Top PDF Apparatus for recovery and use of waste thermal energy

Apparatus for recovery and use of waste thermal energy

Apparatus for recovery and use of waste thermal energy

Apparatus for recovery and use of waste thermal energy Abstract Energy recovery apparatus for recovering and using thermal energy comprises multiple series of shape memory elements having decreasing transformation temperatures from one element to the next in the direction of a heating fluid to extract heat over a range of fluid temperatures to effect a shape change of each element. Cooling fluid is flowed alternately through each series of elements to cool the elements and effect another shape change. The cooling fluid exiting a preceding series of elements is used as the heating fluid of the next series of elements to extract further heat indirectly from the original heating fluid. The shape changes of the elements are converted to mechanical work.
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ANALYSIS WASTE THERMAL ENERGY UTILIZATION BY USE OF WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM IN CEMENT PLANT

ANALYSIS WASTE THERMAL ENERGY UTILIZATION BY USE OF WASTE HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM IN CEMENT PLANT

The article combined some reference the chemical data's of modern cement industry which gives us to how a little change in fuel consumption, change and save the large amount of money & natural resources. This research work carried out on Indian cement manufacturing industry there are the wastage of thermal energy is very high in the 19 th century and now a days there are few cement organization’s like "Shree Cement Ltd, Ultratech Cement Ltd, India Cement Ltd, JK Cement Ltd are available in India these are adopted WHRS in their premise and recovered lot of thermal energy in the form of electricity and saved lot of cost and reduced the specific heat consumption and specific power consumption on overall production, they also reduced water consumption and carbon di oxide emission by using waste heat recovery system in the organization.
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Experimental Analysis of a Thermal Energy Storage System-Waste Heat Recovery

Experimental Analysis of a Thermal Energy Storage System-Waste Heat Recovery

KEYWORDS: Diesel engine exhaust, Thermal Energy Storage Tank, Phase Change Material, (PCM). I. I NTRODUCTION High capacity diesel engines are one of the most widely used power generation units. Nearly two-third of input energy is wasted through exhaust gases, cooling water of engines and other loses. It is imperative that a serious and concrete effort should be launched for conserving this energy through waste heat recovery techniques. Such a waste heat recovery would ultimately reduce the overall energy requirement and also the impact on global warming. Waste heat is generated in a process by the way of fuel combustion or chemical reaction and then dumped into the environment even through it could still be reused for some useful and economic purpose. Thermal energy store system (TES) in general and phase change materials (PCMS) in particular, have been an area of interest of researchers for the last two decades.
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Energy recovery for residual waste

Energy recovery for residual waste

130. There are a number of different factors than can alter the level of emissions from landfill and their impact: the amount of landfill gas captured, oxidation rate and potency of methane as a greenhouse gas are the primary ones. Of these the proportion of methane captured had the greatest impact across the likely range of values in the sensitivity analysis. Estimates of landfill gas capture are discussed in more detail in Annex 2. Methane emissions from landfill are very dependent on the technology put in place to prevent them, which in itself will be related to how old the landfill is. Global estimates for emissions from UK landfill will incorporate a whole range of sites, ages and capture technologies many of which will be less efficient than current best practice. For this model we are considering the fate of a tonne of waste being disposed of today. We therefore need to use a capture level consistent with current best practice.
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Review on Waste Energy Recovery Systems

Review on Waste Energy Recovery Systems

Keywords: Rnakine cycle, Heat pump, Cogeneration, Trigeneration. I. INTRODUCTION Electric energy is an essential ingredient for the industrial and all-round development of any country. It can be adapted easily and efficiently to industrial applications and domestic purposes. The consumption of electrical energy is a reliable indicator of a country‟s state of development. We are not faced with a vicious cycle of increasing fuel consumption to maintain our standard of living has been demonstrated very forcefully by R. Stobaugh [1]. It is around 170 units per annum for India against 9000 units in USA and 4000 units in UK [2]. In U. S. industrial plants, the energy that is being discharged to the air and rivers of America can be a new and substantial energy supply through the use of appropriate energy productivity technologies [3-4]. Power sector has grown at a phenomenal rate during the last four decades to meet the rapidly growing demand for electricity as a commercial fuel. Electric utilities have in the past adopted the conventional approach of adding new generating capacities to meet the demand [5]. However, financial constraints aggravated by sub-optimal operations of the existing facilities of power generation and supply have resulted in both energy and peak shortages since mid-seventies. Rapid growing trend brings about the crucial environmental problems such as contamination and greenhouse effect. The alternative energy sources, cost-effective use of the exhaustible sources of energy, and the re-use of the usually wasted forms of energy have encouraged research and development effort in this field. Currently, 80% of electricity in the world is approximately produced from fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, fuel-oil, natural gas) fired thermal power plants, whereas 20% of the electricity is compensated from different sources such as hydraulic, nuclear, wind, solar, geothermal and biogas [6]. Use significant amounts of energy in the form of heat, which is rarely utilized efficiently through a large number of industrial processes. Thus the use of heat exchangers and other forms of heat equipment to enable waste heat to be recovered is a considerable scope. To conserve the depletable energy sources and to recover wasted energy are currently active areas of research.
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Gasification of plastic waste as waste to energy or waste to syngas recovery route

Gasification of plastic waste as waste to energy or waste to syngas recovery route

being present causing the reduction in the calorific value of resulting syngas due to the dilution. Several types of gasification processes have previ- ously been developed and reported. Their practical per- formance data, however, have not necessarily been satis- factory for universal application. If char is produced in the gasification, it needs to be further processed and/or burnt. Other gasification schemes (mainly in pilot scale) use a great deal of expensive pure oxygen, whilst others necessitate considerable amounts of expensive materials such as coke and limestone. An ideal gasification process for PSW should produce a high calorific value gas, com- pletely combusted char, produce an easily recoverable ash and should not require any additional installations for air/water pollution abatement.
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Thermal energy use in greenhouses

Thermal energy use in greenhouses

Humidity sensors have to fulfil a number of conditions to be considered as good and reliable measuring devices. According to Schurer and Visscher (1998), the sensors should enable accurate measurements in the temperature range of 10-40 °C, both at high humidity levels (with the deviation of ±2% RH) and at low humidity levels (with the acceptable error of ±5% RH). Furthermore, the sensor should allow for the measurements of humidity ranging up to the saturation point. Two other important factors are short response time (not exceeding one minute) and quick recovery from condensation. Humidity sensor should be made of a material that is resistant to both chemical and physical contamination. While selecting the sensor it is necessary to consider its stability, repeatability and interchangeability (Wilson, 2004). According to the World Meteorological Organization (2008), humidity sensors, as all other sensing instruments, should be convenient to operate, to calibrate and to maintain. Finally, the economic aspects have to be taken into consideration – humidity sensors should be cost effective. A review of miniaturized humidity sensors, including capacitive, resistive, hygrometric, gravimetric and optical ones, was made by Rittersma (2002).
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WASTE ENERGY RECOVERY: RENEWABLE ENERGY FROM COUNTY LANDFILLS

WASTE ENERGY RECOVERY: RENEWABLE ENERGY FROM COUNTY LANDFILLS

In order to remain healthy, vibrant, safe and economically competitive, America’s counties must be able to anticipate and adapt to all types of change Through the Resilient Counties initiative, NACo works with counties and their stakeholders to bolster their ability to thrive amid changing physical, environmental, social and economic conditions Hurricanes, wildfires, economic collapse, and other disasters can be natural or man-made, acute or long-term, foreseeable or unpredictable Preparation for and recovery from such events requires both long-term planning and immediate action NACo works to strengthen county resiliency by building leadership capacity to identify and manage risk, and allow counties to become more flexible and responsive Through the use of sustainable practices and infrastructure, counties will be better prepared to address these issues in a manner that can minimize the impact on local residents and businesses, while helping counties save money
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FROM WASTE TO CLEAN ENERGY. Efficient energy recovery with low environmental impact at the waste to energy plant in Gothenburg

FROM WASTE TO CLEAN ENERGY. Efficient energy recovery with low environmental impact at the waste to energy plant in Gothenburg

So we are not satisfied with just complying with Sweden’s and the EU’s environmental requirements: we are con- tinuously attempting to shift the boundaries of what is possible tomorrow. We are committed to both our own research and development with other companies, univer- sities and other academic and research institutions. This applies not least to our transportation, where we are developing new vehicles and also driving development in renewable fuels. This is so that we always use the alterna- tive that’s best for the environment.

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Cascade energy optimization for waste heat recovery in distributed energy systems

Cascade energy optimization for waste heat recovery in distributed energy systems

energy ratio of cogeneration system can exceed 80%. As a result, re- searching WHRTs with respect to the optimization issue in DES is an important potential source of energy savings. In this work, cascade energy utilization requires thermal-driven technologies to be operated within its own suitable temperature range of the heat source. In other words, the configuration and operation of WHRTs in DES should be based on energy equality. Proper configura- tion and operation of these technologies, to match the energy quality needed, can greatly improve DES efficiency. Without optimal system design and operation strategies, these technologies can result in even higher energy losses than a traditional energy system [4]. Additionally, heat source temperatures that are too low to drive particular technol- ogies, such as the Rankine Cycle, may lead to unreasonable optimiza- tion results for DES in real applications. Consequently, it is crucial to optimize planning and operation of di fferent WHRTs according to en- ergy quality.
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Optimizing waste management system design for energy recovery

Optimizing waste management system design for energy recovery

The model has been applied to a case study, which is a rural area in the prefecture of Thesally, Greece. The results show that the investment for a tri-generation facility that will use almost the entire available MSW amount of the municipalities included in the study is financially attractive, even with the modest assumption of a MSW gate fee of 50 €/tn. The most important income source is heat sales, followed by electricity sales and MSW gate fee. It is important to note that the sensitivity analysis has determined heat sales as the major income- related parameter influencing the financial yield of the investment. This fact, combined with the significant fluctuations of oil price lately, indicate that a potential investor should be very careful in estimating both future price of oil as well as quantities of heat sales. On the cost side, the investment cost of the MSW WtE unit seems to be a very influential parameter, which may easily change the financial outlook of the investment, and therefore requires close attention. Furthermore, if only co-generation is considered, the results show that it would be much more efficient in terms of investment yield to construct only a biomass boiler using only biomass and not MSW as fuel sources.
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Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery as a Renewable Energy Source

Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery as a Renewable Energy Source

smoke from cook stoves, referred to as "household air pollution," from two million to four million deaths annually in the developing world. It is also observed that most of the modern kitchens have gas stove as primary equipment and electric chimneys as its secondary equipment. If we go into the engineering aspect the heat energy released by the LPG through gas stove is used for cooking. As we all know that whole of the heat cannot be used therefore is wasted to the kitchen atmosphere and further to the environmental atmosphere by the help of the chimneys. In order to remove this excess heat we install chimneys. The idea behind the proposed design is to use this so called waste heat, to heat up water and use it for various residential purposes.
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A framework for waste heat energy recovery within manufacturing

A framework for waste heat energy recovery within manufacturing

10.2.1 Scope of Software Tool The WHR framework had originally been intended to enable recommendations covering a wide range of waste heat recovery technologies, including heat exchangers, thermoelectric generators , thermal engineering cycles, and heat pumps. However, a few problems arise in attempting to construct a technology database that describes technologies in sufficient depth. For example, thermoelectric generators are attractive because they convert heat energy directly into electricity which is convenient. However the technology is still at an early stage, where the efficiency to cost ratio is lower than a justifiable threshold. In addition, populating a comprehensive technology database has proven to be difficult as a number of waste heat recovery technologies are customised by their supplier to be better suited for the specific task, which means capability data on that technology is either not publically available, or a complex design procedure must be undertaken with real data provided by the technology manufacturer, which vary from brand to brand. For these and other reasons, the software tool is limited to providing heat exchanger selection only. Users are able to make use of a detailed heat transfer evaluation generated alongside the technology recommendation to undertake a more in-depth heat exchanger design to better suit the process under consideration.
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Optimizing waste management system design for energy recovery

Optimizing waste management system design for energy recovery

purchasing cost has a negligible negative effect on the NPV, as it is only a small fraction of the total fuel used. As far as the prices of the WtE facility products are concerned, a change in the heating oil price seems to bear the most significant change in the NPV (6,6%). It should be noted that an increase of heating oil price has a dual effect: on the one hand the heat may be sold at a higher price, as it has been assumed that it is always charged at the 80% of the cost of using heating oil, and on the other hand it increases the cost of transporting and handling biomass and MSW, as the related equipment use diesel oil, which follows the fluctuations of heating oil price. It is obvious though that the first effect is dominating the second. Electricity price increase by 10% leads to a 5,6% increase of the NPV value, whereas MSW gate fee follows closely, leading to a 5,2% increase of the NPV. A 10% increase of the cooling price and of the ton CO2 equivalent price lead to 2,9% and 1,7% increase of the NPV respectively. Therefore, the interested investors should pay careful attention to the potential fluctuation of future oil prices, as they have a strong effect on the yield of the investment. Electricity prices are fixed via long-term contracts with the grid operator for renewable source energy generation as in this case, and therefore present no risk for the investment. MSW gate fee has also a significant effect, therefore one should focus on securing its value with long-term contracts, which should probably offer a safety over the potential fluctuations of future oil prices. Finally, the greenhouse gas value has fluctuated tremendously over the past few years, and therefore it is very difficult to predict its future value.
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Energy Recovery Study for Polyethylene and Cotton by Thermal Plasma Degradation

Energy Recovery Study for Polyethylene and Cotton by Thermal Plasma Degradation

In the present study, the main focus was on plasma pyrolysis and gasification of organic waste, specifically polyethylene and cotton waste and exploring the energy recovery possibilities from the gases obtained after the plasma pyrolysis and gasification. In pyrolysis the gases formed are Syn gas (H 2 + CO), CH 4 , higher

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Assessment of the energy recovery potential of waste Photovoltaic (PV) modules

Assessment of the energy recovery potential of waste Photovoltaic (PV) modules

Several methods that have been previously employed to remove the EVA layers are dissolution using nitric acid 42 , organic solvents 43–45 , shockwave recycling 46,47 or thermal decomposition 48 ; primarily in the form of pyrol- ysis due to the lack of chemical oxidation or burn damage on the glass, semiconductor and metal layers 42,49 . According to the international energy agency (IEA) 2018 report, the chemical/thermal treatment of PV modules is superior to that of mechanical methods 50 . It is proposed that the pyrolysis process could contribute positively to the overall recycling rate of these modules via means of tertiary recycling by processing the waste polymers into a potential fuel source 51–53 . The products and by-products of the direct pyrolysis process could have both environ- mental and economic value if they are considered to be used as an alternate fuel to help delaminate further mod- ules or used for additional applications and hence, make the process of recycling these modules self-sustaining.
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A heat energy recovery system from tunnel waste water

A heat energy recovery system from tunnel waste water

1 2 3 4 5 Minimising the maintenance costs of water ingress in transportation tunnels is a signi ficant challenge. Decreasing the overall cost of a ground source heat pump system is equally challenging. An effort to address both issues at once has been made in relation to groundwater ingress in the Glasgow Subway system. In flowing water is a valuable resource which could be channelled through a water source heat pump (WSHP) to produce heat energy for domestic or public use (heating and domestic hot water). Water flow and water temperature have been recorded for a year at 21 different points within the network of the underground tunnels and platforms. The points of highest water in flux were identified, and the heat energy content of each has been calculated. Working from these data, several options were identi fied for capturing the water and diverting it to a WSHP to recover heat. A final design for a pilot system within the tunnels was developed. The findings of this study are expected to contribute a renewable heat solution through a cost-effective heat pump system design.
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Energy recovery from waste in India:an evidence-based analysis

Energy recovery from waste in India:an evidence-based analysis

neighbouring fields is particularly poor practice by plants in India. There is also a requirement to better characterise MSW throughout the WtE supply chain—rather than just at source or at plant—in order to identify and reduce sources of contamination. Ash usage and emission limits at the Indian case study plants differed significantly in comparison to practices at European plants. The use of bottom ash in India for horticulture and building construction is a concern given that it can contain pollutants and contaminate soil and water through leaching. As fly ash can contain heavy metals and other harmful trace elements (Lima et al., 2008), its use for brick making and disposal in unsanitary or even standard landfill sites in India is also a concern. Purification of bottom ash should be carried out that involves sieving, weathering, crushing, sifting, magnetic separation and chemical stabilisation before testing levels of sulphate, chlorine, sodium and heavy metals. Details of the case study plants' emissions and operating regulations were presented in Section 4, and highlighted that emission limits need to be standardised and revised for the incineration of non-hazardous MSW. Measured total particulate matter emissions and emission limits in India were found to be around one hundred and ten times higher, respectively, than those in Europe Furthermore, some stakeholders at the workshop claimed that plants are breaching emission limits and falsifying data. Thus, WtE plants should be more carefully regulated and transparent with their emission measurements.
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Waste Energy Recovery Opportunities for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

Waste Energy Recovery Opportunities for Interstate Natural Gas Pipelines

Turboexpanders are available in sizes ranging from 1 to 15,000 hp. It is common practice in the natural gas industry to utilize pressure regulating valves to reduce high pressure gas in the interstate pipeline system to lower distribution pressures for customer delivery. The industry has periodically evaluated the viability of using turboexpanders to recover useful energy from the pressure drop in the form of shaft horsepower which could generate electricity for internal use or for sale to the electric grid. There are currently no known commercial turboexpander installations generating electricity at city gates in the U.S. pipeline system. Projects have not been economically viable due to a combination of high capital cost, low purchased power prices and wide variations in flow and pressure ratio at pressure reduction stations affecting turboexpander performance.
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Comparative analysis of the life cycle of technologies for energy recovery of plastic waste

Comparative analysis of the life cycle of technologies for energy recovery of plastic waste

Kristina Petković Diplomski rad SUMMARY Subject of this thesis is plastic waste management. From energetic point of view, plastic waste is quite valuable feedstock and its final disposal at the landfill presents irreversible damage to the environment. Plastic waste can be energetically recovered by chemical recovery techniques and conventional thermal energy recovery technologies such as incineration. The focus of this paper is on the chemical recovery of plastic waste: pyrolysis and gasification. Products of considered technologies are liquid and gaseous fuels, which can be used for subsequent energy transformations or as input feedstock in the industry. According to EU guidelines and model of circular economy it is necessary to validate the considered technologies with an emphasis on life cycle analysis (LCA). The available LCI databases do not include processes pyrolysis and gasification. Therefore, comprehensive survey of literature was carried out to gather all available data about input and output flows of existing facilities with implemented concerned technologies. Based on collected data, LCI (Life Cycle Inventory) datasets for technologies pyrolysis and gasification were created which encompass all input streams, such as the required electrical energy, fuel and materials, and all outflows that include useful energy and useful products, as well as by-products such as ash, slag and harmful emissions to the environment. Formed LCI sets are entered in the OpenLCA software and integrated into the Ecoinvent database by linking to the available European and local LCI sets from the base. Within this paper, a comparative life cycle analysis of the concerned technologies for energy recovery of plastic waste and commonly used solutions for the disposal of generated plastic waste, such as its thermal treatment in waste incinerators with cogeneration production of electrical and thermal energy, and disposal on regulated waste disposal sites has been carried out. An ecological analysis which involved the impacts of the operation of certain systems was carried out with the aim of better understanding the positive effects and negative environmental consequences that may arise from the commercialization of pyrolysis and gasification technologies compared to the existing waste management technologies and by finding solutions with the least overall impact on the environment.
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