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Authentication System – Overview of Graphical Passwords

Authentication System – Overview of Graphical Passwords

Syukri algorithm proposes a system where certification is conducted by having user drawing their signature using the mouse. This technique includes two stages, namely, registration and check. The users are asked to draw their signature with the mouse during registration stage and the signature area will be then extracted from the system which may be either enlarged or rotated if needed. The information will subsequently be saved in the database. The verification stage first takes the user input, and makes out the normalization again, and then extracts the parameters of the signature. The system conducts verification using geometric average means and a dynamic update of the database. According to the subject area, the rate of successful verification was satisfying. The greatest advantage of this approach is that there is no need to memorize one's signature and signatures are hard to fake.
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A Survey on: Efficient User Authentication using Captcha and Graphical Passwords

A Survey on: Efficient User Authentication using Captcha and Graphical Passwords

ABSTRACT: The most common computer authentication method is to use alphanumerical usernames and passwords. This method has been shown to have significant drawbacks. For example, user tends to pick passwords that can be easily guessed. On the other hand, if a password is hard to guess, then it is often hard to remember. In this pa per, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the existing graphical password techniques and captcha. Using hard AI problems for security is emerging as an exciting new paradigm, but has been underexplored. In this paper, we present a new security primitive based on hard AI problems, graphical password systems built on top of Captcha technology, which we call Captcha as graphical passwords (CaRP). CaRP is both a Captcha and a graphical password scheme .We discuss the strengths and limitations of each method and point out the future research directions in this area. And also major design and implementation issues are clearly explained. The main advantage of this method is it is difficult to hack.
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Research and Development of User Authentication using Graphical Passwords: A Prospective Methodology

Research and Development of User Authentication using Graphical Passwords: A Prospective Methodology

Various graphical passwords applied in online applications are analyzed in [21]. The CaRP approach, which uses the benefits of both Captcha and graphical password technology is also proposed. In this method proposed a four model. The approach consists of four modules -registration, authentication, verification stage using CaRP and image. In registration, a user fills the required details and uploads an image, then set it as his/her password by clicking on the image. It is saved in the system database. In login, user sends the required details to the system and the system validates the credentials. Next, the verification is done by the CaRP. The system displays the image and user should select correct pixels in that image. In verification using image, user must select the registered image among hundreds of image displayed by the system. This method preserves the user account from brute force attack, dictionary attack, guessing attack, relay attack, and shoulder surfing attack.
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A Sophisticated Approach to Graphical Password

A Sophisticated Approach to Graphical Password

In 2004, Roth et al. [9] presented an approach for PIN entry against shoulder surfing attacks by increasing the noise to observers. In their approach, the PIN digits are displayed in either black or white randomly in each round. The user must respond to the system by identifying the color for each password digit. After the user has made a series of binary choices (black or white), the system configure out the PIN number the user intended to enter by intersecting the user’s choices. Towards a PIN entry method that is robust against shoulder surfing, proposed two variants of an interactive challenge-response protocol to which we refer as cognitive trapdoor games. The essential feature of such a game is that it is easily won if the PIN is known, and hard to win otherwise. The cognitive capabilities of a human are generally not sufficient to derive the genuine PIN through observation of the entire game’s input and output. This approach could confuse the observers if they just watch the screen without any help of video capturing devices. However, if observers are able to capture the whole authentication process, the passwords can be cracked easily.
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A Novel Soft Computing Authentication Scheme for Textual and Graphical Passwords

A Novel Soft Computing Authentication Scheme for Textual and Graphical Passwords

Weinshall and Kirkpatrick [20] studied a recognition-based scheme and concluded that users can still remember their graphical password with 90% accuracy even after one or two months. Their study supports the theory that human remember images better than text. In addition for example, the commercial system Pass faces uses images of human faces. Davis, et al. worked on such a scheme and concluded that user‟s password selection is affected by race and gender. This makes the Pass faces password somewhat predictable. Although a recognition-based graphical password seems to be easy to remember, which increases the usability, it is not completely secure. It needs several rounds of image recognition for authentication to provide a reasonably large password space, which is tedious. Also, it is obvious that recognition-based systems are vulnerable to replay attack and
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A Hybrid Graphical Password Based System – Balancing the Usability and Security

A Hybrid Graphical Password Based System – Balancing the Usability and Security

ABSTRACT: Wide-ranging people prefer the unforgettable passwords rather than the strong passwords which are complicated to keep in mind. Human mind can effortlessly memorize the image than textual character. Now a day, the online guessing attacks such as dictionary attacks, brute force attacks and the botnet (Robotic Network) are dreadfully confronting to face. While keeping from happening such attacks, make available the expedient login for genuine users is a complex problem. This project effort unites the Persuasive Pixel Click Points (PPCP) and Password Guessing Resistant Protocol (PGRP) in graphical passwords. In this work, we confer the inadequacy of existing and proposed login protocols intended to address large scale online dictionary attacks. To recognize the malicious login attempts Automated Turing Tests (ATTs) e.g., Captcha is efficient and uncomplicated to organize technique other than it offers inconvenience to the users. The PGRP counts the number of failed login attempts per username. It confines the total number of failed login attempts from the unknown seclude hosts at the same time it offers the genuine users to make use of several failed login attempts prior to deal with an ATT. As a result this work balances the usability and security in the authentication schemes.
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Generic authentication system

Generic authentication system

We propose Generic Authentication System, a new novel and better security primitive relying on unsolved hard AI problems. Generic Authentication System is both graphical and an Alphanumeric password scheme. The notion of Generic Authentication System introduces a new family of graphical passwords with together, which adopts a new approach to counter online guessing attacks which is used for every login attempt to make trials of an online guessing attack computationally independent of each other. A password of Generic Authentication System can be found only probabilistically by automatic online guessing attacks including brute-force attacks, a desired security property that other graphical password schemes lack.
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A SHOULDER SURFING RESISTANT GRAPHICAL AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM

A SHOULDER SURFING RESISTANT GRAPHICAL AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM

Nowadays there are lot of mobile devices and web services, users can access their personal accounts in the network to make communication like sending and receiving confidential business emails and posting videos and images in the cloud or revoke money from their e-bank account anytime and anywhere. While logging into these services in the public, they may expose their passwords while login into the services.

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Title: Robust Authentication Based Graphical Passwords Mechanism

Title: Robust Authentication Based Graphical Passwords Mechanism

Persuasive Technology influences user to select more difficult password for secure authentication. PCCP is a good technology but has accessibility problems. At the time of password creation users may shuffle as often as desired but it slows the process of password creation, it can take many clicks to shuffle view port on user wanted area which leads to increase in password creation time. In PCCP technique system generated view port indicate less attractive portion of image, but if user want to choose his click on less attractive part or on his/her wanted area users may get bored by clicking on shuffle button several time to get it.
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Graphical Password Authentication System

Graphical Password Authentication System

Abstract— Computer security depends largely on passwords to authenticate the human users from attackers. The most common computer authentication method is to use alphanumerical usernames and passwords. However, there are significant drawbacks in this method. For example, Passwords selected by users are easily guessed by the attacker. On the other hand, passwords which are difficult to guess are difficult to remember. To overcome this problem of low security, Authentication methods are developed by researchers that use images as password. In this research paper, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the existing graphical password techniques and provide a possible theory of our own.
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CAPTCHA as graphical passwords

CAPTCHA as graphical passwords

both usability and security aspects, as well as system evaluation. The paper _rst catalogues existing approaches, highlighting novel features of selected schemes and identifying key usability or security advantages. The paper reviews usability requirements for knowledge-based authentication as they apply to graphical passwords, identify security threats that such systems must address[1]. KeyWords :-Server,Client,Remote, Monitoring, LAN

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Index Terms Graphical Passwords, Authentication, Click Points, Privacy, Password Protection, Guessing Attacks.

Index Terms Graphical Passwords, Authentication, Click Points, Privacy, Password Protection, Guessing Attacks.

Authentication is an important issue, which prevents unauthorized person in a computer based information security environment system. In Present days, most frequently used technique in the information security computer based system for authentication is text based authentication. In this technique user create passwords with the help of characters, special symbols, numbers, keywords and special characters and problems of knowledge based authentication is text based passwords. Sometimes user can create memorable passwords that they are easily guessed by hackers where as a strong system which generate complicate passwords are difficult for users to remember. But a password authentication system should provide strong passwords as well as maintain memorability. The previous results that text based passwords systems have struggled with security and usability issues. As a solution for these problems graphical passwords techniques have been introduced. The graphical passwords based authentication is using images instead of text to creating user password.
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User Authentication Using Graphical Password Scheme: A More Secure Approach Using Mobile Interface

User Authentication Using Graphical Password Scheme: A More Secure Approach Using Mobile Interface

To overcome the shortcomings of textbasedpasswords, graphical passwords have been proposed. Inmost of the schemes, graphical password employs graphicalpresentations such as icons, human faces or custom images tocreate a password. Human brains can process graphical imageseasily. Graphical passwords claim to be superior to the textbased passwords due to this human characteristic. Thesemethods assume if the number of possible pictures issufficiently large, the possible password space of a graphicalpassword scheme may exceed that of text-based password andtherefore it is virtually more resistance to attacks such asdictionary attacks.Many graphical password schemes are already introduced. Graphical password techniques can beclassified into two categories; recognition-based and recallbased.In recognition-based systems, a series of images arepresented to the user and a successful authentication requirescorrect images being clicked in a right order. In recall-basedsystems, the user is asked to reproduce something that he orshe created or selected earlier during the registration. The pastdecade has seen a growing interest in using graphicalpasswords as an alternative to the traditional text-basedpasswords.
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3D Graphical Password Authentication System

3D Graphical Password Authentication System

b) 3-D Password Overview: The 3-D password is a multifactor authentication scheme. The 3-D password presents a 3-D virtual environment containing various virtual objects. The user navigates through this environment and interacts with the objects. The 3-D password is simply the combination and the sequence of user interactions that occur in the 3-D virtual environment. The 3- D password can combine recognition-, recall-, token-, and biometrics-based systems into one authentication scheme. This can be done by designing a 3-D virtual environment that contains objects that request information to be recalled, information to be recognized, tokens to be presented, and biometrical data to be verified. For example, the user can enter the virtual environment and type something on a computer that exists in (x1, y1, z1) position, then enter a room that has a fingerprint recognition device that exists in a position (x2, y2, z2) and provide his/her fingerprint. Then, the user can go to the virtual garage, open the car door, and turn on the radio to a specific channel. The combination and the sequence of the previous actions toward the specific objects construct the user’s 3-D password. Virtual objects can be any object that we encounter in real life. Any obvious actions and interactions toward the real-life objects can be done in the virtual 3-D environment toward the virtual objects. Moreover, any user input (such as speaking in a specific location) in the virtual 3-D environment can be considered as a part of the 3-D password.
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CCP Based Graphical Authentication System

CCP Based Graphical Authentication System

Various graphical password authentication schemes were developed to solve the problems and weaknesses associated with text based passwords. Based on some studies it is proved that humans have a better ability to memorize images with long-term memory than verbal representations. Image-based passwords were proved to be easier torecollect in several user studies. The human actions such as choosing bad passwords fornew accounts and inputting passwords in an insecure way for later logins are regarded asthe weakest link in the authentication chain. Therefore, an strong authentication scheme shouldbe designed to overcome these problems and weakness in text based password.
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Cued Click Points Password Authentication using Picture Grids

Cued Click Points Password Authentication using Picture Grids

A preliminary security analysis of this new scheme is also presented. Hotspots (i.e. areas of image that users have to select) are a concern in click-based passwords, so CCP uses a large set of images that will be difficult for attackers to obtain. The hotspot analysis requires proportionally more effort by attackers, as each image must be collected and analyzed separately. CCP appears to allow greater security; the work load for attackers of CCP can be randomly increased by augmenting the number of images in the system. As with most graphical passwords, CCP is not planned for environments where shoulder-surfing is a serious threat.
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Securing Authentication against Spyware using Captcha and click based Graphical Password

Securing Authentication against Spyware using Captcha and click based Graphical Password

The past decade has seen a growing interest in using graphical passwords as an alternative to the traditional text- based passwords. Although the main argument for graphical passwords is that people are better at memorizing graphical passwords than text-based passwords, the existing user studies are very limited and there is not yet convincing evidence to support this argument. An important usability and security goal in authentication systems is to help users’ select better passwords and thus increase the effective password space. The relationship between usability and security is a complex one; too often, improvements in one lead to a reduction in the other.
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A New Way of Data Security using image coordinates as Password in AI

A New Way of Data Security using image coordinates as Password in AI

In this paper we conduct a comprehensive survey of subsisting CaRP techniques namely ClickText, ClickAnimal and AnimalGrid. We discuss the strengths and inhibitions of each method and point out research direction in this area. We withal endeavor to answer “Are CaRP as secured as graphical passwords and text predicated passwords?” and “Is CARP protective to relay attack?"Texts passwords are insecure for reasons and graphical are more secured in comparison but are vulnerably susceptible to shoulder surfing attacks. Hence by utilizing graphical password system and CAPTCHA technology an incipient security primitive is proposed. We call it as CAPTCHA as Graphical Password (CaRP). CaRP is an amalgamation of both a CAPTCHA and a graphical password scheme. Cyber security is a consequential issue to tackle. Sundry utilizer authentication methods are utilized for this purport. It avails to evade misuse or illicit utilization of highly sensitive data. Text and graphical passwords are mainly utilized for authentication purport. But due to sundry imperfections, they are not reliable for data security.
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Implementation of Authentication using Graphical Password for Cloud Computing

Implementation of Authentication using Graphical Password for Cloud Computing

stored in system is very important. Authentication is the operation to supply guaranteed information security and the graphical password authentication method is an easy and convenient process to provide strong authentication. The major problem of user registration, mostly text and number based password, is well known. If the login user be used to choose a simple password which is frequently in his mind it becomes straightforward for attacker to guess. If the password is machine generated it is mostly complicated for user to keep in mind. User verify password using cued click points graphical password scheme contains usability, and memo ability security evaluations. This paper is on enhanced user graphical password authentication with a usability and memo ability, so that users select more difficult or more random to guess passwords. In click-based graphical passwords, image or video frames provide database to load the images, and then give authenticated access to all data in database. User authentication, graphical password scheme, cued recall, video frame as a password, usability, memorability, security.
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PASSMATRIX  An Authentication System to Resist Shoulder Surfing Attacks

PASSMATRIX An Authentication System to Resist Shoulder Surfing Attacks

pattern based password. These patterns based authentication system is vulnerable to shoulder surfing attack as well as the Smudge Attacks. The attacker can easily get the password pattern by observing the smudge left on the touch screen. Defining bad and easily crackable password and/or login using password in insecure environment mainly causes loopholes in password authentication security. There is a need of secured password authentication system which overcomes the drawbacks of existing text and image based password schemes. To overcome these problems biometrical password scheme is introduced. In biometric password authentication system user voice, retina, thumbprint, face are used as a passwords. There are various types of biometric sensors which as able to authenticate user. Such schemes are secured but hardware specific. Special sensor devices are required for authentication. It is impractical to have such authentication system to regular web based resources and such system installation and maintenance is costly. This proposed work provides a graphical authentication system. This system is able to restrict shoulder surfing attack. To resist shoulder surfing attack it uses session password technique. In session password user will add new password at every login attempt. The added password is valid for only single login session. Pass-matrix technique is proposed in this work. This technique uses pass-point clicking. This technique uses more than one image as a password. For every image it defines the click points as a pass-square. If user is not being able to click on correct pass square then system displays a wrong image for next pass input. This wrong image is treated as a warning to the user. To define session password for pass square click, a hint is provided to the user. Based on the given hint user will select the password for that session.
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