ABOUT THE AUTHOR Mark Kahn is the director of technology at Magnolia Broadband Inc. (www.magno- liabroadband.com) where he is responsible for new technology and standards assess- ment. Previously, Kahn was the chief devel- opment officer with Protean Radio Networks, a company developing adaptive diversity technology for use in 802.11 WLAN systems. Kahn was also vice presi- dent of systems engineering at U.S. Wireless Corp. (www.uswcorp.com) and a senior technical specialist at Raytheon E-Systems (www.raytheon.com). He holds a B.S., an M.S., and a Ph.D. (ABD) degrees in electri- cal engineering. Kahn can be reached at email@example.com.
At this stage, the scheduling problem of on-demand XML data broadcast is quite similar to the scheduling problem in multi-item data broadcast. The schedul- ing problem of multi-item data broadcast is known as a NP-Complete problem (Chung & Kim 1999). Up to now, a large body of studies has been done to solve the scheduling problem of multi-item data broadcast. However, previous work mainly considers access frequencies of data items and different queried result sets containing multiple items. In XML data broadcast, the data items have a variety of lengths and thus scheduling algorithms should take it into account. Moreover, existing scheduling algorithms suggest that the server only broadcast part of the queried results of the pending queries in one broad- cast cycle (or one schedule) in order to achieve bet- ter access efficiency. This idea is under the premise that the data items are all atomic and each data item may be required by different queries. However, in on-demand XML data broadcast, data items are no longer atomic and thus each broadcast cycle aims to satisfy all pending queries that were issued during the previous broadcast cycle period. Based on this obser- vation, we analyze the new model of scheduling XML data in on-demand broadcast and then put forward an improved scheduling algorithm in the following. 4.1 Analysis of Scheduling On-Demand XML
The main objective of this paper is to propose an on demand QoS routing algorithm. Since the requirements for various applications may vary time to time, the approach for QoS routing may not be proactive. The proposed approach has two phases namely route discovery phase and route maintenance phase. When a source node has to pass data to a destination node with QoS requirements it starts with the route discovery phase. Once the route is found, the data transfer will take place. While data transmission is going on, it is also required to maintain the path to the destination. This is very much desirable and required in mobile ad hoc networks and hence is done in the route maintenance phase.
For the simulation, 35 sensor nodes ,one sink and a mobile element deployed in a sensor field of size 450m*450m is considered. Network simulator NS2 is used for the simulation. The mobile element will visit each RP which reports an event. The speed of the mobile element is taken as 100m/s. At each time interval sensor nodes will produce a data packet of length 30 bytes. Each node has an initial energy of 100 joules. Energy consumption in the transmitter and receiver circuit for transmission and reception of one packet is 50 mw and 20 mw respectively. Chart 1 depicts the average remaining energy of the sensor nodes for weighted rendezvous planning (WRP) and on demanddata collection scheme. Initial energy of the sensor nodes is 100 joules. Results indicate that the average remaining energy of the sensor nodes in on demanddata collection scheme is more than that of WRP in each time interval. After 25 seconds, the remaining energy of sensor nodes in WRP is 70 joules and that of on demanddata collection scheme is 92 joules. This is because in WRP sensor nodes send their data to the RPs periodically and the mobile element visits these RPs along a fixed path for data collection. But in on demand scheme nodes send their data only if it detects an event ie, if the sensed value is higher than a particular threshold. So unnecessary energy expenditure for periodic data transfer is avoided here and this method helps to improve the lifetime of the sensor network.
the small and medium business industry in Indonesia. This study uses secondary data and is a descriptive study that looks at how the development of the SME industry in Indonesia. The results of the study will illustrate how the potential of the SME industry and the role of SMEs can influence the development and growth of the SME industry in Indonesia. The hope is that this study can describe the state of the economy in Indonesia in terms of the contribution of the SME industry sector. From the existing SMEs, it will be seen how the situation of the SME industry in Indonesia tends to focus more on the supply side or on the demand side. Good business is a business that reaches a balance point when the number amount of goods demanded is equal to the quantifier of goods offered. So from this, it can be concluded that the right policy and can provide effective advice and policies to enhance the development of the SME industry in Indonesia.
Wireless networks were originally designed for the wireless transmission of data. Therefore, adding voice and video presents several challenges that must be resolved before voice over WLAN can supplant traditional wirelessvoice solutions: best-in-class voice quality, robust security embedded in the corporate security model, support for both on and off-site mobility, high availability, and low total cost of ownership (TCO).
The second generation mobile technology is a successor of first generation mobile technology. Due to the analog speech signals, low data rate and insufficient data communication there is a emerging demand of the next generation wireless system that provides high speed data communication as well as voice transmission . Thus, the analog technology in first generation is replaced by digital technology in 2G wireless systems. Instead of analog frequency modulation(FM) technique the digital modulation techniques are used in second generation. The access techniques used in second generation are TDMA(time division multiple access) and CDMA(code division multiple access) along with the frequency division duplexing(FDD) technique. By using the second generation technologies the system capacity is three times greater than the first generation analog systems. Due to the increase in spectrum efficiency is three times compared to the first generation analog systems.
Abstract— The high demand for network coverage in an indoor setting brought about the acceptance of femtocell technology as a solution using the backhaul connectivity in the existing network. The quality of signal, voice calling, Internet, security and data are improved through the use femtocell at the indoor environment. Here the service provider attempts to reduce their operation cost by presenting self-organizing mechanisms for optimization of the network. The remarkable part is that, femtocells improves coverage, enhances the data rate at the indoor environment. Therefore, the challenges of the femtocell also known as interference deteriorates the capacity and quality performance of the whole cellular network. In this paper we simulate the bit error rate against signal behaviour at the indoor environment and we also simulate the transmitting power over signal for both macrocells and femtocells. We focus on the transmitting power that might cause interference within the cellular network.
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Abstract— Increasing demands for high-speed broadband wireless communications with voice over long term evolution (LTE), video on demand, multimedia, and mission-critical applications for public safety motivate 4th-generation (4G) and 5G communication developments. The level IP-based LTE and LTE-Advanced innovations are the normal key drivers for 5G. Be that as it may, LTE, with its slipped by security mechanism and open nature, leaves an immense proviso for interlopers to risk the whole correspondence network. The time and data transfer capacity expending validation technique in LTE prompts benefit interruptions and influences it to unfit for open wellbeing applications. To provide food the predominant LTE security and administration necessities, we propose the protective selective jamming mechanism, which is composed of two dependent protocols: 1) Privacy-protected for DDoS attack and 2) Selection for attacking users. The PSJM supports seamless communication with a minimum signaling load on core elements and conceals users' permanent identifiers to ensure user privacy. We simulate the proposed conventions for authentication with the broadly acknowledged robotized approval of Internet security conventions and applications instrument. A relative examination of data transfer capacity and energy utilization is likewise performed and demonstrated through NS2 tool that the proposed 4GCPAM beats the current arrangements.
Optical wireless communication is the emerging technology used for next generation indoor and outdoor broadband wireless applications. OWC is used to handle high data rate and it has very large information handling capacity and introduced a huge potential to the future of the global telecommunication industry. Optical communication systems are classified according to their transmission medium: guided medium such as fibre communication and unguided medium like optical wireless communication (OWC) or free- space optical communication (FSOC). Early in the 20th century all the data transmitted in the rage of few kHz of bandwidth for communication. Because of emerging of internet, the demand of data increases day by day. To complete the demand of high-speed Internet, video- conferencing, live streaming etc., new transmission medium has been researched. Light wave communication in guided media such as fibre and in unguided medium such as optical wireless communication is the alternative communication system to this problem. Optical wireless communication systems also provide as alternative solution to the fibre optics technology which is capable of full duplex transmission of data, voice and video in certain applications. Optical wireless communication has proven their usefulness through a wide range of communication applications.
Much work remains to be accom- plished if this vision for the future of emergency communications is to be realized. Development of a real-time wireless incident communications net- work requires the many stakeholders to work together to provide a coordi- nated suite of standards and open sys- tem architectures, in a reasonable time frame. New public policies are required to provide incentives (positive and negative) for standards compliance. Technology users need to be educated about the benefits of broad-scale voice and data interoperability, and encour- aged to demand and specify interop- erable standards and open architec- tures. Funding programs ideally would encourage the sharing of networks to save money. At the same time, in- formation-sharing policies need to be developed to address privacy concerns related to sharing of medical and judi- cial information. Work on common data dictionaries must be coordinated and accelerated, and agreements on com- mon emergency communications terms must be developed.
The demand for the VoIP services and Wi-Fi networks has been increased signiﬁ cantly in recent years. The wireless Internet connection becomes a standard in companies, public spaces and households as well. Besides the traditional data, more voice and video services traverse converged networks. Traﬃ c of these multimedia services is more sensitive to network distortions in comparison with traditional data traﬃ c. These network traﬃ c impairments occur especially in wireless networks. A high quality design of the wireless network should be performed before the Wi-Fi deployment in the case of VoIP providing. The appropriate signal coverage should be ensured to prevent the VoIP quality degradation. On the other hand, the implementation cost on wireless infrastructure inﬂ uenced mainly by number of access points (AP) may not be too high. The necessary number of APs can be easily obtained when the VoIP call quality behaviour in the wireless network is known. The VoIP call quality will be evaluated using the QoE methods that apply end-user perspective. The elementary QoE metric is MOS (Mean Opinion Score), a qualitative value, where the value of 5 means excellent and 1 means bad.
"Multipoint" indicates a broadcast signal from the subscribers, the term "distribution" defines the wide range of data that can be transmitted, data ranging anywhere from voice, or video to Internet and video traffic(Later on in the 3rd section, the emergence of LMDS shows why it is good at transmitting such a wide variety of data). It provides high capacity point to multipoint data access that is less investment intensive. LMDS with its wireless delivery combined with a significant amount of spectrum allocated, promises to allow for a very high quality communication services. It transmits wave signals with-in small cells. As it has been tested by the US military and the corporate pioneers like the Speed Us, it is undoubtedly a proven technology. Originally designed for wireless digital television transmission LMDS and MMDS(Microwave Multipoint Distribution System) were predicted to serve the wireless Subscription Television needs. MMDS is also a broadband wireless communication service which operates at lower frequencies. Usually, LMDS operates at frequencies above the 10 Ghz range and MMDS at frequencies below the 10GHz range. Later on they were extended to offer other interactive services.
Wireless LAN (WLAN) or Wi-Fi® has become much more than a solution for small networks. Because of its inherent efficiency and flexibility, wireless has captured the IT mainstream and is now recognized as a viable and effective solution for enterprise and carrier-class networks. Enterprises across all vertical markets are recognizing the tremendous operational benefits of enabling wireless client mobility with data and voice over IP (VoIP) services, often creating specific coverage zones or “hot zones” to better serve their customers. Wireless coverage can also extend to much larger deployments such as metropolitan and regional networks, or even multi-city transportation applications.
The design and engineering of proficient multimedia traffic schemes in wireless cellular networks with Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees involve the performance modeling and analysis of multi-server, finite capacity nodes of queueing network models (QNMs) with drop out calls from queue. This paper focuses on a non-preemptive cellular scheme, where originating and handoff voice and data calls are prioritized by assigning finite capacity queues with dedicated channels, as appropriate. In this context, a performance evaluation study is undertaken based on the analysis of a finite capacity M/M/c/K building block queue with c servers with a Poisson call arrival process and exponentially distributed call time out periods. A new exact closed form steady state probability distribution and associated performance measures are derived and some typical numerical experiments are carried out to evaluate the impact of different traffic patterns on QoS.
The proposal to the customer included a full-scale upgrade of the existing voice, data and wireless infrastructure — from servers to switches and routers — in order to support the new VoIP solution. GCI sales and technical resources thoroughly explained the value and benefits of each component of the system, winning the customer’s confidence with a combination of technical expertise and business analysis of the customer’s existing pain points.
• Turn Off the Broadcast of the Wireless Network Name (SSID). If you disable broadcast of the SSID, only devices that have the correct SSID can connect. This nullifies the wireless network “discovery” feature of some products such as Windows XP, but the data is still fully exposed to a determined snoop using specialized test equipment like wireless sniffers.
Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a wide area wireless communication system that use digital radio transmission to provide voice, data and multimedia communication services. A GSM system coordinates the communication between a mobile telephones (mobile stations), base station (cell sites), and switching systems. Each GSM radio channel is 200 kHz wide channels that are further divided into frames that hold 8 time slots. GSM was originally named Group Special Mobile. The GSM system includes mobile telephone (mobile station), radio towers (base station), and interconnecting switching systems.