presence of a phase having intermediate properties to those of the crystalline and amor- phous layers. As such, this intermediate phase was believed to contribute a hidden, rela- tively narrow peak to the WAXS intensity located between the amorphous halo and the (110) reflection. As would be expected, this peak was found to broaden and shift in angu- lar position towards the amorphous halo with increasing SCB content and molecular weight (based on the fitting algorithm used).When two peaks have been used to account for the semi-ordered region, they have closely resembled the (110) and (200) orthorhom- bic reflections, but had lesser intensity and were shifted to lower q-values. 7, 34, 35, 37 These are referred to as ‘(110)’ and ‘(200)’, respectively, by Rabiej et al. 35 As an alternative ex- planation for the poor fit provided by the two-phase model, some authors suggest that a possible transition region between the crystalline and non-crystalline layers contributes to density heterogeneity in the amorphous halo which can be captured by an additional amorphous-halo-like scattering in a large angular range. 4, 36 The sensitivity of 2D correla- tion analysis to overlapping features makes it a well-suited technique to gain further in- sight into the possibility of a semi-ordered phase.
The sample of Chinese liquor Moutai is a complex mixture system, which usually contains hundreds of fragrant and flavor compounds . Further studies reveal that the complexity of Chinese liquor Moutai in the chemical classes is mainly including alcohols, esters, acids, aldehydes, ketones, phenols and nitrogen-heterocyclic and so on  . Hence, it is difficult to well identify the quality of Moutai liquor by using the current commercial separation and analysis techniques. In contrast, the spectrum detection technique is expected to provide a new testing strategy . Figure 1 shows the UV-Vis spectra of the Moutai liquor and counterfeit Moutai liquor. By comparing their UV-Vis spectra, the similar absorption peaks of them at 278 nm were shown in the results, which were mainly attributed to absorption of the furfural molecule . The difference of them was only reflected on the absorption intensity, thus it is uneasy to get the extract useful information for directly identification of the samples from the conventional UV-Vis results.
The signal which will be used in the detectors is a sampled version of the MFM respons of the magnetic field. With a high sample rate there is a better description of the pulses on the medium, more samples are available per bit. In simulations the sample rate is varied. From earlier work within the TST- SMI Group a sample rate of 3x3 samples per bit has been used in detection. The threshold detector uses only one sample per bit and for the remaining detectors also higher sample rates have been used for comparison of the detector performance on varying sample rates.
(iv) ÿx + 1, ÿy + 1, ÿz + 1] along this direction at a distance of 4.168 (2) AÊ. In spite of these favorable structural char- acteristics for reactivity in the solid state, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and FT±IR spectra indicate that the material does not react upon heating. It is stable between 473 and 613 K, which corresponds to the temperature range between dehydration and decomposition of the organic ligand.
The assembly of the complex can best be viewed as having the following two components. Firstly, each bdc anion behaves as a bidentate ligand, bridging two adjacent Zn atoms through O atoms of both carboxylate groups to produce a chain along the b axis with a periodicity of 10.207 (1) AÊ, as shown in Fig. 2. Secondly, neighbouring chains are further connected together by ancillary en ligands linking two adjacent Zn atoms through
This paper considers the detection of point sources in two-dimensional astronomical images. The detection scheme we propose is based on peak statistics. We discuss the example of the detection of far galaxies in cosmic microwave background experiments throughout the paper, although the method we present is totally general and can be used in many other fields of data analysis. We consider sources with a Gaussian profile—that is, a fair approximation of the profile of a point source convolved with the detector beam in microwave experiments—on a background modeled by a homogeneous and isotropic Gaussian random field characterized by a scale-free power spectrum. Point sources are enhanced with respect to the background by means of linear filters. After filtering, we identify local maxima and apply our detection scheme, a Neyman-Pearson detector that defines our region of acceptance based on the a priori pdf of the sources and the ratio of number densities. We study the diﬀerent performances of some linear filters that have been used in this context in the literature: the Mexican hat wavelet, the matched filter, and the scale-adaptive filter. We consider as well an extension to two dimensions of the biparametric scale-adaptive filter (BSAF). The BSAF depends on two parameters which are determined by maximizing the number density of real detections while fixing the number density of spurious detections. For our detection criterion the BSAF outperforms the other filters in the interesting case of white noise. Keywords and phrases: analytical methods, data analysis methods, image processing techniques.
agglomerates constituting the weak points. The degree of dispersion in the matrix will greatly affect the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites and ease the transfer of the intrinsic properties of the. Another reason for poor mechanical and thermal properties is the interfacial interaction between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix. Figure 1 shows stress- strain curves of chitin film while figure 2 is that of PAA and figure 3 for CHW/PAA/CaCO 3 composites. From the stress-strain curve
In summary, we have presented an improved method to extract structural, thermodynamic and kinetic infor- mation on protein-ligand interactions using two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. As a proof of principle we have applied the method to two very different systems, the 1:1 interaction between the FBP and FIR c-myc transcrip- tional regulators, and the multi-state interactions between the drug TFP and calmodulin. In both cases, we show that our analysis yields novel structural and mechanistic insight into the interactions. The method is applicable to the analysis of a wide range of processes and systems. Direct quantum mechanical simulation of experiments provides a flexible approach that is extensible to more complex pulse sequences (for example the CPMG-HSQC experiment 30 , Supplementary Fig. S9). The analysis can also be applied to more complex spin systems. For exam-
of the nail head are in the MDF and the other 30 are in the S-P-F. The length of the beam elements of the models for type 1 is different from that for type 2. In the analysis F2- geo of type 2 (Table 1), the length of the part of the nail shank touching the MDF is 7.75 mm (8.95 1.20 mm) and that touching the S-P-F is 42.25 mm (50.00 7.75 mm), where 8.95 mm is the thickness of the MDF and 1.20 mm is the thickness of the nail head. The other analysis, the length of the part of the nail shank touching the MDF, is 8.95 mm and that touching the S-P-F is 41.05 mm. Nonlinearity asso- ciated with the axial forces of the nail is intentionally ne- glected, so each beam element can be assumed to be an elastic body. Nonlinearity associated with bending of the nail is simulated by the rotation springs (Fig. 12). The em- bedment is expressed by axial springs (Fig. 10). The forces of the axial springs were assumed to depend on the relative displacement in the x-direction or y-direction between the first and second nodes as described in Table 2. The broken Fig. 10. Model of the nailed joint sheathed with MDF. Squares, nodes; broken lines, axial spring elements; heavy solid lines, beam elements. X1 to X42, Y1 to Y52, and R1 to R100 are the spring numbers listed in
Large-scale irrigation districts are the important scale agricultural and commodity grain production bases in the world. The total amount control and multi-dimensional critical regulation and control technology of water resources in irrigation districts have become the key problems of food security and water safety in China. In this paper, we mainly research on water recourse of the Hetao irrigation area in Inner Mongolia, establish the multi-dimensional attributes index system of water recourses in Inner Mongolia Hetao irrigation district, analyze the internal relationship of attributes in the same dimension and between the multi- dimensions, adjust and improve the original index system, and further put forward the speciﬁc adjusting and controlling index of water recourses for each dimension. The purpose of all these works is to provide technology support to establish the multi- dimensional critical control model of water resources in the Hetao irrigation district, ultimately achieving the goal of social and economic sustainable development in the irrigation area.
Stability analysis of two-dimensional linear time-invariant continuous filters arises in testing a driving point impedance reliability condition in power transmission lines and lumped reactances as discussed in .The polynomials in two complex variables occur in continuous systems containing both lumped and distributed elements. The bounded input bounded output stability criteria for twodimensional systems using the state-space model is explained by Wu- Sheng . The analysis of stability can be carried out by the knowledge of root distribution of the characteristic equation in the case of a linear invariant continuous system .
There are two characteristics of affecto-imagistic representation that might be reflected in this peculiarity of mimetics. One possibility is that the iconicity of affecto-imagistic representation is reflected on the phonological encoding of mimetics via articulatory iconism. It is possible that the articulation of a sound, which itself can be conceived as an eventuality (i.e. event or state), is iconically mapped onto a mental representation of certain kinds of eventualities. Hamano (1986: vi-vii) implies this possibility by noting, " there indeed are systematic ties between semantic and phonological components of these mimetic words". She gives the following example of the tie. The semantics of /p/ in adverbial mimetics is "broken down to 'abrupt movement, stretched-out surface or line,
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a liquid-phase separation technique based on the differences in the mobility and distribution of different components under high-voltage electric fields. With the capillary and cells filled with the same background electrolyte solution, injection of the sample solution into the capillary, on which vol- tage is applied, leads to movement of the charged solutes in different directions based on the charge polarity. Due to the difference in their mobilities, different components present varied migration speeds, resulting in a time sequence for the durations taken to reach the detector. As organic compounds, organic explosives present relatively strong ultraviolet absorptions. As a result, electrophorograms of these samples can be obtained by the UV detector, qualitative analysis of these samples can be achieved based on the migration time of peaks, and quantitative analysis of these samples can be achieved based on the peak heights or peak areas. The photodiode array detector (PDA), a novel detector based on photodiode array techniques, was used for characterization of organic explosives to obtain their 3D spectra, thus verifying the results obtained by UV detectors.
Conjugated polymers are highly-emissive materials commonly used as the active layer in devices including organic LEDs (OLEDs), polymer lasers, and optical sensors [1-6]. Due to photo- oxidation and mechanical degradation of the polymers, OLEDs and lasers normally require encapsulation in epoxy layers to prevent ingress of water and oxygen, and so extend the operational lifetime. For sensor layers, this approach is not suitable since the layer requires direct contact with the analyte. Optical sensing films are often needed to operate in aggressive environments, including, for instance, water flows or humid outdoor environments. However, to deploy these polymer materials, a robust, optically clear, porous layer would be necessary to allow analyte ingress while protecting the polymer layer itself.
When the magnetic fields are perpendicular to the Hall Effect sensing device, its approach seems to be “head on‟ approach onto the active face. This is known as head-on detection. The output voltage depend magnetic field and the distance of the linear device from the sensor as explained in Fig. 7. Nearer the linear device therefore higher is the magnetic field, due to which the output voltage will be greater in magnitude, vice versa.
However, the canonical correlation which examines the linear relationship between Set – A and Set – B variables is by creating the combinations. The first canonical correlation explains the maximum relationship between the canonical variates and each successive canonical correlation is estimated so as to be orthogonal yet still explain the maximum relationship not accounted for by the previous canonical correlation. This reflects the high variance among these variables. By squaring the terms in the canonical loading, we find percentage of the variance for each of the variable explained by function 1.
The advantages of photo degradation for remediation of potentially hazardous and widely used explosives deposited in ground and surface water reserves has received continuous attention from researchers over the past 20 years, particularly due to energy e ﬃ ciency, rapidness and the environmental safety associated with photo degradation processes. Hence, this review has introduced an up-to-date collation of knowledge regarding the radiation sources for e ﬀ ective photo degradation of cyclic nitramine and nitroaromatic explosives, irradiation time, photocatalysts as well as important physical – chemical parameters such as pH and substrate concentrations. Most importantly, this review has highlighted the fact that recent advances in continuous- ﬂ ow photo chemistry, micro photo-reactor technology, energy e ﬃ cient light sources at low wavelengths as well as advances in synthesizing photosensitive nanostructures have opened up new possibilities in regards to the application of advanced oxidation technology using photon energy for rapid, safe and energy e ﬃ cient remediation of hazardous organic contaminants in the environment.
This large discrepancy between the experimentally measured surface recession and the predicted value could be the result of a number of potential causes. It is possible that the material model used in the analysis does not accurately represent the actual material used in the experiment. Part of the discrepancy could be caused by swell of the material, for which there is some experimental evidence , but is not included in the model. This analysis assumed a unity Lewis number. However, in reality, the Lewis number for a rocket motor is less than one, which means that the mass transport coefficient will actually be less than the heat transport coefficient. This would reduce the extent of the surface recession. The convective boundary conditions used in this analysis are all computed based on the original geometry. However, surface recession obviously modifies the nozzle geometry, which could lead to reduced enthalpy conductance values. Finally, in this analysis, equilibrium surface chemistry is assumed; if finite-rate chemistry were to occur at the surface, this would lead to reduced surface recession.