This paper assessed the impact(s) of practicing sustainableland management (SLM) technology on foodsecurity in WestUsambaraMountains. Primary data were collected through household questionnaires, focus group discussions, key informants interviews and personal observations while secondary data were collected from relevant local authority reports and records. A total of 160 households were interviewed. Research results suggest that, the area is still experiencing soil erosion problem reported by 61.9% of the respondents although at reduced scale. Multiple linear regression model to establish the contributing factors revealed that age of household head, farmland ownership and household income have significant and positive impact on improving household dietary diversity and hence improves foodsecurity while non adopters of SLM showed declined dietary diversity. The study conclude that in order to increase foodsecurity keeping soil health in place through practicing SLM is a necessary condition.The study concludes that, to increase your foodsecurity keep your soil in place by practicing SLM.
Similarly, research conducted by Action Aid Ghana (2006:18) in Obuasi, a mining town in Ashanti Region of Ghana, revealed that large areas of land previously under cultivation are believed to have been contaminated through gold mining activities and toxic water pollution. This has gravely affected foodsecurity in the operational areas. The cultivation of fruit and vegetables such as local crops, including „Obuasi oranges‟ on polluted land poses a risk to the health of inhabitants and prevents them from selling their produce on both international and local markets. Likewise, strategies of alternative livelihoods such as grass cutter rearing, petty commodity production, fishponds, batik tie and dye production and oil palm cultivation, have failed to replace people‟s foodsecurity situation following their loss of land. Furthermore, cyanide spillage and tailing have also caused tremendous and sometimes unbearable damage to farmlands and water resources in many mining communities.
I had predicted that government assistance and regulation would have the least impact on Sagara Group members because of rural location, however, my data did not support this hypothesis. Fifty-nine percent (45/76) of the members have been assisted by receiving information from the government while 0% have received any sort of subsidies from the government (Figure 8, Table 3). The agricultural extension officer of the district (in charge of 8 neighboring villages) is the main source of government information for the villagers (interviewees, 2009). The most common piece of information, received by 29% (13/45) of those that were assisted, was to plant tea in order to get income. Due to the changing climate in the region (a rather recent occurrence) farmers were encouraged to plant tea for its hearty qualities and ability to grow in conditions unfavorable for many other crops (Juma, 2009). Government information has been received from 1992 – 2009, suggesting a more recent approach to assisting villagers with knowledge about growing, maintaining, and producing tea.
When it comes to frame the impacts and effects expected from the CFS, inevitably, different groups within the Committee will have their own criteria for deciding whether the process is working adequately and deliver the expected outcomes. Indeed, different stakeholders consider their participation to the reformed CFS with different objectives: for instance, facilitating the establishment of national foodsecurity policies and making national governments accountable for them in front of the international community; or ensuring a balance in the mobilisation of different fields of expertise for the formulation of those policies. In any evaluation effort of what impacts the CFS produces, it is therefore useful to account for this diversity of objectives through a diversity of analytical perspectives. Even if it is too early for a proper evaluation, monitoring CFS outcomes should however be launched quickly. It is needed in order to prepare the relevant material and data for the evaluation, but it is also directly needed in the short term by many members, participants and observers of the CFS so that they can assess, decide and justify their involvement in the CFS. For those who have limited resources, their further engagement is partly linked to their possibility to assess how the debates, guidelines or frameworks adopted in the CFS are enabling people to produce and access nutritious food in a sustainable way and how their action in the CFS can help them to have an impact locally. While monitoring the substance of CFS outcomes is one of the main critical issues at the agenda, it remains also pivotal to monitor the changes in processes growing out of the CFS reform.
• Section 4: Management practices to reduce soil erosion • Section 9: Managing landscapes for biodiversity Land capability is the ability of your farm landscape to sustain a certain type of landuse without causing permanent damage. If land is used beyond its capability it will degrade. When assessing land capability, features such as soil depth, stability and fertility, topography, aspect, erosion risk and stream proximity are examined. By looking at these factors and limitations, parcels of land that have the same capability can be identified and managed according to capability. The most important point about land capability is to recognise the differences between different parts of your farm, and manage these accordingly. This will help you to decide which parts of your property will give a positive return on inputs (fertilisers, improved pastures etc.) without compromising long term sustainability.
A study is conducted to describe the historical overview of agricultural landuse in Malaysia with the aim of identifying the challenges of agricultural landuse in a dynamic economic system. Economic policies were explained with major policies instruments. The effects of these policies on patterns of agricultural landuse in 1960 – 2005 were assessed. Findings identi- fied three broad economic eras in Malaysia: Agricultural (1960 - 1974); Industrial (1975 - 1999) and Urbanization eras (2000 - date). Macroeconomic policies that favored industrialization and urbanization had negative effects on agricultural landuse by competing with agricultural sectors for production inputs such as labor and capital because the better conditions of service and higher returns per capital in the industrial sector led to the withdrawal of inputs from the agricultural sectors. Subsequent change in tastes due to increased per capita income resulted to a change in agricultural landuse in favor of highly rewarding and better-demanded crops (fruits and vegetables) thus causing agricultural landuse dynamics. Sustainable agricultural landuse in Malaysia, given scarce resource inputs (labor and capital) trade liberalization and globalization will depend on the abil- ity of the country to deepen her application of science and technology for automated agricultural practices, diseases and pests control and high yielding varieties and suitable land administration policies for Malaysia to compete favorably with other major low cost producers.
The proportion of wetlands on the earth’s land surface accounts to only 2% to 7%, depending on the definition of inland waters included (Reddy and DeLaune, 2008; Kayranli et al., 2010; Schlesinger and Bernhardt, 2013). However, despite their small land cover area, wetlands can have considerable impacts on larger-scale processes (Schlesinger and Bernhardt, 2013). For example, nitrogen and carbon cycles in wetland areas influence processes on the local (plant growth and soil development), regional (water quality) and global scale (GHG emissions and carbon storage) (Reddy and DeLaune, 2008). Thus, they have a substantial importance for the regulation of the earth’s biogeochemical cycles, especially for the global carbon cycle (Schlesinger and Bernhardt, 2013). Wetlands are one of the most productive ecosystem types on earth with an average net primary productivity that equals the one of tropical rain forests (Reddy and DeLaune, 2008). Approximately 7 to 15% of the terrestrial productivity is contributed by wetlands (Schlesinger and Bernhardt, 2013). The high productivity leads to an accumulation of organic matter in soils which turns them into a carbon sink (Reddy and DeLaune, 2008). It is estimated that more than 50% of the world’s soil carbon is stored in wetland soils, therefore they represent an important global carbon sink (Gorham, 1991; Schlesinger and Bernhardt, 2013). The net
Climate variability and extreme weather events are a threat to many populations throughout many regions of the world. In some of these areas, like India in South East Asia, devastating floods in Mumbai present evidence of increasing variability in climate (Blunden & Arndt, 2012). The change in climate and weather regimes perhaps is more noticeable with the availability of water (Kundzewicz et al., 2007). With this threat posed around the world by extreme weather events and climate variability (Gutierrez, 2014), it is not surprising that the World Bank’s (WB) ‘4 degree report’ indicates that the severity of drought will increase in parts of Africa and the United States, amongst other areas. This indication is based on the notion that, drier regions will become drier and colder regions cooler. Thus, the WB indicates that, drought prone areas of Africa and the United States will be more adversely impacted by climate change. This will have adverse consequences on foodsecurity through a number of factors including reduction in arable land, evapotranspiration and extremely dry periods (World Bank, 2012a). The validity of these statements are further strengthened by ActionAid International’s identification of some 12.4 million people in the East and Horn of Africa (e.g. Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia, Uganda, Djibouti) and parts of Tanzania who are dependent on subsistence farming and who are desperately in need of food due to erratic or absolute lack of rainfall (ActionAid International, 2015).
These results are in agreement with FAO (2013), which states that in the event of drought communities or farmers are expected to experience a decrease or even crop failure. Drought represents a constant threat to world foodsecurity. It causes income losses because several sectors can be affected. It also causes short falls in food production and leads to substantial increases in imports to meet local needs, which can result in increased fiscal pressure on county and national budgets. Drought normally results to poor harvests that threaten foodsecurity and livelihoods from household to national level, to varying degrees according to the extent that the family or nation depends on agriculture for its food and income, farmers who produce inadequate food to achieve production of self-sufficiency must resort to other sources of entitlement to feed their families (Ichara, 2012). This study indicates that during 2011 and 2014 yield production went down because it was a year west Pokot experienced drought that impacted negatively on farm outputs, the study therefore agrees with (Nyandiko et al, 2012), who reported that drought and climate change has had disastrous consequences on maize production. The climate change induced droughts of 1982, 1992, 2000, 2003, 2007 and 2009 wreaked havoc on maize production and foodsecurity in Kenya. In Kenya’s ASAL areas often crop yields such as maize, beans and sorghum vary according to
2. BACKGROUND: MOUNTAIN REGIONS AND FOODSECURITY Economists have long recognized geography as a crucial factor in development. Recent studies of comparative growth found that differences in physical and agroecological factors have a large effect on economic development (Gallup, Sachs, and Mellinger 1999; Hall and Jones 1999; Masters and McMillan 2001; Acemoglu, Johnson, and Robinson 2001). These studies point to some important areas in which these factors can directly or indirectly affect economic development: Resource endowment and mobility of production factors, agricultural productivity, human health, and institutions. In this regard, mountain countries, with their specific biophysical and agroecological conditions, are different from nonmountain countries. The literature suggests that mountain countries are systematically different from nonmountain countries in terms of climate (the shorter length of growing periods) and soil conditions (poor quality and shallow depth of the soil). These characteristics constrain agricultural productivity and food production in various ways. Remoteness, isolation, and limited or no access to physical infrastructure (such as roads) also constrain the achievement of foodsecurity and overall economic development (Huddleston et al. 2003).
This paper looked at the challenges and opportunities for modern bee keeping in the East UsambaraMountains with particular focus on Shembekeza and Kimbo villages where an improved beekeeping project is being implemented. What is apparent from the findings is that the existing potential for modern beekeeping in the East Usambaras cannot be overemphasized and that if this potential is sensibly taped it can play significant role in improving biodiversity and community livelihoods in the East Usambaras. The findings has revealed that improved/modern beekeeping is a relatively new initiative as previously people used to undertake conventional beekeeping which is less productive, time consuming and environmentally destructive. The on-going project provides room for participation of both genders (males and females) as opposed to the previous practices where women could not participate. In terms of challenges and opportunities; a range of these were recorded including but not limited to lack of knowledge on modern beekeeping, inadequate knowledge on the value of honey and other honey-bee related products. As for opportunities there also exist a range of them including supportive policies and legislations, available internal and external markets for honey and other products.
Access entails both at the economic and physical level. Economic access covers the range of food choices available to the household given their income level and prevailing food price. Physical access covers the nature and quality of logistic infrastructures like ports, roads, railways, communication, food storage facilities and other installations that facilitate the functioning of markets. Also, a household can have access to food from their own stock, purchases in the marketplace or transfer from the community, government and foreign donors. Food utilization determines the use of food in the household. Whether the food they can afford meets the nutritional requirements or choose to consume nutritional inferior diet. Therefore, utilization deals with the quality in terms of essential minerals and vitamins as well as safety and sanitary condition of the food. In addressing foodsecurity as much as food availability and access are important, utilization should also be considered as the quantity of food does not necessarily convert to well-nourishment (Barrett et al., 2010)
Africa has a low level of livestock protein consumption averaging at 17% of the recommended safe level intake that amounts to 58 g per person per day (The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2011). This insufficient protein intake might have resulted to the 40 – 60% of the sub-Saharan Africa’s children to be mentally retarded or with impaired growth (The United Nations Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), 2007). Milk is of great importance particularly in the rural communities of Africa as a source of macro and micronutrients that improve the nutritional status of individuals and populations (FAO, 2013). It is an important nutritional resource for the wellbeing of the people and the young suckling animals (de Leew et al., 1999; Randolph et al., 2007). It is also one of the pathways out of poverty for millions of people in these communities (FAO, 2013). In Africa demand of milk and milk products will continue to increase from their current levels as a result of population increase, economic growth, and urbanization (Tschirley et al., 2015). The projected increase in dairy products demand will be due to rise in human population from the current 7.7 to 9.7 billion people coupled with increased per capita consumption (Herrero & Thornton, 2013; The United Nations “UN", 2019). Thus, enhancing sustainable livestock production including increasing milk yield is indispensable if Africa including Tanzania is to combat the long-term persisting food insecurity problem. Moreover, FAO (2011) forecasted that by 2050 the world average dairy consumption will raise to over 58% from the current consumption levels (84.9 kg/capita/year). Intensive production systems in arable lands including smallholder dairying under mixed farming systems is expected to contribute significantly towards achieving the projected dairy product demands. Steinfeld et al. (2006) reported that rain fed mixed production systems contributed to about 54% of the total 594.4 million tonnes of milk that was globally produced between 2001 and 2003.
Livestock grazing was regularly mentioned in interviews and focus groups as causing woodland degradation and as a reason for defores- tation. Livestock tracks were recorded in 10.7% of transects within ecological surveys. In 2013, official livestock figures based on regis- tered animals suggested that within Chunya District, there were 186,800 cattle, 46,624 goats, and 22,820 sheep (District Officer 6, 2013). In 2002/2003, a national agricultural census recorded 139,490 cattle (National Bureau of Statistics, 2004), demonstrating a rise of 33.9% in 10 years. Records for Wards within Kipembawe were incomplete. Key informants (including livestock officers and livestock keepers) alleged that livestock is moved into the division but many are not registered, meaning that overall livestock numbers are probably considerably larger. District Officer 6 (2013) explained that “ over- crowding of cattle causes environmental destruction, as they damage the land, pasture doesn't regrow, and trees don't regenerate ” (Jew, 2016, p. 94). To combat this, government regulations restrict the num- ber of cattle to 70 per keeper. Focus groups indicated that this policy is widely known but typically ignored. District Officer 6 also outlined a programme to encourage livestock keepers to plant 400 trees annually and for each household to have a rainwater harvesting technique. However, he considered that most people were not interested in par- ticipation. In addition to damage caused directly by cattle, trees are also thought to be cut down by livestock keepers:
Miombo woodlands support agriculture, biodiversity, and multiple ecosystem services across an extensive part of sub‐Saharan Africa. Miombo is frequently overutilised with deforestation and degradation resulting in significant landuse and land cover change (LULCC). Understanding the drivers of LULCC is essential to achieving sustainableland management in miombo woodland regions. Within a remote miombo area of south ‐ westTanzania in the Kipembawe Division, Mbeya Region, social survey and ecological data were used to identify the direct and indirect drivers of LULCC. Our findings show that tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) production results in an estimated annual deforestation rate of 4,134 ± 390 ha of undisturbed miombo woodland, of which 56.3 ± 11.8% is linked to the post ‐ harvest curing process. This deforestation represents 0.55 ± 0.06% of the wooded area of the Kipembawe Division. The perception of high incomes from tobacco cultivation has encouraged migration of both agriculturalists and pastoralists into the area, resulting in higher livestock numbers that lead to further degradation. Higher human populations need more woodland resources such as fuelwood and building materials and more farmland for food crops. Continued deforestation will reduce the long ‐ term profitability of tobacco cultivation due to a lack of fuel to cure the crop and could render production unviable. Action is urgently needed to conserve globally important biodiversity resources while enabling agricultural and pastoral activities to continue. Improved governance, together with sustainableland management strategies and diversification of livelihood strategies, can reduce dependence on tobacco cultivation and contribute to a sustainable future for this ecoregion.
• Current drought being referred as “worst in 30 years”. It is as bad as or worse than last large-scale droughts in 2006 and 2009 in the same region. • Region is chronically food insecure & among most vulnerable in Nepal. • Immediate and medium-term foodsecurity situation is a matter of
The previous analysed data about landuse allows to identify some aspects correlated with the results obtained in the infrastructural scenario (scenario 1) described in sec- tion 3. Other important remarks result by comparing the transport demand characteristics and the metro network configuration. From the point of view of transport demand, it is essential to underline that the large increase in service coverage observed in scenario 1 (more than 2 million people residing in the future metro basin) does not correspond to a large increase in the number of public transport users. This means that the transport demand distribution can be defined as having a many-to-many configuration and not a many-to- one (trips with destination the city centre) and, therefore, the planned development of transit system has to be considered inconsistent with respect to landuse evolution. In fact, the metro network remains a radial network that permits high quality services for trips in radial direction while penalizes traversal movements also if the origin and the destination points are located along the metro lines. This element can be seen (Table 6) also by comparing transit travel times (TT T )
The Town and Country Planning Act 1976, (Act 172), stipulates that the local government is the local planning authority for the area. As land is a State matter, thus any urban problems associated with development such as transportation, flash flood, landslides and siltation as well as lack of housing and facilities, need to be tackled at the planning authority level. As a reflection of the practice of sustainable development, and given the importance of environmental protection, it is imperative that environmental concerns be incorporated into development planning. Therefore, it can be agreed that ‘the quest for sustainable development means that local authorities have to maintain comfort, convenience, efficiency, and preserve their built and natural environment’ (Mohamad Saib, 2002).
consideration of direct landuse effects (e.g. modified infiltration, evapotranspiration, interception, etc.) and the influence of landscape position. Additionally, by impacting hydrologic processes the distribution of each landuse class may in turn influence biogeochemical and ecologic functioning through variations in runoff generation, water availability, nutrient transport, and potentially other processes. Important ecological characteristics have also been shown to be related to landscape structure in the LTRB. In particular, patterns in the composition and structure of vegetation within this region have been correlated with topographic variables [Day and Monk, 1974; Bolstad et al., 1998]. Through the link between landscape position and landuse distribution, different classes of landuse can be expected to demonstrate different ecological characteristics regardless of the magnitude of land surface modification. As with hydrologic and ecologic considerations, biogeochemical functioning within the LTRB is also related to landscape structure. Variation in both nitrogen [Knoepp and Swank, 1998] and carbon [Bolstad and Vose, 2001; Garten and Hanson, 2006] biogeochemical processes have been previously correlated with variation in landscape structure in the study area. Future investigations of LUC and hydrological,