use works of the same quality as those you have been reading during your **AP** year(s). After completing each question, you should check your essay for accuracy of punctuation, spelling, and diction; you are advised, however, not to attempt many longer corrections. Quality is far more important than quantity.

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Students are permitted to use rulers, straightedges, and four-function, scientific, or graphing calculators for this entire **exam** (Sections I and II). Before starting the **exam** administration, make sure each student has an appropriate calculator, and any student with a graphing calculator has a model from the approved list on page 47 of the 2015-16 **AP** Coordinator’s Manual. See pages 44–47 of the **AP** Coordinator’s Manual for more information. If a student does not have an appropriate calculator or has a graphing calculator not on the approved list, you may provide one from your supply. If the student does not want to use the calculator you provide or does not want to use a calculator at all, he or she must hand copy, date, and sign the release statement on page 45 of the **AP** Coordinator’s Manual.

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You will now take the multiple-choice portion of the **exam**. You should have in front of you the multiple-choice booklet and your answer sheet. You may never discuss the multiple-choice **exam** content at any time in any form with anyone, including your teacher and other students. If you disclose the multiple-choice **exam** content through any means, your **AP** **Exam** score will be canceled. Open your answer sheet to page 2. You must complete the answer sheet using a No. 2 pencil only. Mark all of your responses beginning on page 2 of your answer sheet, one response per question. Completely fill in the circles. If you need to erase, do so carefully and completely. No credit will be given for anything written in the **exam** booklet. Scratch paper is not allowed, but you may use the margins or any blank space in the **exam** booklet for scratch work. Rulers, straightedges, and calculators may be used for the entire **exam**. You may place these items on your desk. Are there any questions? . . .

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5. Implicit statements of concepts normally receive credit. For example, if use of the equation expressing a particular concept is worth 1 point, and a student’s solution contains the application of that equation to the problem but the student does not write the basic equation, the point is still awarded. However, when students are asked to derive an expression, it is normally expected that they will begin by writing one or more fundamental equations, such as those given on the **AP** Physics **Exam** equation sheet. For a

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Placement Calculus course are that I can demonstrate that Calculus can be fun, that my students will enjoy learning mathematics, and they can be successful in the course. If these objectives are met, students might consider pursuing a STEM major as an interesting and realistic option. An instructional goal I have for my students is that they develop a deep conceptual understanding of the concepts of Calculus and other areas of mathematics. To achieve this goal, I have found that another Jaime Escalante quote applies: “The key to my success with youngsters is a very simple and time-honored tradition: hard work for teacher and student alike.” The most accurate measures that I have to evaluate students’ understanding are their Chapter **exam** scores and their scores on the Advanced Placement **exam** for Calculus AB. Starting in 2007, the pathway to success on the **AP** Calculus AB **exam** during the beginning years of teaching this class assumed that success in chapter exams correlated directly with success in **AP** exams; this can be envisioned as follows:

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The amount of heat generated from the combustion of the butane is greater than the amount of heat required to cause the temperature change of the sand, indicating that some of the hea[r]

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The curve for the catalyzed reaction has the reactants and products at the same energy levels as the original curve, and a lower activation energy than the original curve?. A student in[r]

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5 Up to then, my mother had refused to send Premila to school in the British-run establishments of that time, because, she used to say, “you can bury a dog’s tail for seven years and it [r]

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(b) Glycerol (molar mass 92.09 g/mol) has been suggested for use as an alternative fuel. 1 point is earned for the correct mass of glycerol. Assume that all the heat released by the co[r]

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people learn indicates that providing multiple contexts to which major ideas apply facilitates transfer; this allows students to bundle knowledge in memory together with the multiple contexts to which it applies. Students should also be able to recognize seemingly appropriate contexts to which major concepts and ideas do not apply. After learning various conservation laws in the context of mechanics, students should be able to describe what the concept of conservation means in physics and extend the idea to other contexts. For example, what might conservation of energy mean at high-energy scales with particle collisions, where Einstein’s mass–energy equivalence plays a major role? What does conservation of energy mean when constructing or evaluating arguments about global warming? Another context in which students may apply ideas from physics across vast spatial and time scales is the origin of human life on Earth coupled with the notion of extraterrestrial intelligent life. If one views the age of the Earth in analogy to a year of time (see Ritger & Cummins, 1991) with the Earth formed on January 1, then life began on Earth around April 5; multicellular organisms appeared on November 6; mammals appeared on December 23. Perhaps most amazingly, humans appeared on December 31 just 28 minutes before midnight. What are the implications of this for seeking intelligent life outside our solar system? What is a reasonable estimate of the probability of finding intelligent life on an earthlike planet that scientists might discover through astronomical observations, and how does one go about making those estimates? Although students are not expected to answer these very complex questions after a single **AP** science course, they should be able to talk intelligently about them using the concepts they learned.

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(iii) Calculate the mean and standard deviation of this data set correct to 1 decimal place.. Question 26.[r]

Position of states and territories; each state will give “full faith and credit” to acts and court actions of the states; privileges and immunities of citizens in the states; fugitive[r]

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For each time interval that a current is present in the coil draw a labeled diagram showing its direction and also.. the direction of the induced magnetic field.[r]

posttest method, students were assessed before and after the semester in which students learned Mechanics or Electricity and Magnetism. In Mechanics, students completed the 2015 **AP** Physics C: Mechanics **practice** **exam**, FCI, and MBT assessments; in Electricity and Magnetism, students completed the 2015 **AP** Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism **practice** **exam**, BEMA, and EMCA assessments. During each semester, I implemented Modeling Instruction with **AP** Physics C: Mechanics or Electricity and Magnetism content (see Appendices A, B, and C for further information). Each unit of content began with a paradigm laboratory, providing an experience for students to create an initial model. Students moved through the Modeling Cycle by performing **practice** problems and completing more laboratory activities, adding new information to their initial model. Near the end of each unit, students used a whiteboard to summarize their learning into a fully-constructed model; students shared their whiteboards to compare fully-constructed models. Students finished each unit with a written summative assessment containing multiple-choice and short answer problems; some units also had students perform a summative laboratory practicum. The cycle was repeated with a new unit of content, leading to the development of models in Mechanics and Electricity and Magnetism.

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The fact that many in the progressive movement were from the middle class greatly influenced the goals of progressivism. Progressives wanted to improve the life experienced by members o[r]