The causes behind this disorder are multi-factorial associated with stress, gender, age, personality, occlusal interferences, postural changes, mispositioning or loss of teeth, extrinsic and intrinsic changes in TMJ systemic problems (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis). Furthermore factors such as behavioral (grinding, clenching, abnormal head posture) and emotional (anxiety, fear, frustration, anger)
Waste disposal is more of a social responsibility than a legal obligation. The present scenario of knowledge about waste disposal is not adequate, and the practice of proper waste disposal is even poorer. The role of dentists starts from reduction in the quantity of waste disposed. All efforts should be directed toward appropriate and cost-effective waste management. Safe and effective management of waste is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility. Continuing education and training programs and short courses on cross-infection and BMW management are suitable means of improving the knowledge of dentalstudents who will be the future dentists and other staff employed in various dental teaching hospitals. Various demonstration programs should be conducted for those personnel who are in direct contact of BMW to increase their level of understanding and associated risks . More emphasis should be laid on BMW management as a lack of knowledge on healthcare waste impacts practices of appropriate waste disposal [10,14]. Dental auxiliaries work in close association with dentists, and they also have an important role in the healthcare waste management. In a study, it was shown that there was a lack of awareness of most aspects of BMW management amongdental auxiliary staff in the dental hospital/clinics in Amritsar . Hence, they should be motivated to attend training and CDE programs concerning waste management so that they will be efficient to properly segregate, disinfect, and dispose hospital waste in an eco-friendly way . BMW management should be strictly implemented and monitored in a systematic and simplistic manner by authoritative bodies in India and other developing countries . A study by Bennadi et al.  showed that most of the dentists in Bellary were well aware of the hazards; they can come across in Dentistry, and most of them were taking necessary steps to combat the problems in the form of physical exercise, vaccination, proper dental waste disposal, usage of preventive barriers as well as following ethical principles. The governmental bodies should take responsibility of making these services available to the practicing dentists as well as dental hospitals. We recommend that there should be proper and intensive training programs regarding awareness and practices of waste disposal for all health-care staff and students with continuous monitoring at regular intervals. BMW management should be compulsorily made as part of the dental undergraduate curriculum. Further research must be undertaken to seal existing gaps in the knowledge about hospital waste management. The findings of this study will help to address the issue more appropriately and inform plans for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in dental institutions.
Result -This study concluded that only 54% of the students are aware of osteoradionecrosis. Majority of the students say that absorbed radiation dose, delivary modality and dental status are the predisposing factor of osteoradionecrosis .69% of student know that the common site of osteoradionecrosis is mandible.67% know that it can be reduced.42% of the students know surgical debridement, antibiotics and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are the preventive measure of osteoradionecrosis .Hence vigorous awareness programs to be initiated amongdentalstudents to address this concern.
100 subjects were selected for the study. The study was conducted in Thai Moogambigai Dental College and Hospital of Dr.MGR Educational and Research Institute Deemed to be University, Mogappair, Chennai. The subjects were asked to answer 22 questions which is of multiple choice type. Comparative graphs are made and discussed. These graphs helps in evaluating the knowledge and awarenessamongdentalstudents about choice of complete denture occlusion in edentulous patient.
This questionnaire based study was carried amongdentalstudents for a period of one month to evaluate the knowledge,awareness and attitude of oral piercings. Almost students from every year participated in the survey. They were handled questionnaires which consisted of 11 questions and asked to tick the options which they were aware of. The results were analysed and the statistics was obtained.
after the patients’ vital function. (10,11,12,7,8) Better knowledge about various anaesthesia techniques and their possible complications in various conditions of patients may reduce the number of medico legal litigations. 14,9 The major reason for this is ignorance towards general anaesthesia and anaesthesiologist, since dentists prefers conscious sedation over general anaesthesia for about 80% of their cases. Survey about general anaesthesia is taken among the general population or patients who undergo surgeries under general anaesthesia. There is not any well known survey conducted amongdentalstudents regarding general anaesthesia. In general population, we would suggest to educate people about general anaesthesia. When it is among dentist we should first eliminate their ignorance towards general anaesthesia, only if they know it's importance it would be possible. Organising seminars and additional classes would help them acquire more knowledge about general Anaesthesia. To know more about anaesthesiologist, and their role in medicine field, the dentist should have discussion classes with an anaesthesiologist. This would create more awarenessamong the dentists and their attitude towards general anaesthesia would also change.
It was found that the highest percentage of female students had excellent awareness, while male students only some of them were having same level of awareness. On the other hand the highest percentage of males had good awareness and more than half of females were having good awareness with highly significant difference between both groups. That means that the female dentalstudents have better level of awareness regarding RAS in than male dentalstudents. When we compared the level of awareness according to the academic year we found that the highest percentage of third year students had good awareness , while second year students were having same level of good and fair awareness. On the other hand the highest percentage of first year had fair awareness with highly significant difference between the groups which reveals that the higher academic years have higher degree of awareness regarding RAS
The results from our study suggest that a large portion of medical and dentalstudents appear to be insightful and knowledgeable about the interrelationships between periodontal disease and major systemic conditions. In particular, the majority of the participants were aware about the evidence linking periodontal disease to DM (85.0%), pregnancy issues (71.0%), osteoporosis (67.1%),and CVD (60.5%). The questionnaire item associated with the highest level of awareness concerned the fact that having DM further complicates periodontal disease, which 76.4% of the students were aware of. In addition, overall levels of awareness regarding the interrelationships were not found to differ between students who attended government (65.0%) and private (64.2%) schools (p=0.31). However, the data indicate that the participants were less knowledgeable about the interrelationships between periodontal disease and both rheumatoid arthritis (44.9%) and respiratory diseases (39.6%). In particular, only 36.4% of the students were aware that periodontal treatment can reduce the rate of pneumonia by 40%, which is similar to the percentages of students that responded affirmatively to the two “trick” questions on SLE (37.4% and 36.9%, respectively).
Wide assortment of causes including physical weight of work, ergonomics, demographic components, and additionally Huang, 2002) might be in charge of musculoskeletal side effects in dental specialists The evidence on dentistry as the most potential risk for musculoskeletal development issue is still not . Few reviews have contrasted musculoskeletal disorders in dental practitioners and other Aminian et al., 2012; Åkesson, 1999; This study aims to determine the current on musculoskeletal disorder amongdentalstudents especially in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. This help in gaining knowledge on dentalstudents' awareness in this ecific pathology disorder based on their previous and current knowledge in medical field.Percentage of awareness is calculated. It is a modification formula made by author based on the calculation of Awareness Index (Benz, 2011 and odified the Awareness Index formula that had been used in Kaiser Family Foundation 1999 Report.
Halitosis was prevalent amongdentalstudents. Their responsibilities to diagnosis and improves oral hygiene. They may benefit by an awareness of the problem and encouragement to improve their own oral hygiene. The result of this evaluation indicates high prevalence of halitosis among the population consisting of dentalstudents. The acknowledgement of bad breath was also turbulent among of this people. The perception of the bad breath is a discrete entity should be developed in the common people and the therapeutic measures should be available to all. Because of the halitosis is extremely unappealing characteristics of socio-cultural interactions and may effects on psychosocial relation. In all the aspects, there is a general lack of knowledge about oral malodour. The role of dental professionals in maintaining good health should be emphasized in the community. Thus awareness and education to the public must be increased. The humanities on halitosis, especially with clinical trials and additional studies are required. Since halitosis is a common complaint among dentist and other primary health care clinicians should be able to diagnose, classify, manage and educate to their patient suffering from this socially debilitating conditions.
The postural habits and techniques a dentist learns during the early days of clinical practice while he is a student is likely to get continued for the rest of his career. Hence it is important to ensure that the students are learning the correct techniques and postures and are implementing them during their practice. The present study was aimed at understanding the extend of awarenessamongdentalstudents on musculoskeletal occupational hazards and also to analyse the prevalence of early signs of musculoskeletal disorders among them. Materials and methods:
Tsesis et al. in 2006  found that modern surgical endodontic treatment using microscope and ultrasonic tips resulted in significantly better therapeutic outcome compared to traditional techniques that did not use microscope and used burs for retrograde cavities prepar- ation (91.1 % vs 44.2 %, p < 0.0001) . This further supports the use of modern technology, including mi- croscopy, as a standard of care in modern surgical end- odontic treatment. Nevertheless, only 9 % of general dental practitioners routinely used dental magnification in one Scottish study . Similarly, another study re- ported an increase in the use of dental loupes among general dental practitioners (44 %). However, a lower percentage was reported for graduated dentalstudents (28 %) . This underscores the importance of increas- ing the awareness of using dental magnification in our profession, and emphasizing the use of dental magnifica- tion early in dental schools.
Statement of Problem: The modern dentistry approach is moving toward preventive dentistry, an approach that has decreased the prevalence of caries within the past dec- ades. Since some reports imply that dentists are not knowledgeable enough in this issue. Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the attitude and awareness of future dental gra- duates toward preventive dentistry regarding gender and educational characteristics. Materials and Method: This cross-sectional study was performed on one hundred and forty questionnaires which were distributed amongdentalstudents of Isfahan province, Azad university of Khorasgan, Iran. Data regarding the level of awareness of dentalstudents about preventive dentistry were recorded and analyzed by using the mean and standard deviations on scores as appropriated.
According to the literature, the most common medical emergencies in the dental chair are syncope, angina pectoris, cardiac arrest, postural hypotension, swallowed foreign bodies, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis, hypoglycemia and seizures. 3 It’s evident that emotional stress can lead to medical emergencies while dental treatment is being held. 4 Insufficiency of managing medical emergency can lead to legal action and serious consequences 5 . A well prepared dental practitioner can attend medical emergencies and be able to initiate primary management to minimize the risk of mortality and morbidity. 6
Oral Medicine and Oral and Maxillofacial surgery were the most commonly selected proposed points of referral for patients with a suspected oral cancer. The availability of Dundee Dental Hospital within Tayside may explain why a greater proportion of students selected Oral Medi- cine. This may not be generalisable to other regions with- out a dental hospital. There is also the possibility that students were steered towards referring to Oral Medicine and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery units by virtue of the word 'oral' appearing in the title. In retrospect, bias may have been reduced if this question was left open to the respondents rather than presented as a closed question.
However, the incidence of BE is low following dental treatments, even in patients with underlying history of cardiac conditions. Since surgical dental procedures are common and risk for cardiac diseases is on the rise, use of antibiotic prophylaxis before the start of the treatment in susceptible patients is highly recommended . American Heart Association (AHA) and other committees of experts have proposed different guidelines and antibiotic prophylaxis regimens for prevention of BE in susceptible patients which are regularly reviewed and modified based on experimental animal models, pharmacokinetic studies, bacterial susceptibility studies, BE series, studies of procedures-related bacteremia, and the efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis against bacteremia .
The questionnaire was designed to examine awareness of eight different esthetic discrepancies. It consisted of 23 ran- domized color images of smiles and faces portraying several common esthetic discrepancies. Only two of these images had no clear discrepancies. The esthetic deviations were selected based on the universally accepted esthetic standards, which include the following: facial features (including pro ﬁ le and facial height), lip features (including lip line and full- ness), smile zone (including teeth displayed, smile line, and occlusal plane), gingival features (including the amount of tooth displayed, gingival margin, and gingival embrasure), tooth features (including the proportion, shape, and incisal embrasure), buccal corridor, midline shifts, and tooth align- ment. The images were taken from different publications. The images were adjusted and cropped to a standardized size, and the nose and chin were removed from the smiling images. The images were grouped randomly, and each page consisted of six images. Figures 1 and 2 represent an example of the investigated items. The questionnaires were presented to three specialists who have more than 15 years in esthetic dentistry practice and asked if each image presented the main deviation from the esthetic standards that it intended to measure. Any unclear items were discussed and then chan- ged or replaced with a clearer image. A pilot trial of 10 participants of the target population was done to assess the clarity and reliability of the questionnaire. The participants included in the pilot were not included in the study.
more number of students opted for barium sulphate to be added to make this material radio opaque. In our study, students responded the masticatory force of PEEK to be between 800-1000N. While the prolonged study conducted on 3-unit FPD, the masticatory force withstood by this material is 1250-1382N.  CAD/CAM-milled PEEK can withstand the masticatory force up to 2354N,  which has highest fracture resistance contrasted to lithium disilicate(950N), aluminium(851N) and Zirconia(981-1331N).  In our study, large number of students has responded that composite coated PEEK has low fracture resistance which complies with various published reports, because of inferior bonding strength between material surface and composite coating. As the polymer material is hydrophobic in nature and have high resistance to chemical wear. [17-19] In our study, selected students responded that the osteoconductive property of PEEK can be improvised by titanium coating. According to studies both hydroxy appetite and titanium coating, can positively enhance the osteoconductive property of the material. [20-22]
All medical and dentalstudents at the Universitas Indonesia were invited to participate in this study, in order to avoid selection bias. However, since non- probability sampling was used to select the study population, the results cannot be generalized for all the students in Indonesia. A web-based questionnaire was adopted in this study because of several advantages, such as lower cost, less time requirements, easier data man- agement, and lower likelihood of missing data . However, a meta-analysis reported that the response rate to a web-based survey was relatively low . In this study, to achieve a desirable response rate, the coordina- tors of each class were given the responsibility of distrib- uting the questionnaire to their class members and monitoring compliance, and the questionnaires were dis- tributed in two waves. With this strategy, the response rate to this survey was relatively high. However, the number of non-respondents may have undermined the power of the study, so the response rate might still be a limitation to this study. On the other hand, there may have been a response bias because the participants may only represent those who have a positive disposition to the study objective. The questionnaire used simple distinctive dichotomous responses to measure attitude. Such an approach might be non-sensitive, decrease internal-reliability and force respondents to give simplis- tic responses to complex questions and, therefore, the results must be interpreted with caution . Despite these limitations, the results of this survey offer valuable information about the current perspectives of Indonesian medical and dentalstudents with regard to medical-dental collaboration, since no prior study has investigated this topic in Indonesia.
The study was a cross‐sectional, questionnaire‐based study conducted in a private dental institution in Chennai, India. The questionnaire contained mix of 15 close and open ended questions, split up into four forms, the first form regarding personal details, the second form evaluating the basic knowledge on biocompatibility regarding dental materials and in clinical practice, the third form to assess their choice of material for crowns, their knowledge on zirconia products and the fourth section was to assess the attitude towards their knowledge zirconia and how to update themselves. Interns of various departments were approached; the nature and purpose of the study was explained to them and verbal consent was obtained. A total of 100 were included in the study. The questionnaire was distributed, all the questions were explained. The respondents were requested to provide appropriate answers. Multiple responses were discouraged.