abstract There has been a long-held misconception among historians of philosophy and science that apart from brief comments in Aristotle and Averroes, the theory of minima naturalia had to await Latin Schoolmen for its full articulation. Recently scholars have shown that far from sporadic comments on minima naturalia, Averroes in fact had a fully developed and well-integrated theory of them. in this study, i complement these scholars’ important work by considering Avicenna’s place in the history and development of the doctrine of the minima naturalia. There is no study to date that mentions Avicenna in connection with this doctrine despite the fact that he dedicated an entire chapter to it in his Physics, yet Avicenna’s account is at least as developed as and even better integrated than Averroes’s presentation. The present study situates Avicenna’s position within the more general history of atomism, and introduces Avicenna’s “new argument” for natural minima. The argument is important not only for its novelty but also because it shows how Avicenna integrated Aristotle’s account of minima naturalia into a theory of mixture as well.
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forming the whole and for the existence of the whole, not that He would be intending for the sake of something other than Himself. 10
For Avicenna then, if the Necessary Existent intended to cause something, such as the existence of the universe, then It would be acting for the sake of some good It would receive, rather than for the sake of no other good than the good of Its own existence. Avicenna further clarifies this matter of intention in regards to causal relations in his most extensive yet short treatment on the term qasd (intention) in Book I of his Physics. In this section, intention is always associated with a final cause (ghaya) or end (gharad). Specifically, an agent intends to perform an act, because they desire something. In other words, such intentions are directed towards an end that is either a real or apparent good. 11 As previously noted, acting for an end is in opposition to what Avicenna’s concept of ‘necessary in of itself’ implies, namely, that the Necessary Existent is not causally dependent in any way or on anything other than Itself. As the necessarily existing first principle of all existence, the Necessary Existent could not emanate existence contingent upon anything else, for such an act would be necessary through another. According to Avicenna then, since the Necessary Existent is the necessarily existing first principle of existence, It does not intend for emanation to occur.
After this identification between the beautiful and the perfect, the basic idea of which is found among Neoplatonic philosophers, Avicenna strives to fill the gap that separates the absolute beauty from the beauty found here and now in the world of generation and corruption. The question of beauty, as it has been evoked in Avicennian meta- physics, is primarily a question arisen within the framework of the analysis of the beauty of the Necessary Being; a beauty that by definition is beyond all kinds of imperfections, since only He is what He must be. Otherwise put, it is a ques- tion about a “substantial” beauty where the being, the essence, the good and the beautiful overlap: His beauty is neither accidental nor the result of any harmony, convenience, clarity etc. for in Him being and essence are not divided. The Necessary Being is therefore a perfectum esse. The Supreme Being, in fact, is eternally beautiful, while the beauty of earthly things is mutable and corrup- tible. The divine beauty neither increases nor decreases.
The stochastic Monte Carlo method often is considered to be the ultimate numerical approach for radiation transport calculations, especially for complicated geometries. However if differential distributions are required, then a deterministic solution of the Boltzmann transport equation is often more efficient. In therapy planning applications Monte Carlo calculations for 3D dose distributions in a voxel representation of a patient geometry can require an inordinate amount of computational time to obtain sufficient statistical accuracy at all important locations. This is especially true in regions of electronic disequilibrium where electron transport is necessary. While many medical physicists understand the basic principles underlying Monte Carlo codes such as EGS (1) and MCNP (2) , there is less appreciation of the capabilities of deterministic methods which in principle can provide comparable accuracies to Monte Carlo. Only within the last several years have serious studies been made of applying deterministic calculations to medical physics applications. In this paper we will present a general overview of deterministic methods and codes available for dose calculations, along with a survey of several previous applications in medical physics. The details of particular deterministic transport codes are described more fully by the other papers presented at the Workshop.
Ibnu Sina atau Avicenna merupakan seorang tokoh yang tidak asing lagi dalam dunia Islam mahupun Barat. Keilmuan beliau merentasi bidang dan menyerlah dalam agama, kedoktoran, sains, matematik dan juga falsafah. Dalam bidang falsafah khususnya, nama beliau diletakkan sebaris dengan nama besar filosof Yunani seperti Aristotle. Bahkan, beliau telah banyak mengharmonikan antara falsafah Yunani yang bersifat teoritis dengan falsafah Islam yang bersifat praktis sesuai dengan lunas-lunas syara’ (Hasan Langgulung, 1981).
where Π is the osmotic pressure, M is the molarity of solute, and the van ’t Hoff factor i is the number of moles of ions per mole of solute. This is perfectly equivalent to what we found.
Why does the expression for osmotic pressure bear a suspicious resemblance to the ideal gas law? The reason is that, by completely neglecting interactions between the solute and solvent, we have effectively treated the solute ions like an ideal gas, from the standpoint of entropy. This gives an additional contribution to the pressure, which can be derived just like the pressure of an ideal gas is in T1. (Using this reasoning backwards, one can conclude that the pressure of an ideal gas can also be described as an entropic force, using the same reasoning as above.)
One of the most significant impacts of the greater instantaneous luminosity Belle II will see is substantially increased background levels, which will lead to an increase in occupancy and radiation damage, fake hits and pile-up noise in the electromagnetic calorimeter, and neutron induced hits in the muon detection system. New readout electronics for most of the detector and a new trigger system have been introduced in order to compensate for the higher backgrounds. In addition, much improved hadron identification systems have been built, and, as the previous Belle detector, cover nearly the full 4π steradians.
After you receive information regarding leaks and tears, blocked chakras and auric energy impurities in your patient’s energy field, draw what you “see” onto the diagram labeled Patient #1. If you need instructions on how to make drawings in this electronic workbook, see item #4 in “How to Use This Electronic Edition of the Workbook” on page ii near the beginning of the workbook. Indicate blocked chakras by filling in the circle for that chakra position. Draw leaks, tears and auric energy impurities on the diagram, showing the areas over your patient’s body where they occur. If you receive additional information about them, include it in the note space below the diagram. If you sense energy depletion and/or disturbance in energy flow, in your patient, check the corresponding checkboxes below the diagram and include any further information on those, too. You may wish to perform more than one “round” of the technique (more than one cycle of active principle / receptive principle), for your patient, to get further information. Include all the information you receive about this patient, on your diagram and in the note space.
This is the second of two reviews that is intended to cover the essential aspects of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) physics in a way that is understandable and relevant to clinicians using CMR in their daily practice. Starting with the basic pulse sequences and contrast mechanisms described in part I, it briefly discusses further approaches to accelerate image acquisition. It then continues by showing in detail how the contrast behaviour of black blood fast spin echo and bright blood cine gradient echo techniques can be modified by adding rf preparation pulses to derive a number of more specialised pulse sequences. The simplest examples described include T2-weighted oedema imaging, fat suppression and myocardial tagging cine pulse sequences. Two further important derivatives of the gradient echo pulse sequence, obtained by adding preparation pulses, are used in combination with the administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent for myocardial perfusion imaging and the assessment of myocardial tissue viability using a late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique. These two imaging techniques are discussed in more detail, outlining the basic principles of each pulse sequence, the practical steps required to achieve the best results in a clinical setting and, in the case of perfusion, explaining some of the factors that influence current approaches to perfusion image analysis. The key principles of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) are also explained in detail, especially focusing on timing of the acquisition following contrast agent bolus administration, and current approaches to achieving time resolved MRA. Alternative MRA techniques that do not require the use of an endogenous contrast agent are summarised, and the specialised pulse sequence used to image the coronary arteries, using respiratory navigator gating, is described in detail. The article concludes by explaining the principle behind phase contrast imaging techniques which create images that represent the phase of the MR signal rather than the
3. Hooda, R.P.: Statistics for Business and Economics. Macmillan India, New Delhi. 4. Adhikary K: Conomic Environment of Business, Sultan Chand & Sons. New Delhi. 5. Ahluwalia. I. J: Industrial Growth in India, Oxford University Press. New Delhi. 6. Aswathappa K: Legal Environment of Business, Himalaya Publication New Delhi. 7. Ghose Biswanath: Economic Environment of Business, Vikas Publication. New Delhi.
has been operated successfully at record centre-of-mass energies of 7 and TeV. After this successful LHC Run-1, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades, culminating roughly 10 years from now in the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of order five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The final goal is to extend the data set from ab RXWIHZKXQGUHGIEíH[SHFWHG IRU /+& UXQQLQJ WR IEí E\ DURXQG 7R FRSH ZLWK WKH FRUUHVSRQGLQJ UDWH increase, the ATLAS detector needs to be upgraded. The upgrade will proceed in two steps: Phase I in the LHC shutdown 2018/19 and Phase II in 2023-25. The largest of the ATLAS Phase-1 upgrades concerns the replacement of the first muon station of the high- rapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel. This configuration copes with the highest rates expected in Phase II and considerably enhances the performance of the forward muon system by adding triggering functionality to the first muon station. Prospects for the ongoing and future data taking are presented. This article presents the main muon physics results from LHC Run-1 based on a total luminosity of 30 fb^-1. Prospects for the ongoing and future data taking are also presented. We will conclude with an update of the status of the project and the steps towards a complete operational system, ready to be installed in ATLAS in 2018/19.
and find that each substitution leads to an identity. (An identity is an equation whose validity is trivially obvious, such as 6 = 6.)
This chapter does not cover all the non-calculus mathematics you will encounter in this course. I’ve kept the chapter short so that you will have time to read it all. If you master the concepts in this chapter (or re-master them if you already mastered them in high school) you will be on your way to mastering all the non-calculus mathematics you need for this course. Regarding reading it all: By the time you complete your physics course, you are supposed to have read this book from cover to cover. Reading physics material that is new to you is supposed to be slow going. By the word reading in this context, we really mean reading with understanding. Reading a physics text involves not only reading but taking the time to make sense of diagrams, taking the time to make sense of mathematical developments, and taking the time to make sense of the words themselves. It involves rereading. The method I use is to push my way through a chapter once, all the way through at a novel-reading pace, picking up as much as I can on the way but not allowing myself to slow down. Then, I really read it. On the second time through I pause and ponder, study diagrams, and ponder over phrases, looking up words in the dictionary and
Go to the Technical Writing on an expanded form of this file of engineering physicsi by s mani naidu, along with a correctly formatted type of the example instructions page above..
ENGINEERING PHYSICS BY G VIJAYAKUMARI GTU Update date : 4-04-2015
ENGINEERING PHYSICS BY S K GUPTA Update date : 19-03-2015
Given [Note: There will be many examples in this course. Such examples are much more satisfying when based on a physical phenomenon rather than a dimensionless mathematical expression. The danger is that the student may feel obligated to understand the physics of the speciﬁc system intro- duced, a pulsar for example. Although some background information may be presented, it is to be taken as “given”. The student will be responsible only for the physics and techniques applied to the given situation.]