Top PDF Art: The Psychology of Effective Learning

Art: The Psychology of Effective Learning

Art: The Psychology of Effective Learning

Teaching and learning are interrelated – a successful examination outcome requires good materials, good teaching techniques and effective learning on the part of the exam candidate; but people learn in a variety of ways and have different learning preferences. This paper and the referenced reports highlight the most effective learning options.

5 Read more

Creativity and culture: towards a cultural psychology of creativity in folk art

Creativity and culture: towards a cultural psychology of creativity in folk art

The present thesis has a threefold aim. Its particular interest is to explore creativity in Easter egg decoration by understanding how people attribute creative value to the craft, what makes the activity of decoration creative, and finally how the engagement with this practice develops during ontogenesis. At a higher level, these concerns relate to folk art more generally and to artistic expression as a whole. Thus, a second aim of the study is to shed light on the social and symbolic dynamics of creativity in a folk art context, hoping to inform broader conceptions about the value and significance of art for individuals, groups and communities. Last but not least, what the present research tries to achieve at the highest level is to reconnect the study of creativity with greater debates concerning the relation between continuity and change, between the “new” and the “old”, between creator and society. An important argument here is that contemporary psychology, in its study of the phenomenon, pays little if any attention to such issues and therefore loses sight of essential interrogations situated at the core of creativity as a notion and as a process. This has not been always the case however and one needs only to go back to the intellectual legacy associated with thinkers like Gabriel Tarde and James Mark Baldwin to realise that novelty emergence is central for theorising human behaviour and human society. Indeed, Tarde (1903) built up an entire system of thinking on the notions of invention and imitation, both seen as “elementary social acts” (p. 144). In his view there is no conflict between these fundamental processes, since all inventions spring from combinations of different imitations and, when successful, end up being themselves imitated. A similar perspective has been put forward by Baldwin (1903), when he referred to the link between the elementary principles of habit and accommodation. Reuniting continuity and change within the same framework is characteristic for all “genetic” orientations in psychology (see Piaget, 1950; Moscovici, 1984), sociology (see Bourdieu, 1993), and related disciplines.
Show more

350 Read more

Why is art important for psychology?

Why is art important for psychology?

The four articles in this issue address historical, cultural, philosophical and research bases for the healing power of the arts, give concrete clinical examples and programs, and show how art can be integrated into psychology graduate programs. It is our hope that bringing art, the imagination and creativity back to the therapeutic process will refresh psychologists and bring us closer to our mission as doctors of the soul.

5 Read more

The Art of Living and Positive Psychology in Dialogue

The Art of Living and Positive Psychology in Dialogue

Comparing Schmid’s philosophical contemplation of the self with the psychological approach shows that psychological research seems to focus on physiological and neurological aspects, as much as on the structure of the self-concept, including interactions of structural aspects and contents. The philosophical approach is mainly concerned with the contents – if one wants to use the psychological distinction in this context – or the quality of the self. Both are important research areas for understanding the self and its formation, but not all aspects are relevant for the contemplation at hand. Schmid’s thoughts about the qualities of the self are more important for an educational approach to the art of living than structural or neurological considerations. However, we can learn from psychology that what one experiences as one’s own self does have a representation in our brain – not a single area, but various functions and relevant stored memories. Further, memories are an important part of one’s self-concept – especially memories that are encoded as relevant to the self. Therefore, educational processes (learning and experiences) can influence and support the formation of one’s self, especially when the educational object (content, idea, skill) is found relevant to his or her own self by the pupil and linked with his or her self-concept. A conclusion one can draw here is that an educational art of living concept needs to pay attention to making the relevance of the lesson at hand for one’s own self obvious and understandable for the student. After all, the shaping and growth of the self is the core concept of the art of living.
Show more

14 Read more

Urban dreaming : art and the psychology of place

Urban dreaming : art and the psychology of place

A visit to New York or Manchester emphasizes the low density of our cities, just as Glasgow and Leeds highlight the quality and spaciousness of average Australian housing.' 49 Frost focu[r]

52 Read more

Improving Students Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology

Improving Students Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology

The focus on training students to summarize reflects the belief that the quality of summaries matters. If a summary does not emphasize the main points of a text, or if it includes incor- rect information, why would it be expected to benefit learning and retention? Consider a study by Bednall and Kehoe (2011, Experiment 2), in which undergraduates studied six Web units that explained different logical fallacies and provided examples of each. Of interest for present purposes are two groups: a con- trol group who simply read the units and a group in which stu- dents were asked to summarize the material as if they were explaining it to a friend. Both groups received the following tests: a multiple-choice quiz that tested information directly stated in the Web unit; a short-answer test in which, for each of a list of presented statements, students were required to name the specific fallacy that had been committed or write “not a fal- lacy” if one had not occurred; and, finally, an application test that required students to write explanations of logical fallacies in examples that had been studied (near transfer) as well as explanations of fallacies in novel examples (far transfer). Sum- marization did not benefit overall performance, but the research- ers noticed that the summaries varied a lot in content; for one studied fallacy, only 64% of the summaries included the correct definition. Table 3 shows the relationships between summary content and later performance. Higher-quality summaries that contained more information and that were linked to prior knowl- edge were associated with better performance.
Show more

55 Read more

Bringing art back to psychology

Bringing art back to psychology

David: It reminds me of a paper in Quest some years ago (Ingham, Chase & Butt, 2002) where the authors accused sport psychology of ‘tinkering around the edges,’ failing to get to the important issues. But what you were saying just then, which I hadn’t thought of, was if it was, say, a yoga master, they’ve got to some level or plane of knowing based on deep immersion in what they do. Yet the researchers have perhaps not even realized that plane or level of knowing exists. That whole world is outside the research agenda. It’s sounding a bit like what was researched in sport – certainly then and perhaps still now – was governed by an overly narrow, procedural idea about what it is to be a successful
Show more

10 Read more

Exploring the e‑Learning State of Art

Exploring the e‑Learning State of Art

Abstract: e-Learning implementation is an area in progress that continues to evolve with time and further research. Researchers in the field argue that e-Learning is still in its infancy, resulting into numerous implementation strategies across a wide e-Learning spectrum. This paper explores the e-Learning state of art. It provides a general overview of the learning process, evaluates some current implementation trends pointing out a range of frameworks and strategies used in the past decade. It further looks at the changes created by the adoption of e-Learning within the higher education process. This is followed by an identification of emerging issues from which two problems are identified; 1) the limited uptake of technology as an instruction delivery method; and 2) the ineffective use of technology to support learning. In respect to this, future research should therefore seek to further investigate these aspects and to explore suitable approaches for effective implementation of e-Learning to support learning. Not the least in higher education contexts.
Show more

12 Read more

EFL students and the art of effective writing: Problems and Solutions

EFL students and the art of effective writing: Problems and Solutions

Data consistently shows that EFL students on all levels score lower in writing than any other domain. It is the last domain of second language learning to fully develop. Researchers have discovered many reasons for this problem, and a key part of it is how they feel about themselves as writers. Becoming a proficient writer of English is a problem for many ESL students as they believe that they simply cannot write English. This becomes more prominent in the upper grade levels of elementary school and beyond. This feeling of incompetency leads to self-doubt and anxiety in writing and can hinder the process of achieving writing proficiency (Thomas, 1993). Researchers believe that it is not the task of writing that is deemed so intimidating, but more so the feedback and assessment of that writing by instructors and/or peers (Kasper & Petrello, 1998).
Show more

19 Read more

EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING

EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING

disadvantage. For one teacher going out into the community, away from their resource ‘base’, it was difficult to deliver anything other than worksheet-based approaches. However, another teacher regarded working in community education as preferable as it made it easier to treat learners as individuals and not be so focused on targets – travelling between centres can create a difficulty with resources. One teacher, teaching in a room with no adult literacy resources whatever (an art studio), said it would be ‘my dream to plan a lesson and know I have the resources to hand’. There were also concerns about stocks of certain resources, e.g., dictionaries, even at apparently well-resourced centres, and audio cassettes to enable
Show more

76 Read more

Adaptive Learning in Psychology: Wayfinding in the Digital Age

Adaptive Learning in Psychology: Wayfinding in the Digital Age

Other scholars approached the concept from even broader perspectives. Silver (2012) addressed the notion of progressive learning ability by using athletics, arguing that the path to significant achievement is rarely linear even for the most talented. According to him, rigidity impedes progress, while effective adaptive learning is best defined as controlled intensity. In a different framework, boyd (2014) argued that adaptability is critical to social networks because users must understand the interplay of context, audience, and identity in order to navigate virtual communities effectively—a seemingly important implication for learning networks. Shultz (2010) discussed the necessity of understanding that being wrong is a critical component in the learning process. She cited the writer Menand as saying, “…The right answer is, in a sense, a function of the mistakes” (p. 34)—suggesting that incorrectness increases the likelihood of following alternative paths. Levitt and Dubner (2014) were adamant in arguing that adaptiveness is the key to effective education, “The key to learning is feedback. It is nearly impossible to learning anything without it” (p. 34). Diamond (1997) further reinforced the adaptive feedback principle by characterizing the process as autocatalytic with continuous feedback loops, creating a sustaining synergy—an implicit reference to the go-at-your–own-pace capability of adaptive learning. Finally, Carpman and Grant (2012) provided a functional hierarchy for personal geographies (or adaptive learning) by what they identified as a directional sense. We augment their terms within the framework of learning:
Show more

23 Read more

Effective teaching and learning : reading

Effective teaching and learning : reading

disadvantage. For one teacher going out into the community, away from their resource ‘base’, it was difficult to deliver anything other than worksheet-based approaches. However, another teacher regarded working in community education as preferable as it made it easier to treat learners as individuals and not be so focused on targets – travelling between centres can create a difficulty with resources. One teacher, teaching in a room with no adult literacy resources whatever (an art studio), said it would be ‘my dream to plan a lesson and know I have the resources to hand’. There were also concerns about stocks of certain resources, e.g., dictionaries, even at apparently well-resourced centres, and audio cassettes to enable
Show more

76 Read more

The Learning Psychology of Visual Programming for Object-Orientation

The Learning Psychology of Visual Programming for Object-Orientation

Object-orientation is widely acknowledged as an area of computing which is difficult to learn. The principles themselves may not be very difficult to grasp but the deep understanding of the concepts needed to produce effective object-oriented solutions to problems is hard to achieve. The proposal outlined in this paper is to provide a computer-based learning environment for object-orientation, with the intention of both making it easier to learn and instilling a greater understanding in the students.

8 Read more

BSc Psychology by distance learning. Welcome to the programme

BSc Psychology by distance learning. Welcome to the programme

Your induction week will start on 16 rd September 2013. As with all of your learning, the induction is supported by information in our VLE; access to our VLE (Moodle) is described in Appendix 1. In addition, tutors are available for you online and we encourage you to post to the discussions on Moodle as soon as you’re able so that the staff and other students can get to know you, and you us! You will also be introduced to Athens which you will use to access data bases containing journal articles as well as ebooks.

6 Read more

Effective teaching and learning : writing

Effective teaching and learning : writing

NRDC Writing LIVE REVISED FROM JH 20/1/07 17:44 Page 31 Effective Teaching and Learning : Writing 5 Learners’ progress 5.1 Introduction In this chapter we provide an overview of the prog[r]

80 Read more

Effective parallelisation for machine learning

Effective parallelisation for machine learning

The empirical evaluation of the Radon machine in Section 4 confirms its potential in practical set- tings. Given the same data as the sequential application of the base learning algorithm, the Radon machine achieves a substantial reduction of computation time in realistic application scenarios. In particular, using 150 processors, the Radon machine is between 80 and around 700-times faster than the base learner. Notice that superlinear speed-ups are possible for base learning algorithms with superlinear runtime. Compared with parallel learning algorithms from the Spark machine learning library, it achieves hypotheses of similar quality, while requiring only 15 − 85% of their runtime. Parallel computing [18] and its limitations [14] have been studied for a long time in theoretical com- puter science [7]. Parallelising polynomial time algorithms ranges from being ‘embarrassingly’ [26] easy to being believed to be impossible: For the class of decision problems that are the hardest in P, i.e., for P-complete problems, it is believed that there is no efficient parallel algorithm in the sense of Nick’s Class (NC [9]): efficient parallel algorithms in this sense are those that can be executed
Show more

12 Read more

Effective teaching and learning : writing

Effective teaching and learning : writing

This strategy describes characteristics that have long been associated with good adult literacy teachers. It also tallies with learners’ appreciation of teachers’ understanding of their problems and willingness to explain things they did not understand In relation to writing. It may suggest that support and feedback from the teacher while learners are drafting, and the ‘mini lessons’ in response to learners’ errors and queries are effective in enabling them to develop as writers. Classes in which one of the seven features of practice, “Use of authentic materials and activities” was a strong feature made less
Show more

36 Read more

Effective teaching and learning : numeracy

Effective teaching and learning : numeracy

Differences between learning numeracy as a child and as an adult Many of those interviewed spoke of anxiety about returning to learning to study numeracy, and most of these were women. However, not all learners had worries and this was particularly true of the 16 to 19-year-olds, as many were, in effect, continuing at school. Many learners contrasted their experiences of learning maths at school with their current experience of numeracy education, highlighting the smaller classes and the individual attention they now received. Many also cited the relaxed atmosphere, their feelings of security, the lack of pressure from teachers and peers, the sense of making progress, and the
Show more

32 Read more

Effective Decision Tree Learning

Effective Decision Tree Learning

The proposed algorithm called effective decision tree (EDT) algorithm constructs a decision tree classifier splitting each node into left and right nodes. Initially, the root node contains all the training data tuples with numerical attributes containing point data. The process of partitioning the tuples in a node into two sets based on the best split value of an attribute and storing the resulting tuples in its left and right nodes is referred to as splitting. Whenever further split of a node is not required then it becomes a leaf node referred to as an external node. All other nodes except root node are referred as internal nodes. The splitting process at each internal node is carried out recursively until no further split is required. Further splitting of an internal node is stopped if one of the stop stopping criteria given hereunder is met.
Show more

6 Read more

Effective teaching and learning : numeracy

Effective teaching and learning : numeracy

A series of univariate analyses (one-way ANOVAs, see Glossary) was carried out first to investigate if any learner characteristics were related to amount of progress made (as measured by gain in scores between T1 and T2). The following variables were examined: gender, age group, first language, ethnic group, having attended another numeracy class since school, reporting a factor affecting learning and formal qualifications held. Table 5.3 below shows the mean gains in scores for each variable, as well as whether the differences are statistically significant. It can be seen that females made on average larger gains than males and that the 30–39 and 40–49 age groups made the smallest gains on average. Learners from non-white ethnic backgrounds also had larger gains. The only statistically significant difference found was that learners who said they lacked a formal qualification in maths made greater progress. There was no correlation between the age participants left school/full-time education and the magnitude of the gain in scores between T1 and T2 (rho = –0.04, p = 0.4).
Show more

76 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...