Energyrecoveryapparatus for recovering and using thermalenergy comprises multiple series of shape memory elements having decreasing transformation temperatures from one element to the next in the direction of a heating fluid to extract heat over a range of fluid temperatures to effect a shape change of each element. Cooling fluid is flowed alternately through each series of elements to cool the elements and effect another shape change. The cooling fluid exiting a preceding series of elements is used as the heating fluid of the next series of elements to extract further heat indirectly from the original heating fluid. The shape changes of the elements are converted to mechanical work.
The authors are grateful to Mr. Paul Cairns of South West College and the Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Technology (CREST) for use of the mill and bomb calorimeter, Dr. Mark Russell of the School of Natural and Built Environment at Queen’s University Belfast for use of the TGA and FT-IR apparatus, Analytical Services and Environmental Projects Division (ASEP) for access to CHNS and SEM-EDX, Mr. Diarmuid Kelly of the IDEA centre in the South West College Omagh campus for use of the water jet cutter, The Sustainable Energy Research Centre (a pioneering research programme) at Queen’s University Belfast and the Department of Thermal Power Engineering at Southeast University Nanjing for access to the fixed bed reactor and all of the extended academic support network involved with the research. This work is funded by the Renewable Engine project (Project ID IVA5033) which was awarded by the European Union’s INTERREG VA Programme, managed by the Special EU Programmes Body (SEUPB), with match funding provided by the Department for the Economy and Department of Business, Enterprise and Innovation in the Republic of Ireland. The authors would like to thank Ms. Katie O’Donovan and Mrs. Barbara Farrell who assisted in the proof-reading of the manuscript.
The Indian Energy Conservation Act (2001) , defines energy auditing as "The verification, monitoring and analysis of the use of energy and submission of technical report containing recommendations for improving energy efficiency with cost-benefit analysis and an action plan to reduce energy consumption." (Kumbhar and Joshi, 2012) have mentioned the basic components of energy auditing as the auditor’s tool box, preparation for audit visit, conducting the audit, introductory meeting, audit interview, walkthrough audit, post audit analysis, energy audit report, energy action plan. (Rathod et al, 2013) say that in any industry, the three top operating expenses are often found to be energy (both electrical and thermal), labor and materials. Energy auditing will not only save money but it also improves the quality of electrical energy supply. The detailed guidelines on conducting energy audit are given in .
important to consider that the year in which the material of the waste was deposited in the landfill is irrelevant in determining the amount of methane generated each year, only the total mass of decomposition material on site is what matters. Thismayjustifythegrowthpresented. According to the data presented in Table 3, the amount of methane generated in the Manaus landfill from July 2009 to February 2019 was 316,034.68 m³/h with a monthly average of 33,449.14 m³/h. In his study on the Manaus landfill, Costa (2011) obtained the result of 15,000 m³/h and cited that there is a greater amount of methane in the range of 30,000 m3/h confined in the landfill. The value obtained is consistent with the projection of it. The initial years, 2009, 2010 and 2011, are the ones with the least methane capture. Figure 3 shows that the highest amounts of methane occur in the 4th and 5th years of collection, 39,604.93 m³/h and 39,924.49 m³/h, respectively. From the 5th year, it begins to present a stability in production, which converges with Zanette (2009) by highlighting that the maximum use of methane for the generation of electricity during the life of the project occurs from the beginning of the 5th year of the disposal of waste up to 4 years after the end of the use of the landfill.
Statistical estimation of errors was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of the model. These include; Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). The Coefficient of Correlation (CC) was estimated to determine the degree of fitness of the proposed model. The choice of MAD and RMSE is based on their use in numerous related studies as an effective means of determining the eligibility of the model for prediction. MAPE estimate the degree of accuracy and coverage of the model. The Log accuracy ratio (LAR) was calculated for the testing phase only since it is most expedient to establish if the developed model satisfactorily predicts the HHV. LAR was also introduced as a measure of error in order to address the asymmetric nature of MAPE with respect to over-forecasting and under-forecasting and also non-resistance to outliers [48, 49] Computation time (CT) was estimated as a measure of the overall prediction time as a measure of time cost of the forecasting and to further underline the economic significance of this model.
According to EU Directive, the “management (or handling) of waste” means collection, trans- port, recovery and neutralization including super- vision. “Selective collection” means waste segre- gation by types to facilitate adequate processing and “recovery” refers to any process leading to re- use of a recycled material instead of a new materi- al (Appendix II to the Directive, which elaborates on the latter definition, contains a list of recovery processes, such as conversion of waste into fuel or recovery of non-solvent organic substances). Next, “neutralization” means any process other than recovery (even if a substance or energy is, in fact, recovered as a “byproduct” of the process), such as storage on dedicated dumps (in contained spaces covered and sealed off one from another and from the environment) or thermal conversion on land (see Appendix I for the complete list). Finally, “processing” means any recovery and/or neutralization including preparations.
A detailed assessment of the potential of recovery of energy from MSW through different treatment methods can be made from knowledge of its calorific value and organic fraction. In order to evaluate the feasibility of energyrecovery from MSWs, it is of great importance to determine the energy content or calorific value (CV) of the solid waste, which is defined as the number of heat units evolved when unit mass of material is completely burned and is measured in joules per gram (J/g) or British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb). The energy content of any material, such as solid waste, is a function of many parameters, namely, physical composition of the waste, moisture content and ash content. There are several experimental and empirical approaches available for determining the CV of materials such as MSW. Calorimetric measurement is the common method for determining the energy content of MSW. One method of determining the CV of a given material is by means of an open calorimeter in which pressure is maintained at 1atmosphere. Under constant pressure conditions, the heat released is equal to the enthalpy change for the reaction. Another type of calorimeter is the bomb calorimeter in which Combustion is conducted under conditions of constant volume. Regarding the empirical approaches, there are three types of models that are used to predict CV values based on the following analyses.
7.1 Theoretical calculation for polyethylene We know that 1290 kcal ≈ 1.5 KWh energy is required for 1.0 kg of polyethylene to obtain maximum pyrolysis . We are aiming at 15 kg/hr treatment rate. To dispose of a fixed amount of waste i.e., 15 kg/hr, 15 KWh energy is needed in the primary chamber and hence in the system. Feed rate considered is 1.5 kg / 4 min. Hence, required energy will be 1.5 KWh in 4 min.
The state-of-the-art reveals that the generation of MSW has consistently outpaced the world’s efforts to dispose it cleanly. It has become evident again and again that energy (and material) recovery from MSW is easier said than done. In most instances, what is technically feasible is economically unfeasible. And what is econom- ically feasible—such as setting the waste on fire as is often done in developing countries—is exceedingly harmful to the environment and the human health. Measures such as sanitary landfilling and incineration create as many new problems as the old ones they solve. Moreover, despite the use of these less-than-adequate technologies, a major portion of MSW generated in the world lies untreated. As the MSW output is expected to double by 2025, this situation is only set to become worse. Rising tides of a new solid waste stream that has begun to swell from the late 1990s onwards—E-waste— are threatening to compound the problem even further. Yet another new complication is emerging ─ of nanomaterials entering MSW. Hence, enormous stress should be put on the reduction of MSW generation by controlling wanton consumerism and wastage, rather than continuing with it in the false hope that technology will soon provide a magical solution and eliminate the problem.
Energy resources are limited since world energy demand increases in accordance to population growth and the economic development. Growing concern in Malaysia has arisen about the energy consumption and its adverse environmental impact. There are plenty industries that use high energy-consuming cooling tower in Malaysia due to the humid environment and hot weather, lead to the release of wasteenergy into environment, mostly in terms of kinetic and heat energy. No matter which method is used to transfer heat from machinery or heated process materials, the heat energy has always been rejected to the atmosphere as a wasteenergy. Moreover, the function of a cooling tower is well known to do the heat transfer process, hence indirectly create wind energy and reject it to the atmosphere which is considered as wasteenergy.
The Project would fully comply with the public policy established by Law 292 for the Protection and Conservation of Karstic Physiography of Puerto Rico and the current rule of law, because although the Project is within the Karstic Region of the Puerto Rico North Coast, it is located on the alluvial deposits of the Río Grande de Arecibo Valley and not on typical features of karst physiography such as haystacks (mogotes) or sinks (sumideros). Moreover, the plant would be located about 1.3 miles (2 kilometers) northeast and approximately 3 miles (5 kilometers) northwest from the boundary of the priority conservation area established under Law 292. Processing the MSW would produce fly and bottom ash. The dry weight of this byproduct is projected to be about 20 percent of the weight of the processed refuse fuel or about 420 tons per day. Energy Answers proposes to mix the fly ash with a conditioning agent and water and ship it to an EPA subtitle-D compliant landfill. The bottom ash, which represents about 75 percent of the total ash, also has the potential to be conditioned and used as construction materials (e.g., road base, foundation material, aggregate); however, Energy Answers proposes to dispose of this material at a landfill until a market for its use develops, and until such reuse is approved.
The pyrolysis experimental works were conducted using a small scale vertical tubular reactor fabricated from stainless steel. An electrical heater was used to heat up the reactor. The height and the inner diameter of the pyrolysis reactor are 450 mm and 100 mm, respectively. The reaction temperatures in the reactor were measured with K-type thermocouple and contolled by the heater. The condenser was connected to the outlet of reactor to condense the pyrolysis gas coming out from the reactor. The first condenser was cooled by the surrounding air and the second condenser is a double-pipe condenser which was cooled by the circulating water. A 3D schematic diagram of the apparatus is shown in Figure 4. The liquid product was then collected at the bottom of the condenser in the oil tank. The solid residue remained in the pyrolyzer and catalyst was then collected and weighed for calculating the mass balance.
The thermal stability of the pure components (PEG and waste sawdust) and prepared composites (CPCMs-1- 4) was evaluated using the TGA analysis, as shown in Fig. 12. In the waste sawdust curves, about 3% weight loss in the absorbed water, including the bound water and a small amount of free water, was observed. With increases in the mass fraction of PEG, the amount of absorbed water declined. The CPCMs-4 curve did not exhibit any absorbed water. Rapid weight loss for the waste sawdust, CPCMs-1-4, and PEG occurred at 356.1, 361.5, 384.4, 388.3, 389.6, and 383.0 °C, respectively. CPCMs were thermally stable when temperatures were below 150 °C. As a result, the CPCMs obtained in this study were quite stable at their working temperatures, which ensured their feasibility for practical application. The results clearly indicate that adding PEG into waste sawdust not only can improve the thermal stability of waste sawdust but can also enhance the humidity resistance of the waste saw- dust, so its use can be applied in the real world.
The aim is to verify the possibility of solid bio- fuels energyuse in the form of pressed pellets of selected waste materials from agricultural produc- tion and their mixtures with suitable additives from the industrial and waste sector. It is necessary to rely on the chemical composition of used fuel, ash, stoichiometric calculations and operational pa- rameters of the combustion device type when as- sessing, optimizing and selecting appropriate types of raw materials for biofuel production. The aim is to determine the thermal-emission properties and minimize emission indicators of combustion device for energyuse of selected solid alternative biofuels samples in accordance with applicable leg- islation and standards.
It is important to know the amount of energy the MSW mixed waste samples contain as means of understanding the potential of the waste feed stock as a source of fuel. This was done by means of an E2K Bomb Calorimeter. The instrument is used to determine a sample’s energy content in terms of the calorific value. This measurement is achieved by combusting the sample in a pressurized vessel which is pressurized with oxygen up to 3000 kPa. Since the vessel is filled with oxygen, the apparatus is able to achieve complete combustion of the sample in question. After the process is complete, the device gives a result as a CV value in MJ/kg. The sample mass used in the apparatus is 0.5 grams. Through the bomb calorimeter, the energy that will be liberated from the MSW during a combustion process will be determined, thus giving an idea of how and where the energy can be used.
Abstract. The paper discusses the problem of municipal waste disposal and utilization in the region of Nis. A detailed analysis was carried out of the existing technical solutions thermal treatment and extraction of landfill gas from municipal waste, with an emphasis on energy efficiency. On the basis of accessible data on the quantity, composition and heating power of municipal solid waste, obtained by measurements made in situ, a detailed analysis is carried out of the existing solutions for thermal treatment of waste obtained energy. The basis of the TRIZ methods are given for solving technical contradictions, as well as application of the TRIZ methods for generating innovative ideas. The use of the TRIZ methods is meant to improve the existing procedure for the extraction of landfill gas from municipal solid waste. The preliminary plant design is given for extraction of landfill gas with the impact analysis of suggested improvements for extraction procedure.
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Municipal solid waste management is a great environmental, economical, social and urban problem throughout the world. Municipal solid waste management involves the systematic and regular collection, storage, transportation, processing and disposal of the municipal solid waste. Processing involves the sorting of different types of components from the municipal waste like paper, plastic, metal, glass, fabric, biodegradable, inert and other types of components for the purpose of reuse and recycling. Processing also involves methods for energyrecovery and thermal treatment like incineration and Pyrolysis. Paper, plastic, metal, glass, inert materials can easily be reused and recycled but the biodegradable waste generally treated further for production of biogas through anaerobic process while for the production of manure through aerobic process. Remaining waste which cannot be treated further goes for the landfilling. For a better municipal solid waste management the processing is favoured method than landfilling. All the waste components which cannot be reused or recycled can be used for the energyrecovery. All the components have energy producing capacity after ignition due to their chemical structure. This research paper reveals the potential of energy production from the municipal solid waste of city of Allahabad. The study reveals that the energy content of the municipal solid waste of Allahabad city was 2713.66, 2799.39 and 3294.52 Mwh per day in 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively.
Furthermore, the design and operation of a modern waste incineration plant in Ghana must have an adequate and cheap supply of water for cooling and for scrubbing of the flue gas to be produced. Therefore, locating one or two of these plants close to the sea will ensure a ready supply of water for cooling and for the washing process. On the west coast of Ghana, there is an existing thermal power plant, the Aboadze Thermal Power Plant, with a combined cycle generating capacity of 650 MW which runs on light crude oil and distillate fuel oil. The plant has dual firing capacity and is being converted to run on natural gas. It is proposed that a waste-to-energy plant running on organic waste is sited close to this thermal power facility.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of our project is to give the alternative fuel to the society by using the waste plastic. The motivation of our project is to make the alternative fuel because of the decreasing in fuel resource and now-a-days the cost of the fuel is increasing. We use various types of plastics for the thermal degradation process, we can minimize the usage of plastic in the society. We are using the waste plastic for producing WPPO by thermal degradation process. It gives alternative fuel for us and also reduces the waste plastics pollution.