Research and development of natural fibres as rein- forcement for automotive sectors is a growing interest to scientists and engineers. Nowadays, natural fibres form is an interesting option for the most widely applied fibre in the composite technology. Many studies on natural stud- ies such as keraf, bagasse, jute, ramie, hemp and oil palm [1-9]. Fibrereinforcedcomposites with thermoplastic matrices have successfully proven their high qualities in various fields of engineering application. However, Natural fibres generally have poor mechanicalproperties compared with synthetic fibres but these composites were used as a source of energy to make shelters, clothes, construction of weapons . High cost of synthetic fi- bres and health hazards of abestors fibres have really necessitated the exploration of natural fibres . Con- sequently, natural fibres have always formed wide appli- cations from the time they gained commercial recogni- tion. They possess desirable properties such as biode- grability, renewability, combustibility, lower durability, excellent mechanicalproperties, low density and low price. Stamboulis and Baley  reported that this excel-
In the past few decades, research and engineering interest has been shifting from monolithic materials to fiber-reinforced polymeric materials at macroscopic level or even nano level. The quest for light weight and high strength materials is never ending for due consideration owing to their wide applications. Therefore a polymeric composite material has its importance in the applications of light structures. These composite materials (notably aramid, carbon and glass fiber reinforced plastics etc.) now dominate the aerospace, automotive, construction and sporting industries. However, these fibers have serious drawbacks such as non- renewability, non-recyclability, non-bio-degradability etc. These shortcomings have been highly exploited by proponents of natural fiber composites. Though mechanicalproperties of natural fibers are much inferior to those of artificial fibers, their specific properties, especially stiffness, are comparable to the stated values of artificial fibers. Various kinds of polymer matrix compositesreinforced with metal particles, fibres, whiskers and particles have a wide range of industrial applications. These engineeringcomposites are desired due to their low density, high corrosion resistance, ease of fabrication and low cost. Further the waste products of poultry like chicken feathers are available in million tonnes per day polluting the environment. Similarly effective utilization of wood dust as waste from saw mills may be thought of for developing naturalfibrereinforcedcomposites. Therefore an attempt has been made to prepare composites taking chopped chicken feather and teak wood dust as reinforcements in epoxy matrix in this investigation. The strength characterization and water absorption capacity of these composites are tested as per standards so that proper conclusions can be drawn for their use in structural applications. The various applications of such composites may be in automobiles like seat frame, doors and interior lining etc. They can also be used as packing materials in transportation of delicate articles and household decorating products.
The tested composites are named following the reference of the nonwoven reinforcement and divide to two sets (A and B sets). All the tested composites were manufactured by a hot-press moulding process (see Table 2). The influence on the mechanicalproperties of naturalfibrereinforced thermoplastic composites during the hot-press moulding process has been investigated in the literature [36,37]. Several important process parameters such as the pressure, the temperature, and the time of the cycle were pointed out. One ply nonwoven fabric with the surface dimensions 290 × 290 mm 2 is used. The suitable experimental protocol should be chosen not only to analyse the quality of the resin impregnation but also to control the thickness of the final composite part (around 2 mm). Figure 1 shows an example of the microscopic observation of the composite samples. The microscopic observation makes it possible to distinguish between good and bad impregnation.
Nowadays, many manufacturers focus on using material that requires low cost and produces high-performance products. A disc brake pad usually made up of many materials. The scientist and manufacturers have found out a way to achieve same performance of actual disc brake pad by using naturalfibrereinforced composite to replace the reinforcing fibre in disc brake pad since the natural fibres is easily available, has lightweight criteria, low cost, and comparable mechanicalproperties. The objective of this study is to select the suitable natural fibres for fibrereinforcedcomposites to apply in disc brake pad by using the VIKOR method and comparing the mechanicalproperties with the standard brake pad material (Nigerian Industrial Standard, 1997; SAE, 2001).
Another research conducted by V. Naga Prasad Naidu, G.Ramachandra Reddy the compressive strength and impact strength of unsaturated polyester based sisal/ glass hybrid composite have been studied as a function of fiber content. It is observed that the compressive and impact strength of sisal/glass fibre hybrid component is higher than sisal fibrereinforced composite, but lower than the glass reinforced composite. When the load is applied on sisal/glass fibre hybrid composite, first sisal fiber fails then the load is transferred to glass fibre. So that the presence of glass fibre in the sisal/ glass fibre hybrid composite causes to improve the impact and compressive strength. At the same time the presence of sisal fiber in hybrid composite the causes to decrease the compressive and impact strength than the glass fibre composite. The effect of chalk powder on compressive and impact strength of sisal/glass fibre hybrid composite has also been studied and it is observed that as the chalk powder quantity by weight of resin increases then the compressive and impact strengths decrease.
Abstract: The composite materials reinforced with natural fibers plays a vital role for structural applications. Composites are escalating as sensible preferences in contrast to the metal combinations in numerous applications like automotives, marine and aviation, sports and products applications. Fiber composites offer numerous benefits like, high tensile strength and modulus, minimum specific gravity. In this paper it is viewed as that coconut inflorescence fiber reinforced polyester based polymer composites were manufactured by hand layup strategy and then followed by compression moulding method. The coconut fibers were exposed to alkali treatment to make the fiber free of hydrophobic substance. The mechanicalproperties for example tensile, flexural and izod impact strength were conducted and Scanning Electron Microscope investigation was carried out to discover the fracture failure. The results demonstrated that there is significant increment in strength of the composites contrasted with neat polymer composites. These natural fiber reinforcedcomposites are mostly used in grain storage silos, bio gas containers, bath tubs , chairs lampshades, boats etc.
The CEEFC at USQ, in collaboration with the different railway industries in Australia, has been involved in a number of research and development projects involving innovative fibre composite railway sleepers. One of these developments is the fibre composite railway turnout sleeper made from novel composite sandwich structure developed by CarbonLOC Pty. Ltd. The composite railway turnout sleeper is produced by gluing layers of fibre composite sandwich structure together in flatwise (horizontal) and in edgewise (vertical) orientations. The strength and stiffness properties as well as the resistance to hold screw spikes of these glue-laminated composite sandwich beams are suitable for turnout sleeper application. This fibre composite railway sleeper also has better mechanicalproperties than most of the commercially available sleepers and showed comparable properties with the existing timber turnout sleepers. Railway sleepers made from glue- laminated sandwich structures are now being trialled on an actual railway bridge in Australia as shown in Fig. 13 where it was verified that the fibre composite sleepers are performing to expectations and estimated that its serviceable life should be well in excess of 50 years.
First of all, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sivakumar A/L Dhar Malingam from Faculty of MechanicalEngineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka for his support, encouragement and professional guidance during the entire period of final year project.
Abstract: Last few decades have seen fibrereinforced composite materials being used predominantly in various applications. This review paper discusses about the flexural properties of banana fibre with bio-fibres, which are reinforced hybrid polymer composites. Banana fiber is a lingo-cellulosic fiber, which is obtained from the pseudo-stem of banana plant. Banana fibre is the best fibre with relatively good mechanicalproperties. Banana fiber has good specific strength properties comparable to those of conventional material, like glass fiber. This material has a lower density than glass fibers. Flexural strength of reinforced composite materials is an important factor in the manufacturing of aircraft structures and woven or braided composites. These are used for a wide variety of cross-sectional forms such as stiffeners, truss members, rotor blade, automobile body parts, spares, etc. and they reduce the fabrication cost and weight. A composite material is made by combining two or more materials of banana fibre or bio-fibres with suitable binders or resin. Reinforcement with naturalfibre in composites has recently gained attention due to low cost, low density, eco-friendliness, acceptable specific properties, ease of separation, enhanced energy recovery, Co 2 neutrality, biodegradability and recyclable nature.
Composite materials based on natural fibres, especially jute, have the potential to be used in engineering load bearing applications. Inherent flaws within natural fibres in terms of the presence of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups in their structure absorb atmo- spheric moisture which reduces the compatibility of these fibres with polymer matrices. Fibre surface modifications using chemical treatments have the potential to improve fibre-matrix compatibility. In this study, jute fibres were treated with different concen- tration of alkali (NaOH) solutions. The changes in fibre structure after treatment were investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analy- sis (TGA). Treated fibres were reinforced in polyester matrix to prepare composites by using hand lay-up method. The compatibility between fibre and matrix were analysed through mechanical property testing of the composites. Mechanicalproperties such as flexural and compressive strength, modulus and strain at break of composites were studied and compared. Best results were observed on compressive and flexural prop- erties respectively for 5% and 7% NaOH treated samples. Thermal stability was also enhanced for the treated fibres. In general, thermal and mechanicalproperties of the treated fibres and their composites were superior to the untreated fibres.
Hybrid polymeric composites are new and more developed composites as compared to the traditional fiber reinforced polymer composites. FRP composite contains on one reinforcing phase in the single matrix but hybrids can have more than one reinforcing phase and a single matrix phase or single reinforcing phase with multiple matrix phases or multiple reinforcing. Nowadays, composite materials are used in large number of engineeringapplications such as aviation, automobile and robotics due to versatility in their properties which enables them to be applied in large number of fields. Other reasons are their light weight, corrosion resistance and durability. Composite materials are commonly classified at following two distinct levels: The first level of classification is usually made with respect to the matrix constituent. The major composite classes include Organic Matrix Composites (OMCs), Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) and Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs). Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) and carbon matrix composites commonly referred to as carbon-carbon composites. The second level of classification refers to the reinforcement form - fibrereinforcedcomposites, laminar composites and particulate composites. Fibers are the important class of reinforcements, as they satisfy the desired conditions and transfer strength to the matrix constituent influencing and enhancing their properties as desired. Glass fibers are the earliest known fibers used to reinforce materials .The authors in  have applied linear and polynomial equations for finding the mechanicalproperties, with a simple algorithm that links them. This technique is the accurate method available to determine modulus of elasticity and toughness of the anisotropic materials like composites.
, particularly surface performances of the composites supported natural fibres because of the poor surface bonding between the hydrophilic natural fibres and also the hydrophobic compound matrices. 2 varieties of fibre surface treatment strategies, particularly chemical bonding and chemical reaction were wont to improve the surface bonding properties of fibre bolstered compound composites. Surface properties were evaluated and analyzed by single fibre pull-out check and also the theoretical model. The surface shear strength (IFSS) was obtained by the applied math parameters. The results were compared with those obtained by ancient ways that. supported this study, Associate in Nursing improved technique that may a lot of accurately judge the surface properties between fibre and compound matrices was planned.  Joshi et al . compared life cycle environmental performance of naturalfibrecomposites with glass fibrereinforcedcomposites and found that naturalfibrecomposites are environmentally superior in the specific applications studied.  BC Ray et al . used three point flexural take a look at to qualitatively assess such effects for fifty five, sixty and sixty five weight percentages of the glass fibres strengthened epoxy composites throughout refrigerant and once thawing conditions. The specimens were tested at a spread of 0.5 mm/min to 5.00 mm/min crosshead speed to judge the sensitivity of mechanical response throughout loading at
Environment awareness and sustainability concept attracts researchers and scientist towards utilization of natural fibers as reinforcement in polymer based composites. Natural fibers will take a major role in the emerging ‘green’ economy. Natural fiber reinforcedcomposites are attracting researchers due to their lower cost, light weight, renewability, lower density and high strength to weight ratio. Many recent researchers are undergoing in the field of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites due to the availability and eco-friendly source over conventional engineering materials. Various fibers are available for the reinforcement of polymer matrix, still researchers on new fiber identification for the reinforcement is needed to fulfill the requirements and also to utilize the availability of source for various engineeringapplications. In this paper fiber reinforced composi were prepared with petiole fiber and peduncle fiber. These prepared composites were tested and to study the mechanicalproperties of the composite such as tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength. The results show that the mechanicalproperties of peduncle fiber reinforced composite have better and higher values while compare with the petiole fiber reinforcedcomposites.
ABSTRACT: During the past few decades, Composite Materials have replaced, advantageously, many of the conventional materials in various applications. Composite materials have boundless engineeringapplications, where strength to weight ratio, low cost and ease of fabrication were required. In the present work, specimens of naturalfibre, HOLOPTELEA INTEGRIFOLIA reinforced epoxy composites were fabricated using Hand-Lay-Up process. Epoxy composite specimens of different fibre weight proportions (5gms,10gms,15gms,&20gms) were prepared. By fabricating the composites of different proprotions, Tensile and Flexural tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanicalproperties. Also Chemical Resistance test was done to study the effect of alkali treatment of the fibre, HOLOPTELEA INTEGRIFOLIA. From the above test, it was found that, the fabricated composites were resistant to some acids, alkalines and solvents.
Today, plastic and ceramics have the dominant for a new material for composite materials. Composite materials have grown rapidly by volume and number of applications to break through and capture new markets. These composite materials include a variety of natural ingredients such as dried fruit, rice husk, wheat husk, straw and hemp fibres can be used to provide gentle-reinforced polymer composites for commercial use for agricultural wastes. Bio-based products have a great opportunity to thrive in the world market. This is because, natural fibres have a basic interest amongst them the advantages of weight and fibre matrix adhesion,. There are various types of natural fibres in the world, consisting of sisal, hibiscus cannabinus, eucalyptus grandis pulp, malva, ramie bast, pineapple leaves, kenaf leaves, coconut, sansevieria leaves, hemp leaves, vakka, banana, jute, hemp, ramie , cotton and sugarcane fibres (Ali et al., 2012). In this project, composite materials made from polyester matrix strengthened with coconut fibre will be carried out.
as jute, flax, hemp, sisal and ramie [3-5]. Biofiber or natural fibers composites can be designed for many different applications ranging from simple household products to aerospace . In the automotive sector biofiber composites are predominantly used in interior panels, such as doors, pillar trims, backrest, glove box, trunk liners, rear parcel trays, break shoe, insulation, and seat covering etc. Many of the well-known automobile manufacturers (Mercedes-Benz, Audi, Toyota, Mitsubishi, and Ford) are using biofiber composites for different interior (such as door trim panels, seat foam, storage bin and inner lid, and lower door panel) and exterior parts (such as spare tire wheel covers, back rest and spoilers) of automobile . Other important properties of biofiber composites are good mechanical and manufacturing properties, ease of machining process to make complex components, relatively good impact performance, and health advantages in assembly [8, 9].
Synthetic fibre such as glass and carbon fibrereinforced plastics (FRP) composites have been widely used in industry and in transportation due to their low weight and having good in mechanicalproperties , . However due to increase in environment awareness, these fibres neither naturally decomposed nor recycled . Therefore, fibres based on natural resources have been highly studied in the recent years. Kenaf, hemp, jute, and flax to name a few, have been known for its mechanicalproperties . From literatures , , these natural fibres reinforced plastics are having competitive results compare to the synthetic ones. A part from that, naturalfibre itself has higher specific strength, lower density, and most of all it is abundant availability .
Flexural Test: The flexural test is carried out using universal testing machine. The test specimen was prepared according to ASTMD 790-03 standard. The specimens were tested at a cross head speed of 5 mm/min, at a temperature 22 0 C and humidity 50%.The important mechanicalproperties such as ultimate breaking load, displacement at maximum force and ultimate stress were determined and tabulated in below.
Flammability of natural fibers is greatly dependent upon their chemical composition. Higher cellulose in fiber results lower thermal stability means they have required less activation energy to decompose [13, 14]. Higher lignin content contributes more to char formation which act as a heat barrier, protects the core of material [10, 11]. Lignin starts decomposing at lower temperature (160 0 C), relatively weak bonds break, whereas at higher temperature (400 0 C) cleavage of stronger bonds in the aromatic ring takes place . According to chemical content, coir with a low cellulose (36-43%) & high lignin (41-45%) should have lower flammability than cotton, which has high cellulose (85-90%) content. Not only chemical composition, flammability of the fiber is dependent upon the crystallinity of fiber, degree of polymerization, and fibrillar orientation [15, 16]. The activation energy of decomposition is about 120 kJ/mol for amorphous cellulose
Polymers are mainly used in chemical industry such as lubricants, plasticisers, stabilisers, coatings etc. The demand of these applications is increasing day by day. In earlier days, polymers and polymer composites are derived from petroleum feedstocks. As the demand of polymer and polymer composites increases, there is a need of renewable resources as an alternate petroleum feed stocks. Vegetable oils are a sustainable and renewable raw material. The polymers derived from vegetable oils have many advantages such as cheap, most abundant feedstock, low toxic, biodegradability etc than the petroleum based polymers . Punnal oil is the naturally occurring vegetable oil and is extracted from the seed of the Calophyllum inophyllum tree. It contains 92% triglycerides. The major fatty acids present in punnal oil are palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid .The unsaturated bonds are the most important points in which different functional groups can be introduced into the oils to get chemical modifications . Therefore, the double bonds in the punnal oil have to be converted to more reactive functional groups such as epoxide groups, acrylate groups, hydroxyl groups etc.