Apparatus and method for transientthermalinfraredspectrometry
A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a material (16, 42) by applying a cooling medium (20, 54) to cool a thin surface layer portion of the material and to transiently generate a temperature differential between the thin surface layer portion and the lower portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermalinfraredemission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermalinfraredemission spectrum of the material.
Apparatus and method for transientthermalinfraredspectrometry of flowable enclosed materials
A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a flowable material enclosed in a transport system having an infrared transparent wall portion. A temperature differential is transiently generated between a thin surface layer portion of the material and a lower or deeper portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermalinfraredemission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermalinfraredemission spectrum of the material, and the altered thermalinfraredemission spectrum is detected through the infrared transparent portion of the transport system while the altered thermalinfraredemission spectrum is sufficiently free of self- absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower or deeper portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermalinfraredemission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation. By such detection, the detected altered thermalinfraredemission spectrum is indicative of characteristics relating to molecular composition of the material.
Method and apparatus for bone sensing
The invention discloses an improved bone conduction sensor capable of use within a voice sound transmitting apparatus. The bone conduction sensor is adapted for placement in the external auditory canal of the user in a nonocclusive fashion. The bone conduction sensor has a contoured surface adapted-to fit against a wall of the external auditory canal increasing the surface area contact between the bone conduction sensor and the wall of the external auditory canal. The bone conduction sensor may also be associated with one or more contact sensors adjacent the bone conduction sensor for determining contact between the bone conduction sensor and the wall of the external auditory canal. In addition, the invention provides for the bone sensing element to be separated from the circuit portion of the bone conduction sensor so that the circuitry may be removed to the behind the ear portion of the earpiece.
Apparatus and method for on-line barkhausen measurement
Apparatus and method for measuring the Barkhausen signal of a moving magnetic film, ribbon or fiber wherein first and second stationary electromagnet coils are arranged and separated by a distance, d, along the path of movement of the film, ribbon or fiber. The first and second coils are energized in a manner to generate first and second opposing DC magnetic fields through which the moving film, ribbon or fiber passes along its path of movement. As the film, ribbon or fiber moves through the first and second opposing magnetic fields at a velocity, v, it experiences one complete cycle of magnetization in a period of time equal to d/v. A stationary third signal pick-up coil is disposed between the first and second coils to detect the Barkhausen signal from the moving film, ribbon or fiber. The pick-up coil typically is disposed midway between the first and second coils where the Barkhausen signal will be approximately maximum.
Apparatus and method for driving an ultrasonic transducer
A method and apparatus for electronically driving an ultrasonic acoustic transducer. The transducer is operable in two modes; in a first mode, the lock-in frequency of the transducer is determined; in a second mode, the lock-in frequency determined in the first mode is used to modulate a tone-burst pulse to drive the transducer in an efficient manner. Operating in the first mode, the lock-in frequency is determined by exciting the transducer with a series of tone bursts, where each tone burst comprises an electronic pulse modulated by a tone of one frequency selected from a range of frequencies, and measuring the response of the transducer to each tone burst. In an alternative embodiment, the excitation of the transducer in the first mode is provided by a signal whose frequency is swept over a range. The response of the transducer is sampled at various times during the sweep. The lock-in frequency is chosen by examining the responses and choosing the frequency which gives the best response. Operating in the second mode, the transducer is driven with an electronic tone burst generated by modulating said an electronic pulse with a tone of the determined lock-in frequency.
Hence, there is a need for a system and/or method and/or apparatus for accurately measuring electrical conductivity that addresses or at least ameliorates the aforementioned problems. In particular, such a system, method and/or apparatus is required for measuring electrical conductivity in materials having a low electrical conductivity.
In this specification, the terms "comprises", "comprising" or similar terms are intended to mean a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a method, system or apparatus that comprises a list of elements does not include those elements solely, but may well include other elements not listed.
(Received: September 10, 2014; accepted: December 15, 2014) ABSTRACT
In this paper a noble model of thermograms imaging apparatus,which may have an impact towards the pattern study of a woman breast is introduced. Infrared (IR) thermography determines the surface temperature of an object or human body using thermal IR measurement camera. It is a method which is contactless and completely non-invasive. These properties make IR thermography a useful method of analysis that is used in various areas to detect, monitor and predict irregularities in many fields from engineering to medical and biological observations. System integrating passive thermal imaging with geometrical data from active scanner or an IR camera.
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Thermal conductivity is the fundamental material property that is essential for characterizing the heat transfer. The measurement of thermal conductivity includes the measurement of the heat flux and temperature difference. The difficulty of measurement is always associated with heat flux measurement. None of the thermal conductivity measurement instrument has provided in UTHM and this consequently a number of projects that involves measurement of thermal conductivity cannot be carried out. This study aims to design, fabricate and develop a reliable instrument to measure the thermal conductivity. The design of the instrument was the simplified of the Guarded Hot Plate Method but a plate has been changed with block to see the effects of thermal conductivity value. The Guarded Hot Plate Apparatus is the most accurate method used to measure thermal conductivity of engineering applications. In other words, that apparatus is suitable for engineering applications. The level of reliability that based on the accuracy and consistent will be proven by comparing the experimental value with the theoretical value. The decision was made up upon determining the thermal conductivity for aluminium to test the level of reliability of the thermal conductivity measurement instrument. The result of the experiment depicted that still a small difference between the theoretical value and experimental value, but the best part of the instrument is it able to present almost constant temperature value and thermal conductivity value against time. This depicted the exact level of this instrument compared to the existing instrument.
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Received: 26 February 2013 / Accepted: 19 March 2013 / Published: 1 April 2013
In this paper, we focus on the needs for realizing fast and nondestructive measurement of total nitrogen and organic matter content in the soil, designed a near infrared soil component content detection apparatus. The reflected light intensity, which carried the sample internal characteristic information, was measured the total nitrogen and organic matter content indirectly. The structure of the paper is as follows: First of all, designed the system hardware part with the Czerny-Terner grating splitting optical path. The apparatus hardware consisted of mainly light path and electrocircuit. The light path included light source, spectral element and photoelectric conversion element. The electrocircuit part included amplifies, filters and A/D converts. The diffuse light was converted to electrical signal by the photoelectric conversion element, and then the digital signal was displayed, stored. Secondly, using the partial least square method to establish soil component content near infrared application model.
abound each with its adherents and its inherent drawbacks. There are a number of presently existing methods to measure thermal conductivity of liquids.
Each of these is suitable for a limited range of materials, depending on the thermal properties and the medium temperature. In steady-state techniques, the radial heat flow method has proven to be very successful in measurements of thermal conductivity. In radial system, heat flows radially away from a heater towards a heat sink, and thermal conductivity can be calculated from the temperature gradient inside the apparatus. In all cases the apparatus consists of an electrically heated wire or cylinder placed at the central axis inside a hollow cylinder. The cylinder is filled with test sample and is typically liquid cooled.
3.4 Memory interferences result when analytes in a previous sample contribute to the signals measured in a new sample. Memory effects can result from sample deposition on the uptake tubing to the nebulizer and from the build up of sample material in the plasma torch and spray chamber. The site where these effects occur is dependent on the element and can be minimized by flushing the system with a rinse blank between samples. The possibility of memory interferences should be recognized within an analytical run and suitable rinse times should be used to reduce them. The rinse times necessary for a particular element must be estimated prior to analysis. This may be achieved by aspirating a standard containing elements at a concentration ten times the usual amount or at the top of the linear dynamic range. The aspiration time for this sample should be the same as a normal sample analysis period, followed by analysis of the rinse blank at designated intervals. The length of time required to reduce analyte signals to within a factor of two of the method detection limit should be noted. Until the required rinse time is established, this method suggests a rinse period of at least 60 seconds between samples and standards. If a memory interference is suspected, the sample must be reanalyzed after a rinse period of sufficient length.
The measurement of automotive transient emissions as per ISO 7637-2 requires an electronic switch, a mechancical switch and an artificial network. The electronic switch is a repeatable, calibrated 300 ns semiconductor switch, which is used in most applications, both fast and slow. While, the BS 200N100.1 can be used up to 1300 V, the standard recommends a mechanical switch for transient emissions over 400 V.