Top PDF Automated forced-choice dynamic-dilution olfactometer and method of operating the same

Automated forced choice dynamic dilution olfactometer and method of operating the same

Automated forced-choice dynamic-dilution olfactometer and method of operating the same

An automated forced-choice dynamic-dilution olfactometer has an odor evaluation module having two or more panelist stations, with a plurality of sniffing ports at each station. At least one signal element at each station is connected to a data control unit. Separate air lines are connected to one each of the sniffing ports at each station. One of the air lines has an odor introduction port. The method of detecting an odorous stream of air in an automated forced-choice dynamic-dilution olfactometer and method of operating the same olfactor system comprises the steps of providing an odor evaluation module having at least two panelist stations; providing a plurality of sniffing ports at each station; providing a data control unit and connecting the control unit to a signal element at each station, providing separate air lines to one each of the sniffing ports at each station so that individual panelists at each station can separately sniff the air in each line, introducing an odor into one of the air lines, having the panelists at each station sniff each sniffing port to determine which air line contains the odor, and having each panelist actuate the signal element to advise the data control system as to which air line contains the odor.
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The IGS Standard Operating Procedure for Automated Prokaryotic Annotation

The IGS Standard Operating Procedure for Automated Prokaryotic Annotation

Protein coding genes are predicted using a self- training method with Glimmer3 [8]. A set of non- overlapping long ORFs is produced from the input nucleotide sequences and used as a training set to further refine the gene structural predictions in a second iteration of Glimmer3. An upstream posi- tion weight matrix is created and aids in identify- ing ribosomal binding sites. In addition, the rela- tive frequency of start sites is calculated. The posi- tion weight matrix and start site frequencies, along with the original long ORFs training set, are used as input into the second Glimmer3 iteration. The results from the second run are used as the working prediction and this set is automatically curated later in the pipeline.
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Operating on Tensors Within Dynamic Coordinate Frames

Operating on Tensors Within Dynamic Coordinate Frames

WIth the current framework proposed in this paper, the transforma- tions from cordinate space to coordinate space depend explicitly on time because the 3 Spatial Dimensions are connected to the time coordinate via a non-linear relation Z i 0 = Z i 0 (t, Z). Thus, the 3D+1D space that is referred to in General Relativity deserves a special treatment when being referred to by this framework. A theoretical method for doing so wil be proposed.

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Automated Evaluation of Access Control in the iPhone Operating System.

Automated Evaluation of Access Control in the iPhone Operating System.

Unlike the sandbox policy, the next two stages of access control are not defined by a centralized policy (e.g., a sandbox policy). Instead, the enforcement is based on ad-hoc conditions hard-coded into remote method providers. Remote method providers can check the entitlements of clients by using the SecTaskCopyValueForEntitlement API [ Lev ] . This API allows a process to specify an entitlement key and a client, and the API will return the value associated with that entitlement key for the specified client. Then the remote method provider can decide whether or not to provide access based on the returned key value (e.g., True, False, “read-only”). While this type of policy is intuitive to develop, it is difficult to verify correctness of the policy due to its decentralized nature. At stage two of Figure 6.1, the third party application has made the system call to connect to a mach-port, but the remote method provider can still reject the connection. This decision is made based on hard-coded conditions that check the attributes of the client (e.g., Unix user authority or entitlements). At stage three, the connection has been approved, but each of the remote methods may contain hard-coded conditions that govern access to that method. For example, one mach-port could expose a remote object with 9 remote methods that do not require any entitlements and 1 remote method that requires the client to possess a specific entitlement. This level of granularity allows developers to assign remote methods with similar functionality to the same mach-port while applying different access control policies based on their security sensitivity.
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Structural roofing system and method of using the same

Structural roofing system and method of using the same

[0115] In more detail, as said with reference to the structural roofing system 1, a pneumatic element 10 is arranged above the at least one tension element 5 in order to support the said pneumatic element. According to an aspect of the method according to the invention, this step requires that the tension element 5 is con- strained between two points 30, 31 of at least one foun- dation 3 and suspended above the ground 4 and/or the area underneath 50 covered by the structural system 1. [0116] The method further comprises the step of plac- ing the covering layer 2 with at least a portion above one of the pneumatic elements 10 in such a way that the said covering layer 2 is supported by the pneumatic element. This step is carried out using known means able to supply at least one gas into the body of the pneumatic element. The means for varying the size of the pneumatic element 10 can be used in a continuous way in presence of a pneumatic element which is not completely airtight. Oth- erwise, the said means can be used to maintain constant the level of pressure inside the pneumatic element in case of potential leakages or variations due to different environmental conditions.
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‘A question of equality and choice’: same-sex couples’ attitudes toward civil partnership after the introduction of same-sex marriage

‘A question of equality and choice’: same-sex couples’ attitudes toward civil partnership after the introduction of same-sex marriage

However, there was one thing that respondents broadly agreed upon. Formal equality (treating everyone exactly the same in law) was a principle that, on the whole, underpinned the arguments on all sides (Harding & Peel, 2006). Some felt that civil partnership should be abolished because formal equality had been achieved in the form of marriage equality. Others believed that civil partnerships should be extended to different sex couples to bring about formal equality. Meanwhile those who expressed ambivalence nevertheless felt that there was a need for formal equality one way or the other. The principle of formal equality is what Billig (1987) refers to as a taken-for- granted cultural ‘commonplace’. However, this construction of equality as treating everyone the same can obscure structural oppression of particular groups. For instance, the principle of formal equality can be used as a basis to argue that equality measures represent reverse discrimination, which, as Peel (2001) observes, often constitutes a form of mundane heterosexism. As several respondents note, the campaign for ‘equal civil partnerships’ may fail to acknowledge heterosexual privilege and the social context in which civil partnership was created. Different sex couples are not denied access to civil partnership because heterosexuals are oppressed but rather as an unintended outcome of the historic oppression of lesbians and gay men.
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All Primary Care Trainees Are Not the Same: The Role of Economic Factors and Career Choice

All Primary Care Trainees Are Not the Same: The Role of Economic Factors and Career Choice

It is important to note that respon- dents may not have perceived “debt” in the McDonald et al study and “earn- ing potential” or “financial consider- ations” in the Residency Review and Redesign in Pediatrics studies as the same issue. Indeed, it is possible that if the exact same questions were asked of trainees in each specialty, or if the same measures of associations with debt were attempted, the findings would have been similar. In addition, some of the responses to the pediatric survey may have been influenced by social-acceptability factors, but if so, the degree to which they affected the findings is unknown.
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Probabilistic Modeling of Robotic and Automated Systems Operating in Cosmic Space

Probabilistic Modeling of Robotic and Automated Systems Operating in Cosmic Space

The approach covers: the choice of probabilistic models considering specificity of operating in cosmic space; the reliability analysis of control system of the robot-manipulator which du[r]

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VALIDATION OF A FORCED DEGRADATION UPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF FLUNIXIN

VALIDATION OF A FORCED DEGRADATION UPLC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF FLUNIXIN

A specific, precise, accurate and forced degradation UPLC method is validated for estimation of Flunixin. The method employed, with Hypersil BDS C18 (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) column in an gradient mode, with mobile phase of Methanol, 0.1% Orthophosphoric acid and Acetonitrile in the ratio of 45:35:20 %v/v/v. The flow rate was 0.1 ml/min and effluent was monitored at 239 nm. Retention time was found to be 3.453±0.08 min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) etc. in accordance with ICH guidelines. Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed that there was good linear relationship between response and concentration in the range of 1- 10 µg/ml respectively. The LOD and LOQ values for were found to be 0.31607(μg/ml) and 0.95781(μg/ml) respectively. No chromatographic interference from parenteral’s excipients and degradants were found. The proposed method was successfully used for estimation of (parenterals form).
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Route choice modelling in dynamic traffic assignment

Route choice modelling in dynamic traffic assignment

In the past static assignment techniques have been used on a large scale. During the last decade a shift toward more use of dynamic models can be seen. There are two major causes for this trend. First, the demand from the market has changed. For a long period there was practically no need for dynamic assignment models, since static models gave (and still give) robust results for the purpose of transport planning. Over time the market (consultants and their clients) also wanted insight in travel times (and delays) and queue building. This required a model that took time dynamics into account. Secondly, the computational power needed for DTA models is huge and until the late 1990s required special computers. With the increasing possibilities of regular computer workstations the dynamic traffic assignment is gaining importance rapidly (Peeta & Ziliaskopoulos, 2001).
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Effect of sample dilution on estimated values of antioxidant capacity by photochemiluminiscence method

Effect of sample dilution on estimated values of antioxidant capacity by photochemiluminiscence method

BENZIE et al. (1999) mentioned that when using photochemiluminiscence in assays of ascorbic acid, the magnitude of the response was dependent on concentration and effi ciency of the antioxidant. Diff erences in measured values of antioxidants under study could be caused also by a decreasing response of the instrument used for these measurements (BALOGHA et al., 2010). WAYNER et al. (1986) studied also the dependence of antioxidant eff ects of ascorbic acid on its concentration. HENGST (2009) wrote about a non- linear behaviour of the photochemiluminiscence method in measurements of a calibration series of gallic acid. He also mentioned that the non-linear dependence of measured values on concentrations had not been adequately explained yet. The theoretical assumption that the measured values of the antioxidant capacity are infl uenced by the antioxidant concentration and the magnitude of
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Experiment and comparison of automated static code analyzers and automated dynamic tests

Experiment and comparison of automated static code analyzers and automated dynamic tests

Code inspections were developed when the procedural programming paradigm was dominant; subsequently, object-oriented (OO) programming gained popularity and use [1]. The inherent differences between these two programming paradigms introduce different challenges, requiring different inspection techniques. For example, a key challenge with inspection of OO code is that many hard-to-find defects share a common characteristic – delocalization. Delocalization is the characteristic that information required to understand a piece of code is distributed throughout the system. In other words, a trail of method invocations must be followed through many other methods and classes, possibly including inheritance hierarchies, in order to understand a piece of code [1].
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Free and Forced Oscillations in a Class of Piecewise-Linear Dynamic Systems

Free and Forced Oscillations in a Class of Piecewise-Linear Dynamic Systems

For dynamic systems with several degrees of freedom, exact periodic solutions have been obtained, for certain special "modal" forms of sinusoidal excitation; [r]

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Inaccuracy of the Disk Diffusion Method Compared with the Agar Dilution Method for Susceptibility Testing of Campylobacter spp

Inaccuracy of the Disk Diffusion Method Compared with the Agar Dilution Method for Susceptibility Testing of Campylobacter spp

Several previous papers have focused on the efficacy and accuracy of the disk diffusion method and the Etest method compared to the agar plate dilution or broth microdilution methods, with somewhat contradictory results (8, 9, 15, 17, 19, 20). In these studies, the disk diffusion tests were performed only once for each strain. Gaudreau et al. (8, 9) have found the disk diffusion method to be a reliable, easy and inexpensive method for the testing of the susceptibility of C. jejuni to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline. Corroborat- ing the present study, the results of, e.g., van der Beek et al. are differ- ent (19). They reinvestigated 48 erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni and C. coli strains retrospectively to reevaluate erythromycin resistance, and only 11 to 14% of the C. jejuni strains and 67% of the C. coli strains were erythromycin resistant in the second analysis. In that study, the initial susceptibility testing was performed in most cases by the disk diffusion method and the reinvestigation was carried out using broth microdilution. The authors conclude that routine deter- mination of the erythromycin resistance in C. jejuni and C. colishows unacceptable interlaboratory variation. Nonstandardized suscepti- bility testing methods may be involved in the differences of the sus- ceptibility results obtained by the disk diffusion method, including (i) various protocols of the methods used, (ii) long incubation time for campylobacters, (iii) inaccuracy of the measurements between differ- ent times or between different persons measuring the inhibition zone, and (iv) different methods for achieving microaerobic conditions during the incubation. In their paper, van der Beek et al. (19) specu- lated on the possibility that differences could also be caused by insta- bility of the erythromycin resistance. In the present study, no rising trend during the repetitions was observed in the inhibition zone vari- ation between the different measurement times. Therefore, the insta- bility of the erythromycin resistance does not seem to be the factor underlying the variation in our strains.
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A Universal Dynamic Trace for Linux and Other Operating Systems

A Universal Dynamic Trace for Linux and Other Operating Systems

However there is a theoretical exposure under MP: because we need unlimited access to system resources, the DPEH runs in privileged mode, which means we can't generally emulate the original instruction after the breakpoint fires. We have to single-step it in situ. This means temporarily removing the breakpoint and thus exposing us to a miss if the same probe was executed on another processor. In practice this is not a

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Oscillation Criteria for Second Order Forced Dynamic Equations with Mixed Nonlinearities

Oscillation Criteria for Second Order Forced Dynamic Equations with Mixed Nonlinearities

nonpositive. We should note that the sign condition on the coefficients of super-half-linear terms cannot be removed alternatively by the same approach. Furthermore, the function et cannot take the value zero on intervals of interest in this case. We have the following theorem. Theorem 3.3. Suppose that for any given T ∈ t 0 , ∞ T there exist subintervals a 1 , b 1 T and

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Do Different Types of Dynamic Extrapolation Rely on the Same Mechanism?

Do Different Types of Dynamic Extrapolation Rely on the Same Mechanism?

not systematically multiply with occlusion duration. In other words, there were rarely slope differences between tasks. This is in stark contrast to the SRC, which predicts that performance differ- ences should grow for longer occlusions. Second, different kinds of extrapolation were affected by stimulus parameters in the same way, and these similarities were quite specific: There was a Com- parable fixed parameter ⫻ occlusion duration interaction in all tasks. Third, we found robust correlations between CTEs on the different extrapolation tasks, so that people who responded earlier in one tended to do so in the corresponding condition of the others. The variable error data was particularly interesting. This was found to increase with occlusion duration, and the function relating occlusion duration to VE was linear, and had the same slope in all extrapolation tasks we tested. To further understand our VE re- sults, we ran several computer simulations of CTE variation, which are described in the supplementary materials online. The take-home message from our supplementary analysis is that con- stant noise (which does not scale with occlusion duration) and proportional noise (scaled to occlusion duration) both contribute to CTE variability. The real data can be best modeled as difference in constant noise between the tasks, but identical proportional noise. Proportional noise is more closely related to imprecision in the rate control system itself, and it instructive that this was comparable across tasks.
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Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18O dilution

Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18O dilution

Body composition by the isotope dilution technique Infants (nude) were weighed using a standard electrical scale [Seca 334 electronic baby scale (Medical) Seca Gmbh and Co, Germany] with a precision of 10 g. Recumbent length of the infants was measured using an infantometer (Raven equipment Ltd, England) to the nearest 0.1 cm. A pre-dose urine sample (2 mL) was collected from each infant by keeping sterile cotton wool inside the nappies of baby and expressing the urine from the cotton wool using a 20-mL syringe. An accurately mea- sured (analytical balance, model HR-200, Japan, A&D company Ltd) dose of 18 O water (10% 18 O enrichment, from Sigma Aldrich) at 10 mg/kg body weight was ad- ministered orally to each infant using a sterile syringe without the needle. The dose syringe was rinsed twice with minimum volume of drinking water and fed to the infant in order to ensure that the infant received the entire isotope dose. Post dose urine samples were collected after 5 hours and on day 3. Urine samples were kept in water- tight tubes, frozen at − 20°C, stored and transported to the Gas-Isotope-Ratio Mass Spectrometry Laboratory at the USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, USA for isotopic analyses.
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Optimal back-extrapolation method for estimating plasma volume in humans using the indocyanine green dilution method

Optimal back-extrapolation method for estimating plasma volume in humans using the indocyanine green dilution method

same clearance rate exists immediately after injection at t = 0 (when there is no dye at the liver) as when the dye is well mixed in the circulation over the 2- to 5-minute period; the errors associated with this assumption will be higher in cases of high clearance. Based on the work of Haneda [2], alternative back-extrapolation times were tested, and it was demonstrated that if ICG concentrations are back-extrapolated to t = 1 minute rather than to t = 0, only minimal errors in the estimated ICG 0 (and hence in the estimated

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Equilibria of dynamic mutual choice mating games

Equilibria of dynamic mutual choice mating games

The section takes the two param eters of the game, r and c, as given. Step­ ping back a level to the design problem, it can be seen th a t the organizer of the matching process may have some control over these values. The organizer of the process will usually have some direct control over r, typically by limiting the entries to the process of the larger group (called males), and so making it closer to 1. This is in fact often done by ‘capping’ in ‘singles’ events, and in­ directly done by setting application dates or entry fees (e.g. ladies free nights) in other matching processes. In captive breeding populations (in zoos or else­ where), th e sex ratio is chosen to optimize population growth, for a given set of resources. In order to optimize the choice of r, it is of course necessary to know the result (or results, if multiple equilibria) of the game w ith a given value of r. Our model shows th a t in some cases shifting r a small am ount will convert an ambiguous situation with multiple equilibria into a more predictable unique situation. Control over the c (non m ating) cost param eter is more problem ati­ cal. At the governmental level, it is reflected in tax benefits to married couples and in tourism by th e use of ‘singles supplem ents’. Some local councils give a tax break to single occupancy apartm ents.
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