Top PDF Automated RF Over Fiber Signal Measurement System

Automated RF Over Fiber Signal Measurement System

Automated RF Over Fiber Signal Measurement System

1.1 Introduction The fiber optical is one major discovery in the human history. When people moved from wired to wireless, they had the freedom hassle-free communication, but they had to pay a price. The system became complex and costlier to build and deploy. As everyone know a message signal needs a carrier to send and has the frequency of the carrier increases the noise in the transmission decrease. The wireless system got up Ghz and it’s hard for generating such carrier. To overcome all these problems and to increases the speed of the communication, Researchers have used light has carrier to send message. The system was developed to send o’s and 1’s or commonly known has digital communication. As ages pasted, there was many improvements in the system but still used digital technology. The concept of RF (Sine –wave) over fiber was introduced and many researchers have showed ways, How the fiber can be used in modifying RF signals. This is new concept and there are only few measurement techniques to qualify the system.
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Automated Method For Fiber Length Measurement

Automated Method For Fiber Length Measurement

The camera also needed the capability to be hardware triggered to ensure that the fiber sensor would be able to control the camera. Hardware triggering refers to the ability to either provide a high signal or ground to a wire connected directly to the camera to cause it to capture an image. Software triggering and continuously capturing images are other common configurations for controlling cameras however they are not required for this system. The original system used a camera configured to continuously capture images and proved to be very effective. The fibers were moving much slower and at any given time there were many fibers within the frame. The new system however has a few quickly moving fibers and if the camera were to capture continuously, images would rarely contain fibers. The software trigger could potentially work, however it would require an analog input into the computer which would then need to determine if it is a signal high and then trigger the camera via software. This would require a significant amount of software integration along with a data acquisition system. While possible it was not practical and while software and continuous triggering may be beneficial for testing purposes hardware triggering is necessary to successfully integrate the camera into the system.
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Radio over Fiber System Level Performance Analysis, Maintaining Signal Integrity

Radio over Fiber System Level Performance Analysis, Maintaining Signal Integrity

Abstract Radio over fiber is an integration of microwave and optical fiber technologies having numerous benefits. RoF technology can give a scope of advantages in- cluding the capacity for backing multiple radio services and standards. In or- der to maintain Signal Integrity in RoF system, it’s indispensable to take all components of a system under rooted consideration. Due to the increasing number of RoF application, it’s necessary to do some system level changes in designing RoF transceiver. In this paper we compared two popular modula- tion techniques NRZ (non return to zero) and RZ (return to zero) for better signal integrity in RoF system. Secondly we also did analysis of RoF transceiv- er with APD and PIN photo detectors and compared the performance on dif- ferent distances. Hence the Q factor of PIN and APD photo diodes and com- parison of NRZ and RZ modulation will be helpful for system designers who are working on better signal Integrity in Radio over fiber systems.
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Understanding Standard OFDM WiMAX
 Signal Access in Radio Over Fiber System

Understanding Standard OFDM WiMAX Signal Access in Radio Over Fiber System

allowed is 300 ns. Assuming the separation between two RAUs is 1 km, thus, the separation between RAU 1 and RAU 2 equates to approximately 5000 ns, far more than the allowable delay spread for multi-path interference. If the received powers from RAU 1 and RAU 2 are equivalent, the link tolerance for inter-symbol interference (ISI) is exceeded and the connection is broken. The management of the ISI is the key design consideration for maximum performance for the WiMAX RoF. While the distance and time spent in the critical overlapping region between two adjacent RAUs is minimized; the effect of ISI in a RoF system will be negligible; the reliable WiMAX RoF link can be maintained. This can be managed by antenna selection and placement. Moreover, since the highest frequency component of the WiMAX signal will be not more than 3 GHz, then bandwidth of the optical DSB signal will be not more than 6 GHz, which is about 0.0344 nm at 1312 nm wavelength. Since the signal is transmitting at the dispersion zero wavelength of the fiber, by using zero dispersion slope equation of the SMF-28 fiber, the dispersion parameter is 0.0032 ps/nm/km at 1312 nm wavelength. Hence, the overall dispersion introduced by the 8 km fiber for the DSB signal is about 0.0008 ps, and dispersion is also negligible.
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Rotation Measurement and Signal Processing For Navigation Control System Using Fiber Optic Gyroscope

Rotation Measurement and Signal Processing For Navigation Control System Using Fiber Optic Gyroscope

Co is the speed of the light in free space, λ is the peak wave length of the optical beam and φs is the sagnac phase shift and ΔL is the optical path difference. The lock-in amplifier output is sampled and quantized yielding the error signal, which is maintained, closed to zero by the digital feedback. The sampling frequency corresponds to the inverse of the radiation transit time τ, for the required synchronization of the ramp and the biasing signal. Starting from the error signal, the controller drives the phase modulator so that it generates phase steps of amplitude equal to the Sagnac phase shift and duration. The digital to analog converter {automatically creates the ramp reset, by means of its overflow. The reset step corresponds to a phase variation of 2π radian, in order to get always the correct Sagnac phase shift. In this scheme the rotation rateis directly obtained, in a digital format, from the error signal. Another advantage of this configuration, with respect to the analog solution, is the phase stability during the signal recovering.
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Airborne RF Measurement System and Analysis of Representative Flight RF Environment

Airborne RF Measurement System and Analysis of Representative Flight RF Environment

Maria Theresa Salud, John Mielnik Lockheed Martin Corporation, Hampton, Virginia Abstract— Environmental radio frequency (RF) data over a broad band of frequencies were needed to evaluate the airspace around several airports. An RF signal measurement system was designed using a spectrum analyzer connected to an aircraft VHF/UHF navigation antenna installed on a small aircraft. This paper presents an overview of the RF measurement system and provides analysis of a sample of RF signal measurement data over a frequency range of 30 MHz to 1000 MHz.
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Digital Signal Processing Techniques Applied

to Radio over Fiber Systems

Digital Signal Processing Techniques Applied to Radio over Fiber Systems

5.6 Conclusions A comprehensive analysis has been presented on the performance of Digital and Analog RoF systems. It has been demonstrated that the use of D-RoF system for broadband wireless signal transportation and distribution applications employing bandpass sampling for 20 MHz LTE signal having 64 QAM modulation format. The proposed technique has demonstrated the increase of the reach of the fiber distance up to 70 km with an optimized value of resolution bits. Moreover, the analytical model utilized for D-RoF has been validated experimentally for 30 km of fiber length. The results obtained for experimental bench are in accordance with the D-RoF analytical model. It’s also evident that the performance of the D-RoF is predominantly determined by the performance of the ADC. By employing bandpass sampling, indeed, ADC complexity and over heads of sampling at giga samples can be relaxed. Indeed A-RoF link has less good performance than D-RoF link, one still may prefer usage of A-RoF over D-RoF for short distances keeping in mind the throughput and losses versus cost of deploying D-RoF system. Real time implementation of the above proposed system and multichannel propagation using D-RoF is envisaged for the future work.
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AN AUTOMATED DATA THROUGHPUT MEASUREMENT OVER A 10/100MBPS LAN

AN AUTOMATED DATA THROUGHPUT MEASUREMENT OVER A 10/100MBPS LAN

Computer Science & Engineering Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria *Email: johnoladosu@gmail.com ABSTRACT There are many factors that affect data throughput among which is the operating system. Other factors include cable technology used, network adapter, speed and scalability of hub or switch used. Data throughput from a network user‟s perspective is solely dependent on the network hardware. In this work, it could be seen that the network operating system running on a network and the file system of the network operating system have a lot to do with data throughput. A consideration is made of data throughput for common Microsoft operating systems used in network environments. The reason for this is not far fetched; Microsoft operating systems are used in more than 90% of small to medium networked systems all over the world. Most users do not have rationale for using a particular OS. At best they use an OS because it is the latest version. This may not necessarily be a good way of choosing. The results obtained in this work is a prove of this fact.
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AUTOMATED WIRE LENGTH MEASUREMENT AND CUTTING SYSTEM

AUTOMATED WIRE LENGTH MEASUREMENT AND CUTTING SYSTEM

Keywords: Microcontroller, Embedded C Programming, Cutting Unit, DC Motors. 1. Introduction In 21 st century the electronics technology has raised at its glory. Comparing the initial technology and present technology there is vast development in field of electronics. In Industrial, 9electronics sector and household there is inherent need of electric wires. The types of wires vary from single strand wire to the optical fiber cables. The required wire may be in different size and different length. As per industrial demand, we have developed the system which automatically measures the length of the wire and cuts it as per specified length. This system can be easily handled by the subordinates and the unskilled persons in industry. The main components of the system are: Micro-controller, DC motors and cutting unit. Microcontroller is acting as a brain of our system [1]. In the proposed system rotating shaft of fiber DC motor is used for estimation of the length [2]. Subsequently the system uses softwares like Proteus, Keil µ vision, Flash Magic for microcontroller programming etc.
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CAL-CLEAN AUTOMATED ph MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

CAL-CLEAN AUTOMATED ph MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

2. In the control box, connect the electrode cable’s black shield wire (reference signal) to “REF.” terminal 3 on TB13. Some applications may require a separate external tem- perature sensor to be used with the pH electrode. (Since GLI offers pH electrodes with an integral temperature sen- sor, separate temperature sensors are not available.) The Cal-Clean™ System can be used with either a Pt100 or Pt1000 RTD sensor. Install the temperature sensor into the plugged 1/8 inch NPT port (Figure 2-8) of the auto- positioner. Do not use the two cleaning ports.

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Modeling and Control of the Cooperative Automated Fiber Placement System

Modeling and Control of the Cooperative Automated Fiber Placement System

Due to the above features, the Stewart platform are widely used in industries application where the conventional serial robots have some limitations. In addition to the main application to flight simulators, the Stewart platform has been used for automotive, transportation, and machine tool technology, crane technology, underwater research, air-to-sea rescue, orthopedic surgery. It is also used for positioning of satellite communication dishes and telescopes and in applications such as shipbuilding and bridge construction [30]. In flight simulation, particularly in the so-called full flight simulator, all 6 degrees of freedom of the Stewart platform are required. In this role, the payload is a replica cockpit and a visual display system for showing the outside-world visual scene to the trained aircraft crew. The payload weights in the case of a full flight simulator for a large transport aircraft can be up to about 15,000 kilograms. The low impact docking system developed by NASA uses a Stewart platform to manipulate space vehicles during the docking process. The Taylor Spatial Frame, developed by Dr. J. Charles Taylor, is an external fixator used in orthopedic surgery for the correction of bone deformities and treatment of complex fractures. The RoboCrane is based on six cables and six winches configured as a Stewart platform. One version of the RoboCrane has been commercially developed for the Air Force to enable rapid paint stripping, inspection, and repainting of very large military aircraft such as the C-5 Galaxy. It has the capacity to lift and precisely manipulate heavy loads over large volumes with fine control in all six degrees of freedom [31].
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Advantages and Limitation of Radio over Fiber System

Advantages and Limitation of Radio over Fiber System

Abstract: Radio over Fiber technology (RoF), an integration of wireless and Fiber optic networks, is an essential technology for the provision of un tethered access to broadband wireless communications in a range of applications including last mile solutions, extension of existing radio coverage and capacity, and backhaul. This paper gives the brief introduction of radio over fiber technology used in communication system. In this paper applications and limitation of the radio over Fiber technology are discussed. Some technologies which are used to transfer radio signal over Fiber are also explained in this review paper. Some ideas of using radio over Fiber technology in wireless technology are also introduced in this paper
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SCADA Over Fiber Optic Communications System

SCADA Over Fiber Optic Communications System

• A collection of standard and/or custom software [sometimes called Human Machine Interface (HMI) software or Man Machine Interface (MMI) software] systems used to provide the SCADA central host and operator terminal application, support the communications system, and monitor and control remotely located field data interface devices [1],[9]. The optical fiber is one of the choices to be used to transfer data between field data interface devices and control units and the computers in the SCADA central host. Since the fiber optic technology provides immunity to electromagnetic interference and radio frequency interference, elimination of spark hazards, immunity to ground faults and transients, increased signal capacity, secure transmission and very low attenuation coefficient compared to the media which makes transmission distances greater [1] .
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Single Radio-over-Fiber Link and RF Chain-based 60GHz Multi-beam Transmission

Single Radio-over-Fiber Link and RF Chain-based 60GHz Multi-beam Transmission

In this work, a low cost and low complexity technique for multi-user transmission is presented which makes use of a Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) composite signal to carry data for multiple users and the beamsteering characteristics of a frequency-selective Leaky-Wave-Antenna (LWA) to generate multiple beams. The use of Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) [13]-[17] with a single RoF transport link can provide high system capacity and support for large numbers of users [18], [19]. The LWA is a steerable directive antenna which operates in the 60GHz-band [20] and requires only a single feed input port. The LWA scans its beam angle with changing RF, effectively converting different RFs in the SCM to Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA). The proposed approach involves the advantages of Subcarrier Multiple Access (SCMA), such as independence of each channel to modulation format and not needing synchronization between different channels [21], as well as those of SDMA. A scenario representing the simplicity of the proposed system in a dense user environment is shown in Fig. 1, where N number of subcarriers carrying Gb/s data rate future applications [22] are transmitted to the intended users through multiple beams using a single RoF link and single RF chain. Demonstration of serving one user per beam has been performed in this work, but multiple users per beam could be served with techniques such as Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).
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Adaptive Performance Improvement  of Fiber Bragg Grating in Radio  over Fiber System

Adaptive Performance Improvement of Fiber Bragg Grating in Radio over Fiber System

Received 6 November 2015; accepted 26 February 2016; published 2 March 2016 Abstract The combination of Radio Frequency and Optical Fiber has resulted high capacity transmission at lower costs components and makes Radio over Fiber as a current trend of large broadband com- munication. In Fiber optics field, the use of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) was been proposed in recent research with different purpose of uses. However, the compensation of dispersion method of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) can boost significantly the system performance. This paper investigates the performance capacity improvement of adaptive Radio over Fiber system. The system design was performed using OptiSystem 7.0 software, which 10 Gb/s Non Return to Zero (NRZ) signal was launched into 50 Km Universal Mode Fiber and Fiber Bragg Grating was used as a compensator of dispersion before frequency up conversion. Therefore, the system performances were investi- gated by comparing the Bit Error Rate (BER) and Q-factors of Positive Intrinsic Negative (PIN) and Ultrafast Avalanche Photodiode (APD) as optical receivers. The Eye diagram analyzer showed ac- ceptable improvement due to use of Fiber Bragg Grating as a compensator of dispersion.
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HDMI over IP (fiber) Uncompressed Multicast System

HDMI over IP (fiber) Uncompressed Multicast System

1. +5V DC: Connect to a 5V power supply unit 2. HDMI IN: Connect to a HDMI source with a HDMI male-male cable 3. Status LED: When device read the firmware, the indicator LED will light 4. Signal LED: When user connect to the source, the indicator LED will light 5. SFP OUT: Connect a duplex, LC terminated multimode fiber cable

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Frequency Doubling of RF-Over-Fiber Signal Based on Mach Zehnder Modulator

Frequency Doubling of RF-Over-Fiber Signal Based on Mach Zehnder Modulator

Figure 4.5: Amplitude Scaling of Voltage Swing vs Normalized RF Tone Peaks of Numerical Figure 4.8 shows another way to compare the three methods, which is by comparing the output power of second tones in all methods while we going to full swing. As a result, it can be observed that the output power of second tone of our frequency doubling technique has more power than Quadrature Bias Driven at 2 Ω. In addition, by comparing the difference between second and sixth harmonic while we going to full swing as shown in 4.9 the swing increases the di fference value gets smaller in the three methods.
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The Measurement and Analysis of Bluetooth Signal RF

The Measurement and Analysis of Bluetooth Signal RF

Introduction The Bluetooth signal is essentially a digital radio frequency signal, its main characteristics are not only to occupy a certain frequency band, and the more important attribute is the time of frequency control (sometimes microseconds, sometimes a few seconds, several minutes even longer). Frequency hopping is one of the key technologies that is used in Bluetooth. Using the frequency hopping, the Bluetooth system has high enough anti-interference ability, the hardware is simple and the performance is superior. Under the condition of frequency hopping, whether frequency hopping pattern is carried out in accordance with the design of the frequency hopping pattern pseudo random jump or not will directly affect the frequency hopping anti-jamming performance of the system and the success of the whole design, so you need to test validation of frequency hopping pattern. Because the traditional test methods can't capture the Bluetooth signal frequency characteristics along with the change of time, we have to research a test method that can reflect essential features of the current signal by trigger, capture and analysis.
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FIBER OPTIC TRANSMITTERS, RECEIVERS, TRANSCEIVERS AND SUBSYSTEMS FOR WIRELESS AND RF SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION

FIBER OPTIC TRANSMITTERS, RECEIVERS, TRANSCEIVERS AND SUBSYSTEMS FOR WIRELESS AND RF SIGNAL DISTRIBUTION

As with RF systems, reflections in RF / Optical systems are an issue. Optical reflections that propagate back into the laser diode cause a dis- turbance in the laser’s gain cavity creating noise and distortion. The main sources of optical reflections are connector interfaces in the opti- cal path. A simple way to avoid most of the reflections at the interfaces is through the use of angle-polished connectors. The tip of an angle- polished, or APC connector is polished at an 8 º angle. This is the opti- mal angle to minimize reflections from traveling back down the fiber into the laser. At this angle most reflections that occur due to optical impairments will be angled out of the fiber and dissipated harmlessly. As a rule of thumb to minimize reflections and maximize performance, you must keep the connector tip clean and scratch-free, plus always replace the connector cap when not in use.
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Analysis of CNR Penalty in Radio over Fiber System Including the Effect of Phase Noise & RF Oscillator

Analysis of CNR Penalty in Radio over Fiber System Including the Effect of Phase Noise & RF Oscillator

Suresh Kumar Electronics & Communication Engineering Department, KUK University, JIET Engineering College Abstract---To analysis of the system performance based on photocurrent at the photo detector. A carrier to noise i.e. CNR is used, for the evaluation of the performance of the Radio over fiber system, because it is a good & simple parameter for measuring of system performance using the ratio between the carrier power and the noise power. Also evaluate the CNR penalty, including the effect of phase noise from laser and RF oscillator line width. CNR penalty is defined the ratio of CNR value & the reference CNR value. The CNR of photocurrent is calculating by using an autocorrelation (AC) function and a power spectral density (PSD) function. The large data traffic services, video and voice communication, wireless & optical communication work capacity on photonic technology Most Radio over fiber techniques utilize (single mode fiber) SMF to feed the BSs, because the bandwidth of (multi mode fiber) MMFs is severely limited by modal dispersion. Many current and future Radio over fiber techniques may be used only for outdoor (SMF dominates) applications, but not indoor coverage (over MMFs). In This paper analysis the Transmission performance measure optical Single side band. Radio over fiber system is based on phase noise from the laser and RF oscillator line width. In this measure the effects of Power decrement due to dispersion effect on CNR & fiber chromatic dispersion effects on various length of the fiber.
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