Top PDF ASSESSING THE KNOWLEDGE ON SELF MEDICATION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS OF BANGLADESH

ASSESSING THE KNOWLEDGE ON SELF MEDICATION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS OF BANGLADESH

ASSESSING THE KNOWLEDGE ON SELF MEDICATION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS OF BANGLADESH

Self medication is a pattern obtaining and consumption of drugs without the proper guideline of physicians by diagnostic or other medical procedures. [1] Self medication is widely practiced worldwide and can cause both benefit and harm at a time if it is not properly mentored by experts of drugs. [2] As the result of harm self medication can bring many unexpected and health hazardous states like adverse drug reactions, resistance of pathogens, physical dependence, misdiagnosis, abuse of drug resources etc. [3] About the self medication World Health Organization (WHO) has pointed out the accurate and responsible self medication can help to prevent or treat diseases only which don’t require physicians’ consultation or can be used as over the counter drugs. [4] This self prescribing practice is predominant in the developing countries like south Asian countries as it allows the low cost
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A Questionnaire Based Study Regarding the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Self-Medication Among Second Year Undergraduate Medical Students

A Questionnaire Based Study Regarding the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Self-Medication Among Second Year Undergraduate Medical Students

practices in our country remained uncharted. With this in mind, the present study was planned to determine the pattern of Self-medication practices, to find out the common ailments and common drugs used, reasons for Self-medication along with assessing relationship between the level of medical education and the Self- medication practices among medical undergraduates. On one hand, students become more and more cautious in practising self medication, knowing that irrational and inappropriate usage of them might be more harmful than useful, so they, even in situations of minor illnesses prefer taking any medication only after consultation from a qualified practitioner. On the other hand, they may become confident, and in most cases, overconfident, regarding their “bookish” knowledge and may start implementing self care. They may either become successful in this attempt boosting up their confidence levels, hence encouraging them for its continued use or even over-use, or may suffer such setbacks leading to a detrimental health or a diseased state. However, it is also recognized that self-medication must be accompanied by appropriate health information. [6]
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PREVALENCE OF SELF MEDICATION PRACTICES AMONG MEDICAL & ALLIED HEALTH STUDENTS IN MALAPPURAM

PREVALENCE OF SELF MEDICATION PRACTICES AMONG MEDICAL & ALLIED HEALTH STUDENTS IN MALAPPURAM

Headache and nasal congestion (93.94% each) were cited to be the most common ailment for which self-medication was practiced closely followed fever (92.73%). Of those who purchased antibiotics, only 66.48% (117) completed the full course and 76.7% (135) used a previous prescription to make the purchase. Of those who used prior prescription, it was assessed that the same prescription was used more than 2 times by 72.6% (98) of the subjects. 11.93% (21) subjects who used antibiotics contracted adverse effects irrespective of the intensity. Among those who used Vitamins, only 1.62% (3) suffered adverse effect and among analgesic users, 15.03% (43) contracted side effects. About 310 (94%) students prefer self-medication to them and their family members. Knowledge from health magazines, internet, and books were major sources of self-medication. About 45% were using other system of medicine like Ayurveda as self-medication. Among the subjects, only 12.1% (38) were unaware that interactions could occur, 13.7% (43) were unaware of the hazards of increased dose and 36.1% (113) were unaware of the harm due to improper duration. 85.3% (267) of the participants who used self-medication believed that they were able to properly diagnose diseases and 67.29% (215) considered themselves to be capable of selecting a suitable regimen for therapy.
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Study on Self-medication Practices among University Students of Bangladesh

Study on Self-medication Practices among University Students of Bangladesh

Self-medication is a widespread practice regarded by the World Health Organization (WHO) as being part of self-care [1,2]. It is a common practice globally and is reported to be on rise [3]. Prevalence rates of self-medication are reported to be higher in developing countries [4]. The drugs most frequently used through self- medication are analgesics and antipyretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and antimicrobials [5-11]. Practice to self-medicate is reported to be influenced by many factors such as education, family, society, law, availability of drugs and exposure to advertisements [12-14]. Self-medication is one of the important issues in healthcare sector and has been debated. Those who are against it believe that it may be related to incorrect self-diagnosis, delays in seeking medical advice when needed, infrequent but severe adverse reactions, dangerous drug interactions, incorrect manner of administration, incorrect dosage, incorrect choice of therapy, masking of a severe disease, and risk of dependence and abuse [15-18].
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PRACTICE OF SELF MEDICATION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS OF GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE AND TEACHING HOSPITAL

PRACTICE OF SELF MEDICATION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS OF GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE AND TEACHING HOSPITAL

The study was conducted to find out various aspects of self-medication (SM) among medical students. A prospective, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out among 285 medical students of 2 nd , 3 rd and 4 th year. Data were collected and analyzed for counts and percentage. Students reported self-medication in the last one year were 76 % and the frequency of SM was more in final year students.35% believed that they practice SM as the complains were mild in form, followed by quick relief of symptoms and time saving. Abdominal pain along with headache and fever were the most frequent causes for SM in our study. While commonly used drugs were analgesics and antipyretic along with antacids and antibiotics. Most common source for acquiring these medicines were pharmacist shops followed by unused medicines from previous prescription and unsold physician sample. However 83% believed that for practicing SM some medical knowledge is must.71% also believed that SM is not bad all the time and must be encouraged in selected cases. Effective and safe SM practice in some cases can be done by active participation of hospitals and clinics along with pharmacist in educating the people.17% believed that SM must never be practiced and strict rules must be made for pharmacists who indulge in false malpractice.
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Self medication practices among medical students of a private institute

Self medication practices among medical students of a private institute

The study was undertaken to evaluate various aspects of self-medication in medical students. A prospective, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out among 488 medical students selected by simple random sampling from January 2013 to June 2013. Data was collected and analyzed for counts and percentage. Students reported self-medication in the preceding one year was 71.7 % and the prevalence was more in final year students. Fever and headache were the most frequently reported illnesses, commonly used drugs were antipyretics and analgesics, obtained information through reading material, and reasons quoted were minor ailments and quick relief. Majority students agreed that medical knowledge is necessary for administration of medicine by self. Self-medication is highly prevalent in medical students, which is quite alarming.
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Assessing HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Stigmatizing Attitudes among Medical Students in Universiti Putra Malaysia

Assessing HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Stigmatizing Attitudes among Medical Students in Universiti Putra Malaysia

The knowledge scale that was used in this present study, though was acceptable to the students might not be adequate to differentiate between the two groups of the students. Items that assess culturally-influenced clinical knowledge areas such as injecting drug use, homosexuality, commercial sex and commercial blood donation could be important in affecting stigmatizing attitudes among the medical students. The other limitation would be the social-desirability bias in answering questionnaire assessing stigmatizing attitude in the lecture hall with friends sitting close next to each other. However, we believe this was minimal as the questionnaire was self-administered and returned immediately after completion leaving minimal chances for discussion among the students. Future studies in assessing medical students stigmatizing attitudes towards PLWHA should begin with a validated scale that covers wider knowledge areas in HIV/AIDS. More effort to elucidate medical students’ perception of stigmatizing attitudes towards PLWHA is laudable.
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Self-medication is widely prevalent worldwide, especially in developing countries [10] like Northern Cyprus where not only OTC drugs, even most of the prescription only medicines (POM) are also easily accessible without prescriptions in community pharmacies. A published study in 2014 in Northern Cyprus reported that 87% of patients bought unprescribed medication at least once during their life and most commonly used medications are painkillers (32.9%) and antibiotics (29.3%) [11]. Studies have also shown that, self- medication is much more common among physicians, nurses, pharmacists and medical students as compared to general population [12]. There are many factors that influence their self- medication practice like easy availability of drugs, advertising of drug manufacturers, previous experiences with symptoms or disease, self- confidence about accurate drug knowledge, home-kept prescription drugs and easy access to information [13].
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KAP STUDY Implications of self-medication among medical students-A dilemma

KAP STUDY Implications of self-medication among medical students-A dilemma

current study was conducted among medical students of different institutions to evaluate their level of knowledge and pattern of practice regarding SM. This study used self- explanatory questionnaire which was largely dependent upon the information given by the respondents. Students were encouraged to independently fill the questionnaire but still mutual influence between the students and recall bias could not be ruled out completely.

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Self-Medication Practices with Antibiotics among Second Year Medical Students of Government Medical College, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh

Self-Medication Practices with Antibiotics among Second Year Medical Students of Government Medical College, Raigarh, Chhattisgarh

Antibiotics play a crucial role both in life of a doctor as well as the patient. These subset of drugs are not only lifesaving but they also relieves the distress associated with infection. Life without them seems to be quite un-comfortable. Antibiotics are the mainstay of treating infection and hence every effort should be made for their rational use. Self-medication labels to the use of any drug without a valid prescription, or just on the basis of prior knowledge of drug use or any information obtained from any source such as social media, books, journals, internet etc. During recent years, self-medication has tremendously increased in the society as lay person are getting more and more information about the drug use and hence practise of self-medication is increasing day by day.
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Patterns of self-medication among medical and nonmedical University students in Jordan

Patterns of self-medication among medical and nonmedical University students in Jordan

The survey included questions about respondents’ sociodemographic, clinical information, education, history and pattern of physician visits, studentsknowledge and beliefs of OTC medications and practice of the consumption of OTC and prescribed drugs (self-medication), reasons for the self-prescribed practice, sources of advice, and frequent symptoms prompting self-medication. The survey included primarily close-ended questions. Some of the questions may tolerate more than 1 answer (example: reasons for self-medication). Questions were related to the period of the previous 6 months. The questionnaire was also piloted on 50 students and tested among a group of students to receive feedback about understandability and clarity of the questions, and data of the pilot study were not included in the final analysis. The questionnaire was adjusted as per feedback from the piloted sample. The survey was developed after a comprehensive review of the related literature and consultation among the research team. It was face-validated via consultation with expert colleagues in the field and was also objectively validated for comprehensibility and clarity. Reliability was ensured via calculating Cronbach’s α , which was > 0.7 for all items of the questionnaire.
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SELF‑MEDICATION AMONG UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS IN TWO UNIVERSITIES IN SYRIA

SELF‑MEDICATION AMONG UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS IN TWO UNIVERSITIES IN SYRIA

However, to our best knowledge, no such study examining the self-medication among university students has been performed in Syria. The objective of our study is to estimate the prevalence of self-medication, determine the main symptoms driving self-medication and the most commonly used nonprescription medications among medical students of Aleppo and Al-Andalus universities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a survey-based study in which a pre-validated questionnaire. Study population consisted of medical college students of Aleppo and Al-Andalus universities. Students were explained about the nature and purpose of the study and necessary consent obtained. Any event of use of OTC or prescription medicines without consulting a doctor was considered as self-medication. The questionnaire consisted of 4 sections. The first section contained questions regarding demographic information such as, sex, type of college, and study year. In addition, participants were asked whether they have practiced self-medication in the past
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Pharmacology education and antibiotic self medication among medical students: a cross sectional study

Pharmacology education and antibiotic self medication among medical students: a cross sectional study

Findings of this study cannot establish a causal asso- ciation neither it could be generalised because this is a cross-sectional study conducted at one medical faculty. A nationwide study including all other medical facul- ties of SL would be appropriate. However, the findings are unique because this faculty is located in a rural area with fewer pharmacies around. Confounders of the study could be access to retail pharmacies, the occupation of the parents (parents being health care workers might pre- dispose to self-medication) and inadequate knowledge of pharmacology and microbiology among the students of FPE group. Exclusion of the above confounders is meth- odologically challenging.
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Exploring the perceived factors that affect self-medication among nursing students: a qualitative study

Exploring the perceived factors that affect self-medication among nursing students: a qualitative study

Another perceived factor of self-medication was the use of own and others’ experiences. In this regard, the results of a study showed that, previous history of personal use of medications and counseling was one of the main factors behind self-medication in medical students [15]. In another study, 38% of medical stu- dents used the experiences of the elderly and class- mates as sources of information on self-medication, and 63.6% of them prescribed drug to others, espe- cially family members, friends and peers [25]. Results of another study showed that, more than half of the medical students used their old prescription to treat the same illness [13]. Using others’ experiences can be highly hazardous and lead to exacerbation of the disease and drug resistance, as individuals may have inadequate knowledge about drugs and their compli- cations. Symptoms and illnesses may also be similar and differential diagnosis of them is only possible by a valid physician.
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Self medication among medical and pharmacy students in Bangladesh

Self medication among medical and pharmacy students in Bangladesh

2.9–3.7 % death in hospitals [12]. It was found that drug use is influenced by the socio-demographic character- istics such as gender and age and some socio-cultural aspects, like attitudes about life and health, stress, and social bindings of the consumers [13]. The availability of medicine to the consumers increases the quantities and varieties of pharmaceuticals worldwide and thus is mis- used. This situation has been reported in Nigeria [14]. Even self-prescribed medicines are also prevalent among practicing physicians [15, 16]. In New Delhi, India, it was observed that self-medication was considerably high among undergraduate medical and paramedical students in India and this situation was increased with medical knowledge [17]. The supply of medicine without prescription by the pharmacist can prevent the growing trend of self-medication [18]. In a study from Portugal it was observed that there was lack of general knowledge on using antibiotic correctly among students [19]. It was found in a telephone based population survey in the USA that, 58 % of the participants were not aware of the pos- sible health danger associated with antibiotic use [20]. According to a study in Sri Lanka, antibiotic consump- tion was associated with students’ academic background [21]. Many studies are found on self-medication, among which university students represent an interesting sample for several reasons as they use self-medication very often [22–25]. Therefore, they can be divided into two groups according to the assumption of some certain character- istics such as, the presence of medical subjects in their curricula or lack of that knowledge. Previous studies have shown that medical knowledge can have an important impact on self-medication among students [9], although the general influence is not clear among them [26, 27].
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“Self-Medication Practice among Albanian Students of Medical Sciences” by Rezarta Shkreli, Klodiola Dhamo Afrim Tabaku, Albania.

“Self-Medication Practice among Albanian Students of Medical Sciences” by Rezarta Shkreli, Klodiola Dhamo Afrim Tabaku, Albania.

Self medication is one of the most practiced worldwide issues and can cause both benefits and also side effects at a time, when if it is not properly mentored by drug experts. The aim of the survey was to determine the prevalence, knowledge and practice of self medication among students of an Albanian Medical University. A cross-sectional survey on self-medication was conducted among students of medical sciences, with a standardized questionnaire distributed to a total of 250 students attending third – fifth year of pharmacy and dentistry as well as first - third year of nursery. The prevalence of self-medication has resulted 79.3%. Principal morbidities for seeking self-medication were headache 31.49%, flu/cold/cough 39.39% and fever 23.76%. Regarding the major reasons for seeking self-medication, previous experience with health problem 45.86%, mild illness 35.91%, knowledge about the drug and disease 18.23% and self decision 15.47%. The most used medicines were NSAIDs (analgesics and antipyretics) 44.19%, antibiotics 34.81%, and antihistamines 13.26%. According to this survey the source of information for self medication were previous experience 35.6%, previous prescription 34.7% and consulting with pharmacists 17.1%. Prevalence of self-medication has resulted high in the students included in this survey. There is an urgent need to enforce the law on over the counter drug sale and to educate the youth to ensure safe practices.
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Assessing The Level of First-Aid Knowledge Among Undergraduate Medical Students in King Saud University

Assessing The Level of First-Aid Knowledge Among Undergraduate Medical Students in King Saud University

A pre-tested self-administered close-ended questionnaire [7, 8] with yes, no, and I don’t know answers was used in the present study. It consisted of two sections: one section testing general knowledge of first aid and a second section testing knowledge about handling a variety of emergency situations, including trauma, fractures, burns, seizures, bites, and bleeding. All the participants signed a written consent form in which it was indicated that the information obtained would be confidential and used solely for educational purposes. Two different survey forms were used in this study, a paper-based survey form and an online survey, both of which included the same content. The online survey was necessary in order to overcome the challenges of survey distribution and students’ responses, particularly for first- and second-year female students who study in a different building. A pilot study was conducted with 20 students to evaluate the questionnaire efficacy before collecting the actual data.
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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Self-Medication Among Basic Science Undergraduate Medical Students in a Medical School in Western Nepal

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and herbal medicines are also commonly used for self-medication because of their easy availability and accessibility; people have some knowledge about herbal remedies, and hold the perception that herbal products are safe and devoid of side-effects [3]. Medical students during their undergraduate years of study are not legally eligible to prescribe medicines despite their increasing knowledge about the pathophysiology of diseases and therapeutics. Thus they may be in a unique situation with regard to self-medication. Recent studies have shown self-medication to be common among medical students and the incidence was high in medical colleges of South India (92%) [7], Karachi (76%) [8] and Egypt (55%) [9]. Self-medication among medical students may be more because they are empowered with good educational level, greater access to medicine and information, and knowledge of diseases [2,10]. The medical student should have good knowledge about self-medication so that they can practice responsible self-medication. [Table/Fig-1] compares few research articles conducted in India and Nepal on self-medication among medical and paramedical students. Self-medication is unavoidable in certain circumstances so the public should be motivated to practice responsible self-medication [4]. Medical students, future doctors and medical educators, with good knowledge about self-medication could advocate, motivate, and impart essential knowledge to their patients and the general public for responsible self-medication. Furthermore, doctors should be knowledgeable about the self-medication practice in the community so that they could enquire about self-medication by their patients before prescribing medicines. This could help them optimize therapy and avoid drug-drug interactions.
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 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF SELF-MEDICATION IN COLLEGE STUDENTS

 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF SELF-MEDICATION IN COLLEGE STUDENTS

Table 11 shows that-out of 100 respondents, reason for using self- medication was asked to the healthcare students found that 10 (20 %) had reported illness was minor, 05 (10 %) had reported no medical service available, 15 (30 %) had reported lack of time to attend healthcare facilities. 15 (30 %) had reported cost of consultations with doctor, 05 (10 %) had reported to others. And non-healthcare students found that 10 (20 %) had reported illness was minor, 14 (28 %) had reported no medical service available, 08 (16 %) had reported cost of consultations with doctor, 12 (24 %) had reported waiting time in healthcare facilities, 06 (12 %) had reported others.
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Medical Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes towards Self-Medication in Al-Iraqia University, Baghdad, Iraq

Medical Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes towards Self-Medication in Al-Iraqia University, Baghdad, Iraq

Mehta and Sharma study [4] revealed that 50.7% of the respondents had a positive attitude towards self-medication. El ezz and Ez-Elelarab [9] study reported that 56.5% of medical students were agreed to that taking drug without medical prescription was no problem. The study of Selvaraj, Kumar and Ramalingam [17] reported that the majority of respondents expressed that self-medication is harmless (66.6%) and they are going to use (90%). Kumar et al. [16] study showed that more than 50% of participant wished to continue with self-medication/ start self- medication. In the other hand, Zafar et al. [13] study showed that 87% of students thought self- medication could be harmful, the proper explanation for this high negative attitude rate could be due to differences in study population. As there were no previous studies include heterogeneous group of students, the associations between medical studentsknowledge and attitude towards self-medication and their socio-demographic characteristics were seldom reported. The present study revealed that such factors had an effect, and had significant association with respondents’ knowledge and perception. A higher proportion of single females students aged 20+ in third and fourth levels, lived with their families of non sufficient monthly income were seemed to had a good knowledge and positive attitude towards self-medication. Only one study of Kumari et al. [2] concluded that senior medical students have better knowledge about certain aspects of self-medication than junior students although they are well aware of many facts which could be due to easy availability of information through media, internet etc.
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