estimated at 1.5m above ground level. Measurement locations and its distribution were depicted in Fig. 1 and Table 1. All the measurements were done in the peak of traffic during three months in the worst and the best traffic conditions. At the first step, measurements were performed at a distance of 0 m from the signal stop line. At last in order to test noise models, several points at distances of 100 and 200 meters from the main streets were also measured. Traffic flow is gathered from traffic control web cameras. In addition, passing vehicles are recorded in place. The measurement is performed in two distinguished classes: heavy traffic (less than 5 km/h speed) and low traffic (greater than 5 km/h). The number of heavy trucks and busses are also gathered and uploaded to the models. Statistical values (Standard errors, mean errors, etc.) were then computed for each station.
The main objective of this paper is a critical review of literature of GIS or geo- graphical information system in the most negative impact of urban transporta- tion, UTA, as geography can be relevant to various phenomena, including traffic accidents. Analyzing of UTAs through the spatial prospective in a geographical environment with associated factors will express the key factor for safety and de- cision making. Road accidents can be analyzed as discrete incident not only in space but also in time. The huge number of road transportation vehicle and us- ers drivers has resulted in a significant number of accidents, and developed and undeveloped countries currently suffer from the consequences of these acci- dents. GISs have played a vital role in the field of transportation engineering. The main technique for this article was review of research with application of GIS in UTAs and urban structure. This paper considers the literature related to existing studies on traffic accidents from multiple perspectives. Previous spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal analyses of traffic accidents are summarized. Then, we provide a detailed review of GIS applications in traffic accident studies. Traffic accident prediction models and the Bayesian approach are reviewed. In addition, the current methods of identifying hazardous roadway sites for traffic accidents are described.
Abstract—The environmental data acquisition station is used to manage the public health and detection of a microclimate of a city for a broadcast processed high precision data for users. This research article is summarizing the applica- tions of Electronics and GIS applications to health risks management due to air pollution, noise and microclimate change detection, to study the geography of urban health risks and environmental change in Casablanca, Morocco. acquisi- tion of environmental and Climatological Data using sensor networks, results a new possibilities and advantages, of environmental data monitoring using elec- tronic circuit with a broadcasting system via a technology with wireless transmit- ter. The main object of this research is to present a simple and rapid method to provide instant microclimate and environment data, which can be used to manage the public risks caused by pollution and environment changes. As the climate and environment conditions are variable from a place to place, it is difficult to get accurate climate and environment for a particular location in a city. With the ad- vancement of technology, especially data acquisition systems, the problem of large set up area and cost has been reduced. The data acquisition station can be set up at any place and provide an accurate and instant climate and environment report to any citizen of the city. The report of the data acquisition system can be used by the users to choose the best place for them to live due to their diseases. In addition, these data can be collected in a GIS system to create a microclimate change and air pollution map of different zones in the city, predict the future climate, and air pollution of the city.
In Fig. 2, it is observed that the application of the D-filter (right) for frequency weighting the sound level achieves higher correlations with reported annoyance than the A-filter (left) for the specific sounds used in . In , for the filtered road traffic sounds tested, and under outdoor conditions, the MF and especially HF contents were found to be subjectively dominant. However, as indicated by the results shown in Fig. 2, the relatively high LF content in urban road trafficnoise should not be neglected. Under outdoor conditions, the D-weighting better accounts for the difference in contribution to road traffic evoked subjective annoyance of LF, MF and HF ranges. Meanwhile, the A-weighing underestimates the contribution of LF and HF ranges, as can be seen in Fig. 2 – left (triangle and circle symbols). Fig. 3 shows the linear relationship between A- and D-weighted sound levels and reported annoyance for the stimuli used in the listening test presented in . In , even under conditions where LF content was physically dominant (indoor conditions), it was found that changes in LF content made smaller contributions to reported annoyance than might be inferred from such physical dominance. Indeed, under the tested indoor conditions, equivalent changes in LF and MHF content led to similar changes in reported annoyance. Under these conditions, and as it is seen in Fig. 3, the A-weighting filter accounts for the difference in contribution to subjective annoyance between LF and MHF ranges, while D- weighting filter overestimates the contribution of LF.
enforcing conversion of all older auto rickshaws to LPG fuel by the Judiciary. Trafficnoise level in Calcutta (which has been renamed as Kolkata) was previously measured by Pancholy et al.,  and Roy et al. . Exposure of drivers to noise, heat and dust in Kolkata has been done by Mukherjee et al. . They find that auto drivers exposure to noise depends on the number of trips performed per day and it is exceeded the recommended American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value, mostly after a second trip. According to them, auto drivers undertaking consecutive trips within Kolkata city traffic routes along with other vehicles like bus, lorry, taxi etc. have higher noise exposure than the recommended standard and the conditions are more acute during summer, because of thermal stress. In their paper they conclude that the application of brakes, inside and outside horn effects, slamming of bus doors, and running in top gear produce appreciably higher in-bus noisepollution. Picard et al. reported on accident analysis and tried to find the possible causes with suggestion their prevention techniques . Chakraborty et al.  reported on the status of road trafficnoise in Calcutta. Noise levels are measured at each of twenty four sites, by them, based on predetermined sampling interval and altogether 2880 observations are generated by recording data continuously for 24 hours. The L Aeq 24, exceedence levels, LD, LN, LDN, LNP and TNI are
The results show that the eastern parts of Nairobi’s CBD have the highest levels of noise. This can be attributed to a high concentration of matatu (public service vans) stops and open air vendors in that part of the CBD. Fig- ure 6 also shows that by far, the greatest source of noise in the CBD is traffic. This is consistent with the results of some studies that have been carried out elsewhere, such as Gholami et al. (2012); consequently, any mitiga- tion measures would have to focus on this source. The highest sound recorded, at 78 db, shows that in some parts, especially the hotspots, the noise levels approach the healthy hearing limit of about 85 db . In inter- preting these results, one must keep in mind that the study was limited to only the CBD and would need rolling out to the other parts of the city in order to get results more representative of the whole city; in addition, noise levels, especially from traffic, are bound to vary with time of day or night and therefore continous noise record- ing would give even more representative results.
Noise is unwanted sound that is harmful, annoying, causes disturbance and may adversely impact the work efficiency and hearing. Increased activities and needs in modern urban life are causing severe noisepollution. Noisepollution due to major source of pollution in urban areas. Fast growing vehicle population in urban regions in the recent years, has resulted in tremendous increase in traffic on roads causing alarming noisepollution, besides air pollution. Trafficnoise is ctors like traffic volume, vehicle mix, pavement type and vehicle condition (Marathe, 2012). Noise level increases with traffic volume in an exponential manner and depends on several parameters such as source, medium, vehicle ce from source etc. (Vilas and Nagarale, 2013, Suhas and Adavi, 2015). Hence, the overall noise is dependent on the characteristics of the vehicle and the relative proportions of the vehicle types included in the flow. the “threshold of hearing” and the “threshold of pain”. In terms of pressure, this 20 kPa (Garg, 2014). Noise level is measured in terms of decibels (dB). The Noise levels are measured using a sound level meter and calculated values such as L10, L50, L90, are used to estimate equivalent value of sound level (Leq) while TrafficNoise Index (TNI), Noise Climate (NC), Noise
41 | P a g e roads Generally, motor vehicles, which form a significant part of urban environment, are an important source of noise emission, contributing about 55% of the total urbannoise The rapid growth of vehicular population gives rise to unrestrained noisepollution and other associated health problems causing both short term as well as long term psychological and physiological disorders. Traffic can be considered as the major source of noisepollution in large cities [7,8]Depending on its duration and volume of exposure noisepollution effects can be categorized into physical effects (temporary and permanent loss of hearing), physiological effects (high blood pressure, cardiac problem) and psychological effects (sleeplessness, decrease in working efficiency, stress, annoyance etc)  Chronic exposure to noise can cause temporary as well as permanent loss of hearing. Besides the auditory effect noise can also cause other significant non auditory health effects, such as cardiovascular problems, hypertension, changes in social behavior and induces depressive tendencies  Long-lasting, high- level sounds are the most damaging to hearing and generally the most annoying. Therefore, a study was planned on noise generated from the different commercial areas of Allahabad city and its impact on the people so as to bring down the pollution level through public participation and to suggest mitigation measures.
As per FHWA guidance (December 2011) basically highway trafficnoise depends on volume of traffic, speed of the traffic and the number of trucks in the flow of traffic. Highway noise consists of total noise produced by all the moving vehicles on the highway which depends on the individual vehicles, type of the vehicle, mode of operation, characteristics of the vehicle flow and the relative proportions of the vehicle types included in the flow (Subramani et al., 2012). Traffic is a major source of noisepollution in Delhi and was surveyed by Singh and Davar (2004) using questionnaire survey. The design of urbannoise surveys should take into account that the underlying structure of urbannoise is largely determined by the disposition of transportation, and in particular, road traffic, noise sources (Brown and Lam, 1987). Effect of trafficnoise can be classified into three categories such as subjective effect (annoyance, disturbance, dis-satisfaction and noisiness), behavioral effect (interference with sleep, speak or any general task) and physiological effects (fright phenomena). For a long period of exposures to noise may produce deafens and further continuous noise causes cardiovascular effects, increases blood pressure and heart rates (Marathe, 2012). Pathak et al. (2008) studied that 85%
Land-use regression modelling approaches are mostly being used for assessing the exposure of the urban communities to air pollutions . LUR methods use least- squares regression modelling to predict air pollution levels based on predictor variables available. In the field of noise levels prediction, LUR modelling has been least explored. Currently, only two studies have applied this technique, the first one was applied in China and the other was applied in three European cities [7, 9]. In this present study, a generic LUR model was developed to predict noisepollution levels in the TMC using multiple linear regression (MLR). However, in order to improve on the modelling capabilities of the developed MLR approach in the noise prediction field, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to formulate a hybrid model namely, AHP-MLR. This was done based on the strengths and the capabilities of the AHP, as in literature, to solve multi-criteria problems and also to rectify the inefficiencies associated with the application of MLR, since such study has not been comprehensively investigated [10-11]. Therefore, the aim of this present study is to compare and contrast the efforts of the two developed models (i.e. MLR and AHP-MLR) for noise levels prediction. This
pollution and its consequent influence over the life quality of human beings may be considered as a "hot topic" in scientific research. The increasing number of living people and vehicles has led to major concern about "noisepollution". Noise is defined as unwanted sound. Sound is a form of energy which is emitted by a vibrating body and on reaching the ear causes the sensation of hearing through nerves. Sounds produced by all vibrating bodies are not audible. The frequency limits of audibility are from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. The discrimination and differentiation between sound and noise also depends upon the habit and interest of the person/species receiving it, the ambient conditions and impact of the sound generated during that particular duration of time. Every exposure to loud noise destroys some cells, but prolonged exposure damages a larger amount of cells, and ultimately collapses the Organ of Corti, which causes deafness. Noisepollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas . Trafficnoise is considered as one of the important sources of noisepollution that adversely affects human health in residential urban areas [2-4]. Permanent hearing loss by long-term exposure to noise has been reported by Nelson . It is considered one of the most widespread environmental issues all over the world. It is considered a serious issue because of its harmful impacts on citizens and public health. Noise adversely impacts development as a result of its direct and indirect effects on life activities. Exposure to high noise levels is among the key causes of human mistakes leading to increased accident rate . These levels have reached unacceptable limits locally and internationally. Pathak et al.  carried out a study on trafficnoisepollution at four areas categories (industrial, commercial, residential and silence zone) in the city of Varanasi, India. They found that 85% of the people were disturbed by trafficnoise; about 90% of the people reported that trafficnoise is the main cause of headache, high blood pressure problem, dizziness and fatigues. To prevent and control the sources of the noise, the Govt. of India has already published the rules known as NoisePollution (Prevention & Control) Rules, 2000 which is applicable to entire country. To implement these Rules under Section 2 (c) Authority is prescribed, accordingly the Police Commissioner or District Superintendent of Police are declared as Authority. According to this act the environmental quality standards are prescribed which is as under
Burdwan town is located in the state of West Bengal serves as an administrative center for various economic activities. Bardhaman railway junction and Grand Trunk Road (NH-2) help this place to emerge as an urban space. Currently, it has been growing very fast as it has become the educational, medical and business hub of its surrounding districts. So, the mobility of goods and passengers is quite high and thus transportation plays a crucial role in the region. But the transportation system creates several problems in both the urban lifestyle and for the surrounding environment. Urban sprawl, unplanned road networks, and the rapid growth of private vehicle have complicated the situation more. A large number of students and people commute daily to fulfill their needs, resulting in high internal mobility of the town leading to congestion and frequent accidents. This research paper highlights the noisepollution of the town and the adverse impact of traffic on human health. The data sources are mainly primary in nature. Observation has given the concept regarding most congestion areas of the town. Field survey has been done at major road junctions by the sound meter to know the noise level. Various cartographic techniques have been used to represent noise related issues. On the basis of emerging problems transport authority has taken some big projects to reduce this problem which can lead the town towards a sustainable transport system.
There is a lot of research and literature regarding all aspects of dawn chorus but there are only few studies that reported a real shift to an earlier start of dawn chorus. Playback simulation of territorial intrusion caused a very small shift (4 minutes) in Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) . Light  and noise  pollution are anthropogenic factors that were reported by many and found to influence the start of dawn chorus of urban birds. Exposure of song birds to artificial night light was also shown to cause earlier start of dawn chorus . Another factor that might cause an early start of dawn chorus is anthropogenic noise. Two out of six species started dawn chorus earlier in a study of the effect of trafficnoise on song birds .
Some cities of Iran including Tehran , Isfahan  and Yazd  have also embarked on noise map research. Based on GIS, this method has more ability than conventional methods in the analysis of environmental noise . Pollution was evaluated based on GIS in Sweden. They used mathematical measures to obtain noise mapping of the large area such as SKANE and smaller areas in the city of Lund . Moreover, noisepollution of roads traffic was evaluated using the GIS in Fukuma, Japan . Fiedler and Zannin studied noisepollution indexes such as equivalent sound pressure level in a Latin American metropolis using GIS .
The decrepit state of public transport in our country is driving up sales of private vehicles at an alarming rate.This is reflected in the substantial increase in traffic especially in the urban areas. According to a study done by World Resource Institutein Bangalore, traffic moved at the speed of 35 km in an hour in 2005 as compared to 9.2km in 2016. Increase intraffic and congestion has led to several negative impacts, one of which is the drastic increase in the noisepollution .A noise study conducted by Kalra's NGO in Gurgaon, has shown that the recorded levels on some of the busy stretches of the city went well towards the 60-70 dB bracket, when the acceptable range for the human ears is of around 40-50 dB.
Noise map is an outstanding tool for controlling noise level in urban areas and thus helps greatly in town planning and is regarded as a useful tool to improve the level of environmental noisepollution. Noise map is considered as a power full tool to get the visual acoustic behavior of any geographical region, hence it is helpful to improve to environmental conditions regarding noisepollution and better town planning. So we made a noise map which is not only based on the data of that sixty location but besides that we have collected the data of thirty other locations.
urbanization and technological development (WHO, 1999). The study reports community noise levels measured during day time in a fast developing semi-urban area of Nepal. Since levels lie much above the prescribed limits there is an imminent health risk to the exposed population and the study suggests control measures to be instituted on a priority (Murthy et al., 2007). The noise status of growing urban centres of the country are very much required to develop acoustic design and planning guidelines for various land use classification. An attempt in this direction has been made by measuring noise equivalent levels for cities like Delhi, Jamshedpur, Dehradun and Nagpur. It has been observed that maximum percentage of areas in Delhi and Jamshedpur fall under moderately severe to very severe noisy conditions as compared to Dehradun and Nagpur on the noise rating scale (Pandhya, 1999). Similar study is conducted in Aurangabad city due to the expanding industrialization; the problem of noisepollution has become a concern for urban dwellers and government authority too. The study deals with the assessment of trafficnoise levels in Aurangabad city. The measured noise level values exceed the prescribed noise level (Bhosale et al., 2010).
The noise originates from human activities, especially the urbanization and the development of transport and industry. Though, the urban population is much more affected by such pollution, however, small town/villages along side roads or industries are also victim of this problem. Noise is becoming an increasingly omnipresent, yet unnoticed form of pollution even in developed countries. According to Birgitta and Lindvall (1995), road traffic, jet planes, garbage trucks, construction equipment, manufacturing processes, and lawn mowers are some of the major sources of this unwanted sounds that are routinely broadcasted into the air. Though noisepollution is a slow and subtle killer, yet very little efforts have been made to ameliorate the same. It is, along with other types of pollution has become a hazard to quality of life. Kiernan (1997) finds that even relatively low levels of noise affects human health adversely. It may cause hypertension, disrupt sleep and/or hinder cognitive development in children. The effects of excessive noise could be so severe that either there is a permanent loss of memory or a psychiatric disorder (Bond, 1996). Thus, there are many an adverse effects of excessive noise or sudden exposure to noise. In India, the problem of noisepollution is wide spread. Several studies report that noise level in metropolitan cities exceeds specified 60dB. Murli and Murthy (1983) also found that trafficnoise in Vishakhapatnam exceeds 90dB even in morning hours that acts as a source of nuisance. The noisepollution is not a unique problem for developing countries like India only. In China, till third century B.C., instead of hanging men for dangerous crimes, noise was used for their torturing. The worrisome effects of noise are dangerous enough that noise problem is considered next to crime by certain countries (Kapoor
Nowadays transportation noise becomes a major problem. There are some noises sources like motor-cycle, bus, trains, aero planes and cars. Road traffic has been the major source of annoyance. It is due to the large number of automotive vehicle in comparison with other machines. The mechanism of radiation of noise to outside from a vehicle has been different from the generation of noise inside the vehicle. The noise pass off depends on the relative levels, characteristics and the interaction of the directly spread noises from the vehicles. The most important noise source of the vehicles is the engine and its accessories. According to WHO the most important effects regarding trafficnoise are: psychological & physiological effects, work-related stress and increased risk of accidents. Environmental noise caused by traffic, industrial and recreational activities as their main local environmental problem especially in urban areas. It has been estimated that around 20 present of inhabitants in Indian suffer from noise levels that health experts consider to be insufferable, where most people become irritated. The same survey showed a significant rise in the public's willingness to take action to reduce noise.
From the table, it can be noticed that the TNI values for all the measured school areas and residential area of Kg Istana were greater than 74dBA. This indicated that the population at these sampling locations were affect by the noise from the traffic roads. The teaching and learning process in the schools may interrupt by the urbantrafficnoise while the residents at Kg Istana may annoying with the trafficnoise nearby. The noisepollution level (LNP) at school area of SK Bukit Soga and residential area of Kg Istana have been exceeded the limit of 88dBA. Although LNP at other sites do not exceed the permissible limit, the values of most the studied areas that obtained were more than 80dBA. Precaution actions should be taken in order to reduce the noisepollution impacts to the population in Batu Pahat especially located next to the heavy traffic road of Jalan Kluang.