Top PDF Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared emission spectrometry

A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a solid material (16, 42) by applying energy from an energy source (20, 70) top a surface region of the solid material sufficient to cause transient heating in a thin surface layer portion of the solid material (16, 42) so as to enable transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion, and by detecting with a spectrometer/detector (28, 58) substantially only the transient thermal emission of infrared radiation from the thin surface layer portion of the solid material. The detected transient thermal emission of infrared radiation is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the solid material of emitted infrared radiation, so as to be indicative of characteristics relating to molecular
Show more

19 Read more

Apparatus and method for on line barkhausen measurement

Apparatus and method for on line barkhausen measurement

Apparatus and method for measuring the Barkhausen signal of a moving magnetic film, ribbon or fiber wherein first and second stationary electromagnet coils are arranged and separated by a distance, d, along the path of movement of the film, ribbon or fiber. The first and second coils are energized in a manner to generate first and second opposing DC magnetic fields through which the moving film, ribbon or fiber passes along its path of movement. As the film, ribbon or fiber moves through the first and second opposing magnetic fields at a velocity, v, it experiences one complete cycle of magnetization in a period of time equal to d/v. A stationary third signal pick-up coil is disposed between the first and second coils to detect the Barkhausen signal from the moving film, ribbon or fiber. The pick-up coil typically is disposed midway between the first and second coils where the Barkhausen signal will be approximately maximum.
Show more

6 Read more

Apparatus and method for driving an ultrasonic transducer

Apparatus and method for driving an ultrasonic transducer

A method and apparatus for electronically driving an ultrasonic acoustic transducer. The transducer is operable in two modes; in a first mode, the lock-in frequency of the transducer is determined; in a second mode, the lock-in frequency determined in the first mode is used to modulate a tone-burst pulse to drive the transducer in an efficient manner. Operating in the first mode, the lock-in frequency is determined by exciting the transducer with a series of tone bursts, where each tone burst comprises an electronic pulse modulated by a tone of one frequency selected from a range of frequencies, and measuring the response of the transducer to each tone burst. In an alternative embodiment, the excitation of the transducer in the first mode is provided by a signal whose frequency is swept over a range. The response of the transducer is sampled at various times during the sweep. The lock-in frequency is chosen by examining the responses and choosing the frequency which gives the best response. Operating in the second mode, the transducer is driven with an electronic tone burst generated by modulating said an electronic pulse with a tone of the determined lock-in frequency.
Show more

17 Read more

Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry

Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry

A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a material (16, 42) by applying a cooling medium (20, 54) to cool a thin surface layer portion of the material and to transiently generate a temperature differential between the thin surface layer portion and the lower portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material. The altered thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material is detected by a spectrometer/detector (28, 50) while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of the emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation, so that the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of the characteristics relating to the molecular composition of the material.
Show more

18 Read more

Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials

Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry of flowable enclosed materials

A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a flowable material enclosed in a transport system having an infrared transparent wall portion. A temperature differential is transiently generated between a thin surface layer portion of the material and a lower or deeper portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material, and the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is detected through the infrared transparent portion of the transport system while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self- absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower or deeper portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. By such detection, the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the material.
Show more

12 Read more

Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity

Method and apparatus for measuring electrical conductivity

A method of measuring electrical conductivity in a material, said method including the steps of: mounting a pair of electrically conducting elements to be in 15 contact with said materia[r]

42 Read more

Experimental Study on Thermal Conductivity of Teak Wood Dust Reinforced Epoxy Composite Using Lee’s Apparatus Method

Experimental Study on Thermal Conductivity of Teak Wood Dust Reinforced Epoxy Composite Using Lee’s Apparatus Method

Now a days the synthetic fibre composites are replaced by environment friendly materials such as natural fibre like wood,banana, cotton, coir, sisal, jute etc. because natural fibre composites posses better electrical resistance, good thermal and acoustic insulating properties and higher resistance to fracture. In addition, natural fibres have many advantages over synthetic fibres, for example low weight, low density, low cost, acceptable specific properties, renewable and have relatively high strength and stiffness and cause no skin irritations. A better understanding of their physical properties, mechanical and thermal behaviors will enable engineers to produce optimum design for a structure. The thermal conductivity of a composite depends upon the thermal conductive nature of the fibre, matrix properties as well as their volume fractions, sizes, shapes, thickness, orientations and perfect bonding between the constituents. In
Show more

6 Read more

Method and apparatus for bone sensing

Method and apparatus for bone sensing

The invention discloses an improved bone conduction sensor capable of use within a voice sound transmitting apparatus. The bone conduction sensor is adapted for placement in the external auditory canal of the user in a nonocclusive fashion. The bone conduction sensor has a contoured surface adapted-to fit against a wall of the external auditory canal increasing the surface area contact between the bone conduction sensor and the wall of the external auditory canal. The bone conduction sensor may also be associated with one or more contact sensors adjacent the bone conduction sensor for determining contact between the bone conduction sensor and the wall of the external auditory canal. In addition, the invention provides for the bone sensing element to be separated from the circuit portion of the bone conduction sensor so that the circuitry may be removed to the behind the ear portion of the earpiece.
Show more

14 Read more

Micro Calcifications Detection for Breast Cancer Diagnosis using Infrared Thermal Imaging Apparatus

Micro Calcifications Detection for Breast Cancer Diagnosis using Infrared Thermal Imaging Apparatus

In this paper a noble model of thermograms imaging apparatus,which may have an impact towards the pattern study of a woman breast is introduced. Infrared (IR) thermography determines the surface temperature of an object or human body using thermal IR measurement camera. It is a method which is contactless and completely non-invasive. These properties make IR thermography a useful method of analysis that is used in various areas to detect, monitor and predict irregularities in many fields from engineering to medical and biological observations. System integrating passive thermal imaging with geometrical data from active scanner or an IR camera. We outline the potential benefits of this system in medical applications. In particular, we emphasize the benefits of using this system for preventive detection of breast cancer. The model deals with the potentials which are left ahead in regular diagnosis of women to determine Microcalcifications for diagnosis of abnormal growth in the breast tissues and cancer.
Show more

5 Read more

Soil Near Infrared Composition Detection Apparatus Design

Soil Near Infrared Composition Detection Apparatus Design

Bowers and Hanks Al-Abbas[7] of the United States found that in near infrared region the characteristics grain trace of soil organic matter had relationship with organic compound several functional group. B. Wangner[8] made use of NIRS (wave number 3850~10000cm -1 ) to predict the soil organic matter content, The correlation of NIRS prediction and chemical measurements were very good (R 2 =0.91). M. Chodak[9] made use of NIRS to predict nitrogen content of woodland organic layer and the results showed that NIRS could well predict the nitrogen of soil organic layer contained with the chemical measured value and the value predicted by NIRS regression coefficient between 0.9 and 1.0, the correlation coefficient R 2 ≥0.9. Reeves and Mccarty[10] used NIRS method to forecast the soil total nitrogen content, scaling and the predicted results indicated that if the soil types changed a lot, the was a bit poor, if soil types changed less, forecast effect was more accurate. Cheng-Wen Chang[11] predicted soil total nitrogen content by NIRS, the correlation coefficient R 2 ≥0.85. They predicted soil total nitrogen according to an independent spectral response to the NIRS, not according to the prediction relationship previous between the total organic carbon and total nitrogen. K. W. Daniel[12] collected 41 soil samples in Thailand tropical to predict organic matter content with the regression modeling, analysis showed that organic matter had strong absorbance in the 520 nm, 960 nm and 1100 nm. From these scholars' research, the detection of soil total nitrogen and organic matter content based on near infrared technology has proven to be possibility and feasibility[13-15]. Recently, more and more scientific research workers paid attention to develop spectral instrument, and had successfully studied and developed many types near infrared spectrum instrument applied in different areas, we had made great progress in instrument and application software development.
Show more

8 Read more

The development of thermal conductivity measurement
apparatus

The development of thermal conductivity measurement apparatus

Thermal conductivity is the fundamental material property that is essential for characterizing the heat transfer. The measurement of thermal conductivity includes the measurement of the heat flux and temperature difference. The difficulty of measurement is always associated with heat flux measurement. None of the thermal conductivity measurement instrument has provided in UTHM and this consequently a number of projects that involves measurement of thermal conductivity cannot be carried out. This study aims to design, fabricate and develop a reliable instrument to measure the thermal conductivity. The design of the instrument was the simplified of the Guarded Hot Plate Method but a plate has been changed with block to see the effects of thermal conductivity value. The Guarded Hot Plate Apparatus is the most accurate method used to measure thermal conductivity of engineering applications. In other words, that apparatus is suitable for engineering applications. The level of reliability that based on the accuracy and consistent will be proven by comparing the experimental value with the theoretical value. The decision was made up upon determining the thermal conductivity for aluminium to test the level of reliability of the thermal conductivity measurement instrument. The result of the experiment depicted that still a small difference between the theoretical value and experimental value, but the best part of the instrument is it able to present almost constant temperature value and thermal conductivity value against time. This depicted the exact level of this instrument compared to the existing instrument.
Show more

6 Read more

METHOD DETERMINATION OF METALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN WATER AND WASTES BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROMETRY

METHOD DETERMINATION OF METALS AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN WATER AND WASTES BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROMETRY

4.1.3 When interelement corrections are applied, there is a need to verify their accuracy by analyzing spectral interference check solutions as described in Section 7.13. Interelement corrections will vary for the same emission line among instruments because of differences in resolution, as determined by the grating plus the entrance and exit slit widths, and by the order of dispersion. Interelement corrections will also vary depending upon the choice of background correction points. Selecting a background correction point where an interfering emission line may appear should be avoided when practical. Interelement corrections that constitute a major portion of an emission signal may not yield accurate data. Users should not forget that some samples may contain uncommon elements that could contribute spectral interferences. 7,8
Show more

58 Read more

Thermal Infrared vs. Active Infrared: A New Technology Begins to be Commercialized

Thermal Infrared vs. Active Infrared: A New Technology Begins to be Commercialized

What do most thermographers think the technology is when someone says “Active Thermography”? Obviously, most of us think that we are doing something to create a viable thermal infrared image. However, it seems that we need to retool our words and recalibrate our minds. This presentation will discuss the difference between Thermal-IR and Active -IR and, by example, demonstrate the differences not only in the wording but also in actual use.

9 Read more

Thermal Characterization of a Bed of Ceramic Particles in a Transient Thermal Environment.

Thermal Characterization of a Bed of Ceramic Particles in a Transient Thermal Environment.

The primary focus of the research is to evaluate the use of static beds of ceramic particles as a thermal energy storage device for power generation applications. Two lab-scale heat exchanger setups were designed based on full-scale CSP plant requirements for running the experimental investigations on the proposed systems. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to complement the experimental data as well as to design and modify proposed systems. Furthermore, a simple lumped analysis was conducted to validate the simulation models as well as to theoretically predict the performance of these particulate systems.
Show more

53 Read more

Calibration of uncooled thermal infrared cameras

Calibration of uncooled thermal infrared cameras

After the operating point has been fixed, in the first de- fective pixel detection procedure, all pixels which lie out- side of the dynamic range are defined as defective. Figure 10 shows the effect of a two-point correction of the pixel graph, in which the variation of the values of the individual pix- els occurring in the raw image (Fig. 10a) is eliminated. The recognizable characteristic stripe structure is formed by the column-wise arrangement of “blind” bolometers. The optical image resulting from the natural vignetting of the optical sig- nal and delivered to the image edge is also always present in raw image where in Fig. 10a it is hardly recognizable by the content of the thermal image.
Show more

11 Read more

Transient thermal effects in Alpine permafrost

Transient thermal effects in Alpine permafrost

The commercial finite-element (FE) modeling package COMSOL Multiphysics was used for forward modeling of subsurface rock temperatures (Noetzli et al., 2007a). The heat conduction module included in this software has been successfully used for the simulation of borehole temperature profiles in the Schilthorn ridge, Switzerland (Noetzli et al., 2008) and the Zugspitze, Germany (Noetzli, 2008). The FE mesh for the topographies was created with increasing verti- cal refinement from 250 m at depth to 10 m for elements clos- est to the surface. In order to avoid effects from the model boundaries, a rectangle box of 2000 m height and thermal in- sulation at its sides was added below the geometry. The FE mesh consisted of ca. 1500 elements for a ridge, and of about 25 000 elements for a pyramid. The lower boundary condi- tion was set to a uniform heat flux of 80 mW m −2 (Medici and Rybach, 1995), and for the upper boundary conditions the modeled MGSTs were given. The model was run with time-steps of 1 year for simulations over a period of more than 1000 years, and with time steps of 10 days for shorter periods. Sensitivity runs with higher refinement of the FE mesh, a lower boundary condition set at greater depth, and smaller time steps did not considerably change any of the re- sults (i.e., the maximum absolute difference in modeled tem- peratures was below 0.1 ◦ C).
Show more

15 Read more

Probe and Emission Spectrometry Diagnostics in Hollow Cathode Magnetron

Probe and Emission Spectrometry Diagnostics in Hollow Cathode Magnetron

Figure 10 shows the normalized intensities of Ar and Cu spectral lines as function of a magnetron power (in- tensity at W = 0.9 kW is accepted for 1) in logarithmic coordinates (numbers within parenthesis show the degree of dependence). These data do not depend on the spectral sensitivity of PMT. It is seen that intensities of radiation of argon and copper atoms increase nearly linear with power. The intensities of argon and copper ions are pro- portional to about square of the magnetron power. As already noted, the EEDF depends weakly on a power. Therefore dependence of intensity emission is deter- mined mainly by the electron density.
Show more

9 Read more

A Herschel/PACS Far-infrared Line Emission Survey of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

A Herschel/PACS Far-infrared Line Emission Survey of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

when the AGN overwhelmingly dominates the MIR emission ( Díaz-Santos et al. 2014 ) . However, we do not fi nd galaxies with large fractional MIR or bolometric AGN contributions to be distributed with a signi fi cantly larger scatter than star-formation- dominated sources, based on the Spitzer / IRS spectral diagnostics described in Section 4.1. An additional source of scatter could arise from the fact that the most embedded regions in ULIRGs may be optically thick in both gas and dust ( Sakamoto et al. 2008; Fischer et al. 2014; González-Alfonso et al. 2015 ) . In some of these sources, the integrated line de fi cits could instead re fl ect the conditions of the surrounding, less obscured medium, thus disguising them as normal galaxies with large line-to-FIR ratios.
Show more

22 Read more

Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission in Neonates with and without Vernix

Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission in Neonates with and without Vernix

get admissions in reputed varsity. Now, here we enlist the proven steps to publish the research paper in a journal. UNCRPD (2006), article on health (25b, p. 14), emphasized the need for “early identification and intervention as appropriate, and services designed to minimize and prevent further disabilities”. In an attempt to optimize infant hearing screening, JCIH (2007) recommends that all well baby nursery should “provide 1 hearing screening and, when necessary, a repeat screening no later than at the time of discharge from the hospital, using the same technology both times.” Newborns are often discharged at the age of about 48 hours. At this age, TEOAEs are not necessarily recordable in all healthy neonates due to transient conditions causing temporary conductive hearing loss.
Show more

7 Read more

Infrared limb emission measurements of aerosol in the troposphere and stratosphere

Infrared limb emission measurements of aerosol in the troposphere and stratosphere

Abstract. Altitude-resolved aerosol detection in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is a challenging task for remote sensing instruments. Infrared limb emission measurements provide vertically resolved global measure- ments at day- and nighttime in the UTLS. For high-spectral- resolution infrared limb instruments we present here a new method to detect aerosol and separate between ice and non- ice particles. The method is based on an improved aerosol– cloud index that identifies infrared limb emission spectra af- fected by non-ice aerosol or ice clouds. For the discrimina- tion between non-ice aerosol and ice clouds we employed brightness temperature difference correlations. The discrim- ination thresholds for this method were derived from radia- tive transfer simulations (including scattering) and Michel- son Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MI- PAS)/Envisat measurements obtained in 2011. We demon- strate the value of this approach for observations of vol- canic ash and sulfate aerosol originating from the Grímsvötn (Iceland, 64 ◦ N), Puyehue–Cordón Caulle (Chile, 40 ◦ S), and Nabro (Eritrea, 13 ◦ N) eruptions in May and June 2011 by comparing the MIPAS volcanic aerosol detections with At- mospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) volcanic ash and SO 2
Show more

25 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...