Roadconstructionprojects are means through which development objectives are achieved. Various efforts to develop the road have been made to ensure projects' success. There are still remain problems of delay and cost overrun of all roadconstructionprojects in Ethiopia. To improve performance and productivity within, it is very essential to investigate critical areas in roadconstructionprojects. The data I collected showed that what are taken as success criteria by road project organizations are not sufficient. They lack consideration of other important criteria such as satisfaction of user, project team, contractor, client organization and donor organizations; learning and motivation for future projects; health, safety and environment. I also found out that there are problems in roadconstruction management practice, roadconstruction technology, roadconstruction resource, and practitioners’ ethics. There is demand to develop capacity of the roadconstruction industry in these areas. The practitioners also identified criticalsuccessfactors which they believe are important but are not fully practiced by majority of actors involved in the roadconstructionprojects. These activities are: Assessment and adaptation of new technology, Assessment of the market that related to the project e.g. manpower, material supply, facilities ,Involvement of local society in roadconstructionprojects, Management of stakeholders, Clear communication of top management focus, Bench marking & experience transfer, Competent PM with appropriate educational background & experience.
The construction industry is an important key player in the economy of every country [13,15&19]. Despite a number of challenges facing the interest-rate sensitive sectors within the building and construction environment. Although, it is deemed that the industry is improving, the construction industry still faces challenges such as rise of construction cost to 7% . Therefore, the construction industry needs to grow above 7% to show some improvement, due to constant cost increases, the industry faces an uphill battles for growth and the cost of poor quality amongst other factors [6&7]. Swaziland has not escaped the problem of lack of quality focus in the construction industry . The Swaziland construction industry is under pressure due to a combination of factors such as skills shortage, delays in payment, increased fee completion and variable quality .
This paper discussed a review of literatures over past 3 decades on identification and assessment of risk factors in construction project. Almost 1000 international projects from various countries like UK, US, Australia, China, Hong kong, korea, Turkey, Mexico, Malaysia, Thailand etc were considered in this study. It mainly focused on the development of models for assessing the risk factors in constructionprojects. It also discusses the critical risk factors & its contribution in risk assessment techniques. The findings from the review are presented as table & charts. The table 1 discusses about the critical risk factors identified by researches in various constructionprojects. Then a knowledge map is developed and it is shown in fig 1. It represents the risk sources in construction project which affect the project success. An extensive literature survey revealed that researchers have shown a remarkable contribution towards risk identification and assessment. It is unfortunate that, there is still a wide gap between theory and practice and so many researchers have been done mostly on developed countries. In India, only few research works have been done in this area. This paper recommends that the risks factors affecting the life cycle of the constructionprojects needs to be identified. Then a frame work is to be design for quantifying the risk factors considering the uncertainties. It is necessary to develop a simple statistical model for risk assessment in constructionprojects considering small and medium sized projects also. Finally suitable recommendations are to be suggested, to mitigate the risks during the life cycle of the project to make the project success.
In a construction project, practitioners should apply the critical path method (CPM) to develop a sequence of activities, to assign resources for each activity’s implementation and to attach a time-bound parameter to each activity (e.g., earliest and latest start and finish times) (Nafkha and Wilinski, 2016). This facilitates pre-planning for major goals and milestones and given the central nature of time for the CPM, would positively affect the delay factors highlighted by the survey results. Alongside this, a related element of the planning phase for this conceptual framework is to engage in Lean construction, which is concerned with minimising physical and process waste, and improving value generation to the client (Dave et al., 2013; Issa, 2013). Since Lean processes lay the groundwork for the introduction of BIM once the planning stage has been completed (Dave et al., 2013), Lean construction and the application of the CPM will have project-wide benefits in terms of minimising the likelihood of delay. Other crucial actionable measures for the planning phase relate to the establishment of a project team. As highlighted by the questionnaire results, design-related, contractor-related, and planning-related delay factors are closely associated with incompetent technical staff, including the contractor themselves. Therefore, it is important at this early stage of the project to recruit qualified personnel and to ensure that responsibilities are clearly identified and defined, thereby facilitating an effective coordination, communication and setting a mechanism accountability. It is particularly important to recognise that the suitability of a project team for the activities sequence identified by the CPM should be ensured, since this has an impact on the overall project success (Assaf, Hassanain, and Mughal, 2014; Kumara and Warnakulasooriya, 2016).
This research also found that the criticalsuccessfactors in constructionprojects have different priorities and weights. Also, considering the importance, the criticalsuccessfactors are respectively: Technical and economic assessment of the required project resources, experience and executive records of the project manager, project strategic planning, time cost and quality management, satisfaction health and environmental safety, user affordability and design consideration, cost of individual units and technology. These findings were essential for developing a framework which will enable the stakeholders to channel appropriate efforts and behaviors towards ensuring the attainment of success on their projects.
Other contributions of the construction industry in the hospitality industry are when the country hosts a major sporting event. Lessons learned from South Africa with regard to 2010 Soccer World Cup event is that poor planning is destructive. This affected a number of projects such building stadia, road infrastructure and other auxiliary scope associated with the event. The role of the project stakeholders in contributing to the success of the project was also overlooked. There were project criticalsuccessfactors (CSFs) that were not given enough attention. The CSFs were originally applied in management and organisational strategies. Bullen and Rockart (1981) define CSFs as “Criticalsuccessfactors are the few key areas of activity in which favourable results are absolutely necessary for a particular manager to reach his goals”.
This paper aims to identify and study the constraints and the contribution factors which lead to the success of a project. The projects usually suffer and fail due to diligence, poor project planning, poor financial management or operations oversight. Mistakes made in the initial phases of the property development process are compounded and are usually impossible to overcome. For these obvious reasons the initial feasibility, assessment and planning stages are the most critical for the overall project success.
There has been increasing use of materials logistics planning as a strategic tool for efficient planning and management of materials in constructionprojects. It is a term that encompasses materials ordering and purchase management, storage management, planning of inbound and outbound materials or waste, variation control and delivery management, among others (Sobotka et al., 2005). It has been viewed as a proactive management of the quantities and type of materials needed, its supply routes, security, storage and handling, use, reuse and recycling, as well as disposal of excess materials (WRAP, 2007). Apart from the cost saving potentials of these sets of materials logistics management, they are essential requisites for achieving sustainability of the built environment (Yate, 2015). In addition, increasing awareness of the environmental impacts of materials logistics management has re-energised the concepts of whole lifecycle assessment, performance in use, innovative materials and responsible sourcing. All of these are significant areas that are gaining increasing importance in sustainable design appraisal systems (Yate, 2015).
In an attempt address the needs, the present government encourages the introduction of public-private partnerships (PPPs) as a way of promoting active private sector involvement in the provision of public infrastructure and services . The infrastructure deficit is further compounded by implementing public sector projects where multiple project objectives are expected by a wide range of stakeholders who have different interests associated with the projects. Public sector project (PSP) is a generic reference which is applied to a wide range of public works and usually represents a major part of construction works in any country or region .
The purpose of the current study was to develop a performance evaluation framework for assessing performance amongst constructionprojects in developing countries. In order to realise this objective an extensive review of the relevant literature in order to identify the existing body of knowledge in the domain of performance measurement of constructionprojects. Based on the review, performance indicator variables and the variables that influence project success were identified and discussed with the experts in the area of construction management. The variables were refined and a survey instrument was designed. This was subsequently administered to clients, consultants and contractors who had been involved in the constructionprojects in Chennai. The demographic statistics regarding project characteristics and respondents’ profile were analysed using Chi-square test of independence and one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and their frequency distribution was also studied. The relevance of the performance indicator variables and success related variables amongst constructionprojects in Chennai was established through Factor analysis, correlation and regression analysis.
Abraham (2002) developed the CSFs from Rockart et al. (1996) identification of eight imperatives for IT organizations and Chinowsky’s (2001) identification of seven guiding principles of strategic management for civil engineering industry. The list is not inclusive in all construction organizations, but organizations should take into consideration the updates to CSFs methodology as the CSFs can be changed by time according to environmental issues, transformation of industry, and variations in competitive strategy. Abraham (2002) revealed eleven CSFs for construction organizations. These factors are: Competitive Strategy, Market Conditions, Political Environment, Organizational Structure, Technical Applications, Employee Enhancements, Process Benchmarking, Feedback and Evaluation, Inter Organizational Relationships, Environmental Factors, and Management Skills and Relationships. Chinowsky (2001) comprises seven areas according to the results of interviews with civil engineering, construction, and public agency executives; which are Vision, Mission, and Goals, Core Competencies, Knowledge Resources, Education, Finance, Markets, and Competition. Based on the literature review and focusing on construction organizations, the most potential CSFs are given in Table 2. These factors will be considered in the present study.
As construction is dynamic in nature due to the increasing uncertainties in technology, budgets, and development processes and hence it a risky business and the possibility of business failure always exists, companies have to consider the parameters that can have a direct effect to their success in business. In this study, the criticalfactors leading to construction company success will be investigated.Nowadays, building projects are becoming much more complex and difficult. The project team is facing unprecedented changes. The study of project success and the criticalsuccessfactors (CSFs) are considered to be a means to improve the effectiveness of project.A construction project is completed as a result of a combination of many events and interactions, planned or unplanned, over the life of a facility, with changing participants and processes in a constantly changing environment. Certain factors are more critical to project success than others. These factors are called criticalsuccessfactors (CSFs). The term criticalsuccessfactors in the context of projects and the management of projects is defined as those factors predicting success on projects.Achieving success is a highly critical issue for the companies to survive in a competitive business environment.
Adnan Enshassi et.al,(2009) studies briefly about the constructionprojects located in the Gaza Strip, Palestine suffer from many problems and complex issues. Consequently, the objective of this paper is to identify the factors affecting the performance of local constructionprojects; and to elicit perceptions of their relative importance. A comprehensive literature review was deployed to generate a set of factors believed to affect project performance. A total of 120 questionnaires were distributed to 3 key groups of project participants; namely owners, consultants and contractors. The survey findings indicate that all 3 groups agree that the most important factors affecting project performance are: delays because of borders/roads closure leading to materials shortage; unavailability of resources; low level of project leadership skills; escalation of material prices; unavailability of highly experienced and qualified personnel; and poor quality of available equipment and raw materials. Based on these findings, the paper recommends that: 1) project owners must work collaboratively with contractors and facilitate regular payments in order to overcome delays, disputes and claims; 2) project participants should actively have their input in the process of decision-making; and 3) continuous coordination and relationship between project participants are required through the project life cycle in order to solve problems and develop project performance.
This research aims at identifying the criticalsuccessfactors that influence PPP projects in Syria based on previous similar studies supported by a structured questionnaire survey. It also attempts to uncover the current PPP practice and highlight the main obstacles that hinder its implementation in the Syrian construction industry. The identified CSFs are ranked according to their importance, for public and private sectors independently and collectively. This research ultimately aims at developing a new practical framework to help decision makers both in public and private sectors in selecting the optimum PPP contract for the construction industry in Syria taking the most important CSFs into account.
such an individual should possess both technical skills, which include being a subject matter expert and having an in-depth knowledge of structures, and “soft” skills, which include team management, emotional intelligence, transformational leadership and conflict management. According to Newton (2005: 110), the availability of resources is a further critical factor. A resource management plan needs to be developed in conjunction with all relevant stakeholders. Competition for resources is a common phenomenon in projects. Unexpected developments during the course of the project must be carefully managed in terms of resource planning. It must be ensured that there is adequate funding throughout the project. A financial plan, which takes into account the project activity schedule, needs to be developed. Finally, there must be comprehensive contract documentation. It must be ensured that all relevant stakeholders enter into contractual agreements regarding activities and performance during the course of the project. Cost, time and quality parameters need to be specified so that performance can be assessed (Johnson, Scholes & Wittington, 2006: 826).
In like manner, just as the builders of the great Egyptian pyramids had to define the sizes of the building blocks, this investigation will seek to establish a base that draws the relevance of the subject of community development projects to the Engineering Management Body of Knowledge and the Engineering Management field. The definition of a community development project will lack if it does not highlight what community development is. Despite this research’s focus on trying to understand and uncover the theories relating to the subject of community development, the results of the literature review suggest otherwise. So far, there is a very limited amount of community development literature that pertains to the subject with specific definitions and boundaries of what is and what is not considered as community development effort. EMBoK and EM stand to benefit from the development of a succinct definition that will provide guidance as well as introduce structure on how the very projects are handled. Moreover, as suggested by Jnanabrata Bhattacharyya, the purpose of community development should be seen as different both from its methods and techniques to implement the methods. His argument that place or locality which are often used in community development literature as a proxy for the community has become or is becoming analytically irrelevant and practically inadequate (2004).
In this section the meta-analysis (MA) method for finding information on the research is used. Although there is no single method for the preparation of MA, there is a research which excludes or adds some stage, however, there are definite steps that are listed below and make the algorithm followed in this study. Valles, A.(2008).The methodology consists of six stages which are: 1 Defining the Research Question (Components and scope),2 Selection Criteria and Factors. (Sources, bias search strategy and measurement),3Criteria for selecting publications(Year, country, language, origin),4 Collection of articlesof studies (Assessment of the quality of the publication),5Assessment of the quality of the publication (Likert scales, measuring instrument validation),6Statistical Analysis. Colin, E.N. (2007)
Given the core values identified, open coding is done to identify the factors influencing outsourcing of large-scale ITS projects in Ministry of Roads and Urban Development. It has to be noted that according to the methodology of “qualitative content analysis”, the number of categories extracted from the primary literature review to identify the criteria were modified and adjusted several times during the process of data analysis. Finally, 4 categories were selected as the ultimate main categories. These main categories include organizational factors, individual factors, management factors, and environmental factors. Since flexible using of a theoretical framework in the coding stage helps a qualitative researcher, the frameworks available in the outsourcing literature, some of which were examined in the second part of the this study, were considered flexibly to answer the questions raised in this stage of open coding. However, for the sake of flexible use of this framework, there is the possibility of modifying and adjusting it until the end of qualitative phase of the study. Axial coding was done in the nest stage. The purpose of axial coding is to create a relationship between the categories generated (in open coding stage). This is usually done based on paradigm pattern and helps the theorist to accomplish the process of theorizing more conveniently. The
A study conducted in UK to examine the factors attracting PPP implementation identified 15 attractive factors . These factors were: solves the problem of public sector budget restraint, enhances government integrated solution capacity, reduces public money tied up in capital investment, caps the final service costs, reduces the total project cost, saves time in delivering the project, reduces public sector administration costs, benefit to local economic development, non-recourse or limited recourse public funding, transfer of risk to the private partner, improves maintainability, facilitates creative and innovative approaches, improves buildability, accelerates project development and technology transfer to local enterprise. Furthermore, the study concluded that it was essential that at an early stage in preparing a business case for PPPs, a clear understanding of the positive factors surrounding the procurement will provide a more informed basis for decision-making . Governments opt to PPPs for various reasons. The drivers for adoption of PPPs include acceleration of infrastructure provision, better risk allocation, whole of life cost savings, improved quality of services, access additional revenue sources, benefits for local economic and social development, and improved project scrutiny .
Attractive factors of PPPs implementation have been studied by many researchers in different administrative regions. Among these, Chan, et al. ( 2009 ) explored and compared the key drivers for adopting PPP in main land China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region through a questionnaire survey and the respondents were invited to rate their perceptions on the importance of fifteen different drivers suggested by Li et al. (2005). The findings indicated that respondents from China rated economy-related drivers higher which were: solve the problem of public sector budget restraint; provide an integrated solution for public infrastructure/services; reduce public money tied up in capital investment; cap the final service costs; reduce the total project cost; save time in delivering the project; reduce public sector administration costs; benefit to local economic development; and nonrecourse or limited recourse to public funding.