The first selected area for the study was Cameron Highlands in Pahang. Cameron Highlands is located on the highlands and lies on the Main Range of Peninsular Malaysia. It is a tourist’s destination as well as a major area for agriculture activities. More than 30% of the land area lies more than 1400 m above sea level. The geological formation of Cameron Highlands made from igneous rocks (mainly granite). Granite form is one of the most important rock types in Peninsular Malaysia. The second selected area was Ranau in Sabah (East Malaysia). The geology of Sabah is dominated by sedimentary formations. About 70% of this underlying geology is made of sedimentary rocks. The sedimentary rocks form the mountain and hill ranges along the east and west coast of Sabah (ECD, 2001). Ranau is located at 1,176 m above sea level and noted for its hilly geographical structure. Tourism and agriculture are the major industries. It has many tourist attractions including Mount Kinabalu (highest point of 4095 m above sea level).
In some countries the rate of groundwater usage is quite high e.g., in the US, more than 50% of the population obtains their water from groundwater (Gosink, 1990). In certain areas, groundwater contains significantly high radon concentration and its usage as drinking water may increase the ingestion dose. WHO (2011) recommends to measure radon levels of domestic drinking water supplies originating from groundwater sources. If the reference levels are exceeded, remediation should be considered. In Malaysia, the usage of groundwater as a source of water is still very low. The main reason for the lack of groundwater use in the country is the easy availability of surface water resources. Groundwater contributes only about 3% of total water used (Fahnline, 2013; Huang et al., 2015) and the remainder is contributed by streams and rivers. However, one of the states in Malaysia i.e., Kelantan uses more than 50% of groundwater for its public water supplies. The groundwater was the main choice due to its abundance, easily accessible, more convenient and cheaper treatment required compared to surface water resources. A study has been carried out to assess radon concentration in groundwater and the expected associated dose received by the people in the state. This paper reports the results of the assessment.
In the first half of 2010, the planning and development guidelines concentrated on Development Suitability classes, height / contour level and slope gradient as the variables. However, on the second half of 2009 and first half of 2010 the guideline strongly emphasis on the development Suitability classes, height / contour level as the variable and requirement for technical report submission. The guidelines permitted development for low, medium and high density development in low laying areas. Restriction for development on high land and steep slope areas covers for higher area and Class IV area and emphasis on topographical preservation. It was revealed that the major concern in high land and steep slope development is the topographical preservation towards safety, environmental and physical sustainability. Changes in variables indicated the importance of the development suitability classes and height / contour control. The verification development suitability classes are taken into consideration the geological setting, slope stabilisation, risk and environmental consequences, thus it is a comprehensive variables. It is seems that the changes shows some inconsistency in approaches of controlling for high land and steep slope area development. Generally low, medium and high density development is permissible on low lying area. For high land and steep slope areas, low and medium density is permissible. However, for higher land especially categorize as class III, low density is permissible with stringent requirement for technical report such as Development Proposal report, Geo-Technical Report, Erosion and sediment Control Report, Environmental Impact Assessment Report and Earthworks Plan to be submitted for development evaluation. For Class IV and higher land level, any kind of development is not permissible except for infrastructure such as road, tunnel, bridge, telecommunication & electric tower. Even then, the development guidelines should be amended whereby it needs to take a holistic consideration of all variables used during the changes to avoid mislead and to confirm for best development control on high land and steep slope area.
Abstract: The profile of radon (222-Rn) and uranium (238-U) concentrations in15 surface soil samples collected from the three agricultural areas of town Qadafery, Kalar and Zarayan which are located at the east of Sulaimani governorate in Kurdistan Region – Iraq has been determined using solid- state nuclear track detector (CR-39), where Qadafery located in the margin of Suren Mountain, also located in the north of the famous plain of the Middle East region called Sharazoor plain and Zarayan located in the west north of the Sharazoor plain, also its surrounds in another direction by Qaradagh and Barznja mountains. They (Qadafery, Kalar and Zarayan) have been shown that the maximum and minimum values of radon concentration of the air inside the tube were 2242.263±143.152 Bq/m ^3 and 154.099±2.579 Bq/m ^3 , respectively, with average value 741.709±27.234 Bq/m ^3 while the maximum and minimum values of uranium concentration are 18.225±12.905 ppm and 1.253±0.233 pmm, respectively, with average value 6.029±2.455 pmm. It appears that higher concentrations of radon and uranium was in soil sample Qadafery_5 and the minimum value was in soil sample Kalar_4 and by comparison with the world values there are some positions in Qadafery and Zarayan with higher level concentrations that is due to the geology information of these regions.
Abstract: In this study Soil gas radon 222 Rn activity was measured in different locations at Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Site and the surrounding areas using RAD7 (radon detector). Radon activity in the soil gas varied from (866±150 to 16004±521 ) Bq/m 3 near Alaibtihal School and Ishtar \ Al-Ttakhi School respectively. These concentrations values are well below the allowed levels that range from (0.4 to 40) KBq/m 3 . The annual effective doses related to the inhalation of radon gas and its progeny which were calculated from the Concentration of emanation in air near ground ranged from (0.0082305 to 0.152102) mSv/y. these results are less than the recommended global average dose from the inhalation of radon from all sources, which is 1 mSv/y. The Health risks originating from indoor radon concentration can be attributed to natural factors and is characterized by geogenic radon potential (GRP), The highest values were found in Ishtar \ Al-Ttakhi school which is (16.004) and The lowest values were found Near Alaibtihal school which is (0.288666667), the lowest value according to Neznal was classified as low (GRP < 10) and the highest value was classified as medium (10 < GRP < 35), according to Barnet and Pacherová low GRP causes <230 Bq m -3 while medium GRP causes 230-460 Bq m -3 indoor radon concentration. From these different values of GRP a geogenic radon risk map was created, which assists human health risk assessment and risk reduction since it indicates the potential of the source of indoor radon. The results from this study shows that the region has background radioactivity levels within the natural limits.
The PRASSI (Portable Radon Gas Surveyor SILENA) Model 5S has been use for radon concentration measurement in water. This system is particularly well suited for this kind of measurement that must be performed in the closed loop circuit. PRASSI pumping circuit operates with constant fallow rate at 3 litters per minute in order to degassing the water sample properly. Fig. 1 shows the system set up of measurement including bubbler and drier column.
Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material occurs in most soil and rocks, and is some areas of hotsprings, some of the radionuclides are significantly enhanced. An in-situ gamma-ray detector has been used to produce a map of relative activity concentrations in Afrahotsprings in Tafila, Jordan. The activity concentrations are used with global positioning data (GPS) to produce the concentration maps. A hyper-pure germanium gamma-ray detector (HPGe) was used to measure γ-rays from the naturally occurring nuclides for soil and rock samples taken at dif- ferent points on the site. The purpose of the study is also to review and develop a mathematical model for radon activity concentration predictions in areas of study.
The average highest Zn values occur in station 3 (72.5 ppm), followed by station 5 (62.9 ppm) and station 6 (42.6 ppm). The relatively high values probably result from a combination of factors including industrial discharges to the river, inputs from weathering and the effects of local activities near Tuba island. However, it is not possible at this stage to assess the relative importance of the study areas as the sources of pollution. Elevated Zn values also occur at other study areas (Waldichuk, 1974), although the source of this is not clear. The areas of lower Zn values extended near the estuary and this may indicate the important role of the physicochemical factors and the less ability of sandy type sediment to retain metal ions.
Soil gas radon 222 Rn concentration was meas- ured at 12 location in the Al-Qassim area, using radon gas analyzer-type Alpha GUARD 2000 PRQ from Genitron Instruments (Germany). In each location four different depths were taken for soil gas measurements, staring from the ground sur- face. The results suggested that the largest con- centration was 340 ± 22 Bq/m 3 for 60cm depth at in Al-Tarfia point sample P3, and the smallest concentration was 26 ± 5 Bq/m 3 for surface 0 cm depth at El-Bakria, point sample P5. The results obtained from this study indicate that the region has background radioactivity levels within the natural limits.
Homeschooling is an alternative form of educational choice among parents who are concerned about shaping the spiritual, academic and pedagogical practices of other parents or have grievances against the mainstream education system (Collom, 2005; Ebinezar, 2008). Homeschooling curriculum selection in Malaysia is centered on religious leanings or pedagogical aspects (Ebinezar, 2008). While teaching and learning activities planned in homeschooling are largely based on the latest technology. This is due to the existence of various forms of technology that has made it possible for parents to share information, expertise, and problems in implementing teaching and learning activities. Hence the presence of various web sites and social sites to promote homeschooling is a bridge into the teaching and learning process of homeschooling children.
Abstract–This work reports the radon concentration level in the work environment of cement plants (CPs) located in the Sulaymaniyah city-North of Iraq. This survey for the radon concentration is performed in 24 sectors of three different CPs including Tasluja, Mass, and Bazian. The measurements were recorded using solid state nuclear track detector (CR-39 NTDs). The radon effective dose µSv/hr correlated weakly with the gamma effective dose µSv/hr to enhance the radon concentration measuring. The detector was fixed in different places of the plants such Crusher, Correction stores, Raw Mill (Grinding Mill), Preheater (Tower), Clinker, and Cement Storage. The arithmetic mean (AM) value of radon concentration (C a ) was found to be 98 ± 9, 101 ± 10, and
However, since no significant difference exists among all the samples, the grouped mean of the samples from each of the two areas are determined and tested for pos- sible difference based on the area of collection using t- test at 0.05 level of significance. Results of the test pre- sented in Table 2 shows that there exits a significant difference between the means of 40 K in the sediment samples from oil producing coastal areas and those from the non oil producing areas, while 238 U and 232 Th were observed not to be significantly different at 0.05 level of
nature of the building materials, etc. The walls of all class room, student labs, research labs, offices and main halls are painting with paint covering material; the flours of all offices are covered by carpets. We noted that, moreover detected radon concentration in the rooms of the ground floor is higher than for the other floors above the ground floor. This could be attributed to the fact that the radon is heavy gas and cannot go up to higher floors. It is widely agreed that the principal source of 222 Rn in houses is the soil gas in the surroundings, but it could be
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assay was carried out to determine the lowest extract concentra- tion required to inhibit bacterial growth. The assay was performed based on published protocols (Andrews 2001; Wiegand et al. 2008) with slight modifications. Two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were used in the assay. Briefly, a bacterial inoculum of 5 × 10 5 colony-forming unit/mL was prepared in Mueller- Hinton Broth and aliquoted into a 96-well sterile micro- titer plate. Plant extract was added into the first row of wells, serially diluted to final concentrations of 50.00, 25.00, 12.50, 6.25, 3.13, 1.56, 0.78, and 0.40 mg/mL. The plate was then sealed and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Next, 20 μL of p-iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (0.4 mg/mL) was added to each well, followed by 30 min of incubation at 37°C. Colour change in each well was monitored visually. The lowest extract concentration that inhibited bacterial growth, indicated by the absence of colour change in the well, was taken as the MIC value. For comparison, the assay was carried out using different concentrations of ampicillin (2.50, 1.25, 0.63, 0.31, 0.16, 0.08, 0.04, and 0.02 mg/mL).
The F F -index in Equation 7 is also correlated with the R-factor [Ferro et al., 1991] taking into consideration the distribution of actual monthly precipitation during each year (Fa,j) for a period of N years [Maria et al., 2008] as defined in Equa- tion 7. Arnoldus  developed an expression connecting the F and R for the United States and some regions in Africa. While some other au- thors correlated R with annual rainfall amount, MFI or summer rainfall amount. In an extensive review conducted by Morgan  covering Ivory Coast and Malaysia confirmed validity of applying this kind of approach. In literature, there are several other reported expressions for estima- tion of R-factor such as modified Fournier index (MFI), Sicily, Arnoldus and Morocco equation, Wischmeier and Smith, etc. Arnoldus equation is as given in Equation 8.
ISO recommend that the ambient background of a substance in soils can be set at a chosen parameter from the frequency distribution of usual concentrations (International Organisa- tion for Standardisation (ISO), 2005). Table 4 shows the range, median, 10th and 90th percentile values for different soil texture groups. The median concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn differ by 3e5 fold between the clayey and sandy texture groups, thus highlighting that soil texture is an important factor affecting trace metal concentrations. In the case of Pb, sandy and peaty soils have the lowest and highest median values, respectively, whereas the other texture groups show similar median values (Table 4). The median values for each soil texture group can be considered to represent the median ambient background concentrations (MABCs) of the group. This approach, although not perfect, represents a significant refinement in the way that it takes into account a key soil property that is easily measurable in a site investigation.
following the sediment equilibration technique described in Corbett et al. (1998). Briefly, 1 kg sediment samples were obtained from two soil layers below the surface up to 1 m depth. Samples were only taken from this depth as shallow groundwater is the major interacting groundwater source with the surface water due to the presence of a 10 m thick layer of gel- like marine/estuarine clay that exists >1.5 m from the surface. This deeper sediment has a very low hydraulic conductivity (White et al., 2003), and acts as a confining layer between any deeper groundwater aquifers. Known volumes of radium-free tap water equilibrated with the atmosphere was added to the sediments and incubated for 21 days to allow for radon source ( 226 Ra decay) and sink ( 222 Rn decay) to reach steady state equilibrium. The radon concentration in the water was then measured on a RAD7 using procedures described above. The radonconcentrations from each sediment incubation were averaged to provide an integrative groundwater radon endmember. This technique is a widely used approach for estimating the radon endmember in groundwater discharge studies (Burnett et al., 2007; Peterson et al 2008; Schmidt et al., 2010).
2 hillslope areas is Hulu Kelang (or also known as Ulu Klang). It is a state constituency in Gombak district in Selangor and known with its landslide occurrences in the past (Sew and Chin, 2006; Faisal, 2000; Huat et al., 2012; Lee et al., 2014; Saadatkhah et al., 2015). The area was subjected to a total of reported 28 historical landslides from 1990 to 2011; with 21 cases of them were identified as potentially triggered by intense rainfall. This study is in-line with the Priority 4 of Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 on the enhancement of the preparedness for the effective response, and also the National Slope Master Plan 2017-2023 (Revised in 2016) (PWD, 2017; Jaapar, 2006).
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive, odorless, colorless gas that is continuously released by natural sources, such as geological formations in soil and construction materials. Radon and its daughters are formed during the radioactive decays of uranium and thorium, in the earth’s crust, to lead, of which the latter is the stable product of the decay processes. The various half-lives of the radio nuclides are very important in determining the relative contributions of the decay series to bronchial dose .The half-life of 222 Rn is 3.8. It has four short-lived decay
In order to interpret results on the correlation between radon behavior at Tlamacas station with moderate eruptions of volcano Popocatepetl, more studies in the Tlamacas area were desirable. Additionally, different questions in relation to the radon anomaly in Tlamacas Mountain (Figure 2),  have arisen. How homogene- ous is the area of radon emanation in the Tlamacas area? Is the radon distribution the same at different times? The present article is devoted to a detailed study of the Radon release in the area of Tlamacas; the results were obtained at different times by two different radon survey methods. Similar radon surveys in volcano-tectonic geological structures have been carried out in different active volcanoes all over the world -. The current study aids in understanding the connection of Tlamacas Mountain with the volcano Popocatepetl, which is of great importance for forecasting its eruptive activity.