Top PDF Application of Inclusion Measures in the Field of Cultivation of Crops

Application of Inclusion Measures in the Field of Cultivation of Crops

Application of Inclusion Measures in the Field of Cultivation of Crops

In this paper, the inclusion measure to a multi attribute decision making problem in the field of cultivation of crops is presented to show effectiveness of proposed inclusion measure based on various distance measures, and results obtained are discussed. Though having a simple measure for calculation, the inclusion measure presents a new approach for handling the interval neutrosophic information. Finally the best distance measures among the various distance measures was discussed.

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Using Abrasive Grit for Weed Management in Field Crops

Using Abrasive Grit for Weed Management in Field Crops

3. Conclusion Weed management using grits was more effect on small broadleaf weeds than larger broad- leaf or grass weeds. While the larger weeds and grasses were defoliated with the grit treat- ment, these regrew and by late season, biomass was similar in-row as the season-long weedy treatment. The in-row treatment, followed by cultivation between rows, tended to increase maize yield compared to no management, and grit with a higher N content tended to increase maize yield and nitrogen content more than a low N grit. Weed control in soybean was more challenging and, due to the size of the weeds even at V1 (one expanded trifoliate leaf), did not control weeds well, and by the second application (V5), weeds were likely too large for meaningful injury. Soybean yield loss was more related to in-row weed biomass than between row weed biomass. Thus, more research is needed to better control in-row weeds in soybean to limit yield loss.
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Effect of cover crops on the microorganisms communities in the soil under scorzonera cultivation

Effect of cover crops on the microorganisms communities in the soil under scorzonera cultivation

Recently, the application of cover crops has played a big role, particularly in vegetable cultivation. They can be used as green manure, which – after being ploughed in – provide the organic mass and mineral elements into the soil. Depending on the species, cover crops exert different effects on the physico- chemical properties of the soil, weed infestation, the growth of plants, their healthiness and yielding (Lithourgidis et al. 2011). Cover crops, left in the field for winter and used as mulch, have a very good effect on the soil environment (Jodaugiene et al. 2006, Patkowska and Konopiński 2011).
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Biological Control of Insect Pests on Field Crops in Kansas

Biological Control of Insect Pests on Field Crops in Kansas

or as soil drench applications to be taken up by the plants while causing little direct mortality to natural enemies. Finally, damaging pest populations are often confined to portions of a field, rather than being evenly distributed throughout it. Selective spot-treatment of affected areas will not only reduce application costs, it will leave untreated areas to serve as reservoirs for natural enemies. These survivors can then recolonize treated areas following degradation of the insecticide, accelerating the restoration of biological control and sometimes averting the need for subsequent treatments. Nevertheless, situations arise where the preservation of biological control requires avoiding the broadcast application of any insecticide. When biological control is widely disrupted by insecticide applications, minor pests can become major pests (secondary pest resurgence), and a farm can develop dependency on chemical control measures once natural enemies are no longer resident in the fields (the pesticide treadmill effect).
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NYS Field Crops Weekly Pest Report- Evaluation

NYS Field Crops Weekly Pest Report- Evaluation

The weekly report has been an effective means to share timely Livestock and Field Crop IPM information with clientele including extension personnel, consultant, growers, and others in the agriculture community. We have been pleased with the positive feedback received from clientele through our end of season survey, the use of articles in county extension publications and the ease of access afforded by the report being available on the world wide web.

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Field crops ORGANIC ADVANTAGE. Transition to higher profits

Field crops ORGANIC ADVANTAGE. Transition to higher profits

While the economics of various crops during transition vary from region to region, one of the best options for maintaining positive returns through this period is a perennial hay crop. Not only does it provide a positive economic return during transition, it also sets the farm up for success in the first years of certified organic production – it builds soil nitrogen levels, assists with weed control, and increases soil biological activity. Another strategy is a gradual transition into organic production, which can offset the transition costs. As current Canadian organic regulations do not require immediate total conversion, a conventional operation can diversify into organic production over time.
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Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops

Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops

Introduction Usual planting and harvesting dates for major field crops appear in this report. Information is arranged by States for major crops and by commodity for selected States. In addition, dot maps show major areas of production. The information was assembled by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, based on the best and latest information available. The same data for vegetables may be found in “Commercial Vegetables for Fresh Market and Processing in Principal Producing Areas, Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates” Agriculture Handbook No. 507, issued February 1977.
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Control measures for an unidentified disorder in sunflower crops in Central Queensland

Control measures for an unidentified disorder in sunflower crops in Central Queensland

An unknown plant disorder has devastated sunflower crops across Central Queensland (CQ) since 2004 and has re- sulted in major reductions in sunflower plantings. This project identified the causal agent of the disorder as tobacco streak virus (TSV), a member of the Ilavirus genus. The virus is transmitted by thrips that carry infected pollen grains from infected weed and crop hosts. Partheniumhysterophorus, a major and widespread weed of pastures in CQ, is the major alternative host of the virus. Several other common weeds and field crops are also known to be hosts. TSV caused significant yield losses in CQ mungbean crops in 2006-07. Preliminary recommendations to minimise the im- pact of TSV have been developed.
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The effect of cover crops on the fungal and bacterial communities in the soil under carrot cultivation
 

The effect of cover crops on the fungal and bacterial communities in the soil under carrot cultivation  

Fusarium solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Alternaria dauci. The dominating saprotrophic fungi were Clonostachys rosea, Trichoderma spp. (mainly T. koningii and T. viride), Myrothecium verrucaria, Epicoccum nigrum and Rhizopus stolonifer. Rye and white mustard showed the most positive effect on the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungi. The smallest population of fungi considered being pathogenic and the highest population of fungi with antagonistic properties were isolated from those experimental treatments. Buckwheat and sunflower as cover crops also showed a protective effect in the cultivation of carrot as in those treatments of the experiment the population of soil-borne fungi was smaller than in the control. When white mustard, buckwheat and sunflower were the cover crops, the soil cultiva- tion before winter (ploughing) and spring tillage (combined cultivator) – system A – proved the most effective. The population of isolated fungi
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Cultivation Process Facilitator for Selected Five Crops in Dry Zone Sri Lanka

Cultivation Process Facilitator for Selected Five Crops in Dry Zone Sri Lanka

most farmers use traditional agricultural practices. Most of Sri Lankan farmers choose a crop or crop combinations to cultivate based on their traditional knowledge. But they do not consider the soil conditions, other alternative crop combinations, market price and demand, profit and cost, water resource access, pesticides and fertilizer costs while selecting crop combinations. They also do not pay much attention about how to manage and schedule water supply, pesticides and fertilizer. Another problem, the most farmers are not aware of the market changes and disaster management. To solve these identified problems of Sri Lankan traditional farming style we have introduced this Cultivation Process Facilitator, a web based solution which helps farmers for their cultivation process throughout the season. In here we have introduced new algorithms for selecting most profitable crop combinations, scheduling water supply and fertilizers, identifying the disasters and market threats.
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Dating and limits of cultivation terraces. Some field observations

Dating and limits of cultivation terraces. Some field observations

Desde la denominada arqueología del paisaje –en mi opinión, una disciplina heredera de la Geografía histórica– se han hecho avances significativos en algu- nas zonas de montaña mediterr[r]

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Outer measures associated with lattice measures and their application

Outer measures associated with lattice measures and their application

INTRODUCTION Our first aim in this paper is see Section 3 to obtain further properties of two outer measures it’ and it" see below for definitions associated first with it C I/; and it E[r]

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Eco-Friendly Biocontrol Measures for Xanthomonas Infection on Vegetable Crops

Eco-Friendly Biocontrol Measures for Xanthomonas Infection on Vegetable Crops

Pathovars of Xanthomonas are known to cause diseases on several vegetable and cash crops and are reported to have developed resistance to kanamycin, ampicillin, penicillin and streptomycin. This seriously hinders the management of diseases of crops and agriculture products. To control these bacteria farmers used many synthetic pesticides. But pesticides have made great contribution for quick and effective management of plant diseases and microbial contaminations in several agricultural commodities. Many Xanthomonas Pathovars have acquired resistance to synthetic pesticides. Considering the deleterious effects of synthetic pesticides on life supporting system, there is an urgent need for alternative agents for the management of pathogenic microorganisms. Hence the present study focused to control the phyto pathogen in eco friendly method using green plant extracts. Different parts of a medicinal
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FIELD CROPS: COTTON FOLIAR TREATMENT (PESTS SUPPRESSED)

FIELD CROPS: COTTON FOLIAR TREATMENT (PESTS SUPPRESSED)

- The application is made due to an imminent threat of significant crop loss, and a documented determination consistent with an IPM plan or predetermined economic threshold is met. Every effort should be made to notify beekeepers no less than 48- hours prior to the time of the planned application so that the bees can be removed, covered or otherwise protected prior to spraying.

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PB1768 2010 Insect Control Recommendations for Field Crops –

PB1768 2010 Insect Control Recommendations for Field Crops –

Blister Beetles: Blister beetles are elongated, soft- winged beetles that feed on leaves. One species, the striped blister beetle, has alternating dark brown and yellow stripes running the length of the body. Another species, the margined blister beetle, is black with a gray stripe along margins of the wing covers. These insects usually feed in groups in one or several areas of the field. Soybean Aphid: Also called Chinese aphid, this is a relatively new pest for Tennessee, discovered first in Middle Tennessee. Its distribution probably includes all soybean growing areas in Tennessee, but pest numbers are generally low and scattered at this time. Aphids pierce leaf tissue during feeding in order to suck sap from soybean leaves. Soybean mosaic virus and other viral diseases are sometimes transmitted by aphids during feeding.
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Cultivation of Arable Crops at the North Central Region of Nigeria Using Different Agronomic Practices.

Cultivation of Arable Crops at the North Central Region of Nigeria Using Different Agronomic Practices.

Arable farming using inter-cropping technique is the most practiced farming system in the nation due to its rapid cash back. Arable crops such as cassava, maize, okra, cowpea, yam, sorghum and sweet potato were cultivated on three (3) acres of land using several intercropping techniques. The growth pattern of the varieties of crops grown where noticed from the emergence to the harvesting period. The growth pattern data was taken accordingly. Harvest was made at the right time for the crops that are matured and sales were made both on the farm and at the local market taking note of the market behavior and the taste of the people. The effect of the farming activity improved the economic and the nutritional status of the rural dwellers in the vicinity.
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Comparing Phenolic Composition of Cabernet Gernischet Wines between Rain-shelter Cultivation and Open-field Cultivation

Comparing Phenolic Composition of Cabernet Gernischet Wines between Rain-shelter Cultivation and Open-field Cultivation

The phenolic compounds of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Gernischet wine in 2010 and 2011 vintage from rain-shelter cultivation and open-field cultivation were detected and compared by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The results showed that rain-shelter cultiva- tion increased the total anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolic compound concentration. For the compositions, ratios of peonidin-derivative and malvidin-derivative pigments were similar in the two vintages, rain-shelter cultiva- tion increased the proportion of these derivatives; ratios of delphinidin-derivative and petunidin-derivative pigments were different in the two vintages. In the wine of rain-shelter cultivation, the ratio of flavan-3-ol and hydroxybenzoic acids was increased, the ratio of flavonol was decreased and the composition of other compounds varied between the two vintages. To most of the phenolic compounds identified, their content in wine under rain-shelter cultivation was higher compared to those under open-field cultivation.
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Possibilities to improve soil physical properties in garlic cultivation with cover crops as living mulches

Possibilities to improve soil physical properties in garlic cultivation with cover crops as living mulches

In the presented research, a positive influence of green mulches from millet, buckwheat, white mustard and berseem clover cultivated in companion with win- ter garlic was observed in spring, expressed as an ac- tual soil moisture in the layer of 0–10 cm, in compari- son to cultivation without mulching crops. The protec- tive role of mulching cover crops left on the surface of the ground was shown, in relation to the water accu- mulated in soil during winter. Similar results were obtained by Konopiński et al. [2001] in experiments concerning the use of mulch from intercropping cover plants (white mustard, common vetch, phacelia and oat), in which their positive influence on the soil mois- ture regime, structured directly after winter was proven. The explanation of this phenomenon is ex- plained in the work of Nyakatawa et al. [2001] who, on the basis of the research, stated that covering the soil surface with organic matter in a form of mulch limits unnecessary evaporation of water from soil. Rasmussen [1999] determined that the amount of wa- ter accumulated in the topsoil increased with the amount of organic matter on its surface. The value of the soil bulk density was changing during the vegeta- tion period. It was lower in autumn and higher in early spring. Before winter, only in case of garlic cultivated with buckwheat, the density of the topsoil (0–10 cm) was higher in comparison to the control. White mus- tard mulch in the best way protected the topsoil against excessive soil subsidence during winter, the soil den- sity in this combinations was the lowest in comparison
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Impact of The Cultivation Systems And Straw on The Soil Surface on The Edaphic Entomofauna In Common Bean Crops

Impact of The Cultivation Systems And Straw on The Soil Surface on The Edaphic Entomofauna In Common Bean Crops

The most important arthropod species underground common bean crops are the detritivorous Hypogastrura sp. (Collembola: Hypogastruridae), Diptera larva: Syrphidae and Acari: Galumnidae; larvae of the herbivore Cerotoma arcuata (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the predators Cheyletus sp. (Acari: Cheyletidae), Hypoaspis sp. (Acari: Laelapidae), Neivamyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Pachycondyla sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Solenopsis sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and larvae of the Coleoptera: Staphylinidae. The cultivation system and the existence of straw on the soil have an impact on the composition of the entomofauna inside the soil in common bean crops. These two factors affect both quantitatively and quantitatively the entomofauna within the soil. The total richness of arthropods and the richness of detritavorous arthropods are higher in no-tillage than in conventional tillage. The richness of herbivorous arthropod species and predatory arthropods are the same or greater in no-tillage than in conventional tillage. The total richness of arthropods and the richness of detritivours, herbivorous and predator arthropods are greater when common beans are grown in soil with straw than when it is grown in soil without straw. It’s larger the abundance of detritivorous arthropods Entomobryidae, Hypogastrura sp., Syrphidae (larvas) and Galumnidae in no-tillage than conventional tillage. The same is true of the abundance of the herbivore C. arcuata (larvae) and the predators Cheyletus sp., Hypoaspis sp. and Staphylinidae (larvae). The abundance of the predatory ants Neivamyrmex sp., Pachycondyla sp. and Solenopsis sp. is the same in no-tillage and convetional tillage system. The abundance of the detritivorous Entomobryidae, Hypogastrura sp., Syrphidae (larvae) and Galumnidae is greater in the bean crops with straw on the soil surface than when there is no straw. The abundance of the C. arcuata (larvae), and the predators Cheyletus sp., Hypoaspis sp., Neivamyrmex sp., Pachycondyla sp., Solenopsis sp. and Staphylinidae (larvae) do not vary due to the presence of straw on the soil. Therefore, the use of no-tillage benefits the soil by increasing the abundance and richness of detritivorous arthropod species. Besides, no-tillage benefits the natural biological control of pests by increasing the populations and richness of predatory arthropod species. However, in no-tillage beans, farmers should monitor soil pests, especially C. arcuata larvae that reach higher densities in this cropping system. Also, the existence of straw on the soil in common bean crops was beneficial to increase the abundance and richness of detritivorous arthropod species.
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IMPROVEMENT OF FIELD CROPS THROUGH BIOTECHNOLOGY METHODS

IMPROVEMENT OF FIELD CROPS THROUGH BIOTECHNOLOGY METHODS

The large scale application of biotechnological methods to plant breeding will result the new vistas that reduce the cost and increase the throughput of the assays. Gel or capillary-based DNA sequencers can be used in genotyping, but micro arrays or other non-gel systems may allow whole-genome analysis of large number of plants commonly grown in breeding programmes. Ultimately the objective will be to rapidly assay the genetic makeup of individual plants in breeding populations. Producing graphical genotypes (Young and Tanksley 1989) of each plant or progeny row will allow the breeder to determine which chromosome sections are inherited from each parent and will greatly expedite the process and minimize the need for extensive field tests. These new tools will greatly enhance, but not replace, the conventional breeding process.
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