daughter product 222 Rn is emanated and diffused into pore volume between soil and/or rock grains. Radon may remain in the material or find its way and be released to ambient air or migrated into groundwater. Groundwater that is in contact with radium-containing rock and soil will be a receptor of radon emanating from the surroundings. Radon may also be taken up by water as it passes over rocks and through the soil. The amount of radon dissolved in groundwater depends on a few factors such as aquifer characteristics, the water residence time in the aquifer, radium content in rock, etc. In groundwater, radon may be transported over some distances by diffusion and also by the mechanical flow of the water. Due to its relatively low solubility in water, radon is prone to degassing from water in contact with air. But due to its short half-life (3.8 days), much of radon will decay before reaching the water surface.
In Malaysia, smoking-related diseases have been the primary cause of mortality for the past three decades. It is estimated that one-fifth of disability adjusted life years and one-third of years of life lost for Malaysians were due to smoking-related diseases [10,11]. According to the Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH), tobacco use in Malaysia accounts for 35% of in-hospital deaths, principally from cancer, heart disease, and stroke. More than 10,000 Malaysians die from smoking-related illnesses each year . Statistics from the MOH in 2006 revealed that diseases related to smoking remained the top causes of death in MOH hospitals, accounting for more than 15% of hospitalizations and 35% of in-hospital deaths. Heart diseases and diseases of pulmonary circulation ranked first, accounting for 15.7% of these deaths, followed by malignant neoplasms (10.6%) and cerebrovascular diseases (8.5%) .
 Gabdo, H.T., A. T. Ramli, N. N. Garba, M. A. Saleh and M. S. Sanusi. 2015. Assessment of Natural Radionuclides in Rivers of Pahang state, Malaysia. In 3rd International Science Postgraduate Conference 2015 (ISPC2015)of Conference. Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
findings from the situational assessment study indicated that the Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus was lacking in information technology training programmes and workshops that foster HS lecturers’ technology integration into teaching, as well as the need for a repository to support them with sharable DM resources. The results from the acceptance study showed that PU (β = 0.68, P < 0.01), COM (β = 0.41, P < 0.05), and Com_Exp (β = 0.15, P < 0.01) were the direct determinants of HS lecturers’ IU of MRS for their lecture preparations. TS had a significant direct effect on COM (β = 0.71, P < 0.01), and COM had a significant direct effect on the PU (β = 0.43, P < 0.01). The proposed Web-SAM accounted for 59% of the variance explained on IU. When it was tested on Davis’ original Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with 2 determinants (PEV and PU), the variance explained of IU was only 45%. The greater proportion of the Web-SAM model proved that it is more robust than the original TAM.
In  used Chlorine Mass Balance to estimate the natural groundwater recharge in the North Kelantan River catchment. The result illustrated that estimate of deep percolation using a CMB method range from 17% to 30% of precipitation (between 475 and 769 mm/yr.) in the study area . However, to the best of the author’s knowledge, there is no similar work carried out in Terengganu Malaysia. In this paper, an attempt has been made to assess and derived an empirical relationship to determine groundwater recharge from rainfall in Terengganu, Malaysia based upon seasonal groundwater balance study carried out for a year 2000-2001 to 2011-2012.
2 concentrations of 222 Rn are more worrisome to the water users, especially its effects on health to the residents. By drinking water from groundwater, it will increase the risk of human exposure to radiation effects. Almost 90% of stomach cancer deaths caused by inhaling radon released to the indoor air from water. Only about 10% of the deaths were from cancers of internal organs, mostly the stomach, caused by ingestion of radon in water (USEPA, 1999). Cothern et al. (1986) proved that there was a risk of death of about 1-7% from lung cancer for the people of the United States. Most cancer associated with indoor radon levels in buildings due to groundwater resources.
granite in Peninsular Malaysia has been reported by Omar et al. (1999) while radioactivity of soil at two tea plantations in Cameron Highlands has been reported by Hamzah et al. (2011). Low radon concentration in Ranau was due to low radioactivity content of radium in soil (Omar et al., 1991; Sulaiman et al., 2007), rocks and also building materials. Although studies on radium concentration of building materials in Sabah have not been found, the local bricks are expected (based on local soil radioactivity) to contain lower radium concentration and hence contribute to lower radon concentration. The mean outdoor radon concentration (also based on progenies measurement) in Cameron Highlands and Ranau were low i.e 7.4 Bqm -3 and 1.7 Bqm -3 , respectively. The outdoor radonconcentrations in Cameron Highlands was about 4 times higher than in Ranau but comparable to the world average value of 10 Bqm -3 (UNSCEAR, 2000).
concentrations of 222Rn are more worrisome to the water users, especially its effects on health to the residents. By drinking water from groundwater, it will increase the risk of human exposure to radiation effects. Almost 90% of stomach cancer deaths caused by inhaling radon released to the indoor air from water. Only about 10% of the deaths were from cancers of internal organs, mostly the stomach, caused by ingestion of radon in water (USEPA, 1999). Cothern et al. (1986) proved that there was a risk of death of about 1-7% from lung cancer for the people of the United States. Most cancer associated with indoor radon levels in buildings due to groundwater resources.
In this report, the measurements fo r indoor radon/thoron concentrations in Mizo ram were mad e in different geographical lo cations: Aizawl, Champhai and Kolasib districts. Ai- zawl city in Aizawl district contains distinct geological characteristics like fault regions and fossil area. In the remaining districts the geological characteristics remained unrepre- sented and may be treated as unrepresented location. The types of houses selected acco rd- ing to the building material are reinforced ce- ment concrete (R.C.C.) and Assam type.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Job Related Depression in Laboratory Technicians in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) and Ministry of Health Malaysia (MOH) Hospitals in Kelantan ORIGINAL[.]
Radium (226Ra) decays naturally to radon-gas radon-222: They both are member of uranium series (238U). Ra- don222 is noble gas which can be released to soil pores; migrate to the ground surface without any chemical reac- tions; then it can accumulate in buildings. Radon is poi- sonous gas in air that comes from natural sources such as ground and can harm the environment and the human health. Radon exists ubiquitously in air (all over the globe) and in particular in the indoor of buildings of all kinds. USA environmental protection agency (EPA) es- timates that about 20,000 radon-related lung cancers oc- cur per one year. All acts of radon-222-inhaling (and daughter-products) are a major source of natural radia- tion exposure which leads to lung cancer . Any person, anywhere she/he lives, no matter he will expose to ra- don-222 in the air that she/he inhale. Moreover, because radon-222 attach to aerosol particles, it is considered as one of the principal causes to lung cancer. Bergman et al.
locality Solina 3 (No. 9, Table 2, Figure 2) and the lowest at Dolovi (No. 19, Table 2, Figure 2). These locations are not geographically far apart, but they are at different elevations: Dolovi are approximately 100 m higher than Solina 3. Also, the depth of the well at Solina 3 was much greater than at Dolovi. Furthermore, location Solina 3 is accommodated in a plain area where soils with ruinous limestone prevail and may in some places even be clayey. The activity concentration of radon in water samples from natural springs was in the range from 214 to 1607 mBq L -1 . The highest value was determined at locality
twice with 5ml HNO 3 at 95 °C and left to reflux for 30 minutes. After evaporation to dryness, the residue was dissolved in 10 mL of H 2 O 2 and diluted with mili-Q water. At this stage, a clear solution was obtained from complete digestion process. The digested sample was made up to 50 mL with 5 % HNO 3 . Analysis of the Cd, Cu, Pb, Co and Zn was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was verified via the certified reference material of Dogfish liver (DOLT-3). The analytical variance (ANOVA) was applied to understand the difference of studied metals concentrations between sampling stations and the different organ.
The SARAD RTM 1688 Radon/Thoron monitor was used for our second survey, which was carried out on 05-JUL-2011. Measurement of radon concentration by this instrument is based on the alpha spectrometry me- thod: the concentration of radon is proportional to the number of alpha particles emitted during 222 Rn decay in the ionization chamber. The concentration of radon released was measured with 10 min sampling time in 23 sites on Tlamacas Mountain.
et al., 2003). This may be due, in part, to the construc- tion style of the majority of buildings in Hamadan, where the floor is covered with clay rather than concrete, together with the prevalence of older brick buildings. The presence of these clay/earth floors may play a significant role regard- ing raised indoor radon gas concentrations, with gas being released through the floor and penetrating inside such build- ings. The geology of the area though is probably the pri- mary control on indoor radon. In particular the surficial ge- ology, that is, the presence of highly porous ground materi- als, which act as a local water conduit, together with the ex- tensive construction and use of qanats providing additional gas pathways. The movement of water through the fan se- quence will also influence transport of the gas. The impor- tance of the existence of permeable ground materials where radonconcentrations are concerned was noted by Gillmore et al. (2005) in the UK, Solomon (1993) in the USA (the latter with respect to alluvial fans), and Smethurst et al. (2008) in Norway.
The aim of this study was to determine the associated factors of mortality in first-ever stroke patients receiving care in a suburban hospital setting in Malaysia. A retrospective record review study was conducted among 432 first-ever stroke patients in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. Information on demographic characteristics, past medical history, clinical characteristics, medications prior to stroke and symptoms and signs of first-ever stroke patients were retrieved from medical records. Multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. At the study endpoint, 101 (23.4%) death was identified and 331 patients (76.6%) were still alive till data collection was completed. The significant prognostic factors included male, patients with seizure/ fit, marital status, Glasgow coma scale score, fasting blood sugar, smoking status, patients with rheumatic heart disease, level of urea and patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. The findings of this study highlighted the key clinical parameters of associated factors of mortality in first-ever stroke patients in a predominantly suburban setting in Malaysia.
While of monitoring parametric wells a connection between changes of radon concentration, conductivity and water level has been found out (Figure 3). Temperature of water within the aquifer was stable during the moni- toring period. However, sometimes abnormal concentration is not connected with any parameters (Figure 3(b)). One of the reasons could be unstable volume of spontaneously bubbling gases. At the moment this important parameter cannot be controlled.
Ascertaining associated factors for severe maternal mor- bidity enables a better understanding of the problem and serves as a foundation for the development of an effective preventive strategy. This refers to primary prevention through screening or prevention at the institutional, pro- vider and client levels that may ultimately prevent a condi- tion from causing death or severe morbidity . The aim of this study was to identify the sociodemographic charac- teristics, medical and gynaecological history, past and present obstetric performance and the provision of health care services as factors associated with severe maternal morbidity in Kelantan, Malaysia. We hypothesized that these factors were significantly related to the occurrence of severe maternal morbidity.