Global Positioning System (GPS) basedvehicletrackingover General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) had been widely used in many places. This system was a combination of GPS in a vehicle to indicate its position on the geographic coordinate and a GPRS to send the data of position and other important data into a computer connected via the Internet. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a data service part of a Global System for Mobile Communications GSM cellular phone with speed from 56 kilobit per second (kbps) up to 114 kbps. Coordinate data obtained from the GPS receiver onboard the vehicle was processed fully inside the receiver unit and the output of the unit was serial data communication using TTL logic level using NMEA-0183 protocol which was connected to the first serial port of a microcontroller. Before the coordinate system of the GPS passed to the GPRS unit, the microcontroller also checked the other conditions such as emergency button, power supply, internal battery and speed of vehicle. The unit had internal Lithium battery to self- sufficient its power consumption up to 10 hours. The battery could be recharged automatically from the vehicle battery with its own power management module. The lithium battery was important when the vehicle was stolen and the main battery was disconnected from the vehicle, the system could still track the vehicle. This unit was also equipped with vehiclesecurity alert system in which when there were security breaches, the driver of the vehicle could push a hidden button and the operator would notice it almost immediately via the web page. The command for the GPRS modem and the GPS receiver modules were AT+ commands. The data received by the web server was then stored in a database on the server which contain the GPS coordinate and the time data was received. The sequence of coordinate and time were displayed on a web page in an overlay on Google Map which was freely available together with markers to indicate the location of the vehicle. The device with all the featured mentioned above has been built and shown to be working with all the conditioned mentioned above. The web page with different fleetmanagement has been developed and shown to be working properly as indicated.
Mostly vehicletracking systems are based on GPS and GSM. Short Messaging Service (SMS)  is a feature available on all mobile phones which allows a small amount of text to be sent between one user and another. GPS consists of a  network of 24 satellites in six different 12-hour orbital paths spaced so that at least five are in view from every point on the globe. Today, GPS has a   wide range of other applications including tracking package delivery, mobile commerce, emergency response, exploration, surveying, law enforcement, recreation, wildlife tracking, search and rescue, roadside assistance, stolen vehicle recovery, satellite data processing, and resource management. CELL PHONES become  more ubiquitous in our daily lives, the need for context-aware applications increases. One of the main context information is location, which enables a wide set of cell phone applications including navigation, location-aware social networking, and security. Automatic vehicletracking (AVL) is a system  that provides the tracking of vehicle. Location Based Service (LBS), Navigation and Intelligent Transportation are the hot research topics now. Daily millions of passengers travel in buses to reach his/her destination. A major concern is the family members who wish to monitor to each other when they are moving in buses. For passengers safety point of view a passengertracking system is required. Which can track of passengers between source and destination? Mostly passengertracking system use RFID tags for tracking. But these tracking systems are not cost effective. So a cost effective system is introduced here by using GSM and GPS, which track passengers those are inside buses. It tracks passengers on the basis of bus ticket number. Only users need to enter the valid ticket number of passengers. Users of the system can track passengers at anytime and anywhere by using mobile phone and laptop/desktop. The users of this system can get location information of passenger, only if they know ticket number. For this tracking system its duty of passengers to tell your
Abstract: The ability to track vehicles is useful in many applications including security of personal vehicles, public transportation systems, fleetmanagement and others. Furthermore, the number of vehicles on the road globally is also expected to increase rapidly. Therefore, the development of vehicletracking system using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) modem is undertaken with the aim of enabling users to locate their vehicles with ease and in a convenient manner. The system will provide users with the capability to track vehicle remotely through the mobile network. The system will utilize GPS to obtain a vehicle's coordinate and transmit it using GSM modem to the user's phone through the mobile network. The developed vehicletracking system demonstrates the feasibility of near real-time tracking of vehicles and improved customizability, global operability and cost when compared to existing solutions. In this article, we have reviewed about the GSM and GPSbased Real Time VehicleTracking and an Anti-theft System. The article tries to discuss the working and the spreading awareness about the benefits associated with GPS and GSM tracking systems.
School Bus RFID tracking system is designed specifically for school transportation and attendance to track and monitor student ridership and presence in a safe and non-intrusive way. Knowing if and when a student got on or off the bus or arrived and departed accounts for a significant portion of calls parents make to schools and is information that schools need to know. A student's boarding or departure status has always been largely reliant on speculation. We succeeded where others have not by using Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) technology to solve the problem. Students carry a small card containing passive RFID technology that logs each student's entry or exit, when the student swipes the reader located on the school bus and when carried through the school's gate equipped with active long range readers.
Twelve of the case study fleets operate regionally, while two operate locally and eight are national carriers. This distribution is different from that of the trucking industry as whole. Nationally, approximately seventy-five percent of large trucks operate locally. The apparent overrepresentation of regional and national fleets reflects that the case studies concentrate on motor carriers whose operations are complex enough to warrant the consideration of ITS fleetmanagement tools. Fleets operating regionally and nationally face communication, scheduling, routing and dispatching challenges with which most local operations do not contend. For example, while local fleets can often meet their communication needs using two-way radios, regional and national fleets’ operations extend beyond the range of such systems, and require more sophisticated communications technologies.
If driver is drowsy or alcoholic accident causes. Driver sleepiness is perceived as a vital variable in the vehicle accidents. Driving performance crumbles with increased sluggishness results in more than 30% of all vehicle accidents. But the life lost once cannot be got back. Many drivers feel that they are fully armed when they are drunk but the fact is that it reduces the performance of rule based driving. So we need to keep an eye on drink and drive. We can use technology to determine whether a person has consumed alcohol or not. A buzzer is fixed to wakeup driver. Some vehicles carry goods like chilled items like cakes and ice-creams, agricultural products, vaccines etc. All these have to be maintained at lower temperature. Hence temperature sensor is needed to monitor the temperature of goods carried by the vehicle. Section II describes survey based on the proposed work. Section III describes proposed methodology. Section IV details about experimental results and outcome. Section V concludes the paper.
Replacement Criteria: The following guidelines provide minimum replacement goals for routine vehicle replacement. In general, most vehicles should be replaced when they reach 6 years (72 months) of service or 120,000 miles, whichever comes first. However, there may be circumstances in which vehicles may be replaced sooner (such as excessive maintenance or repair costs) or retained longer (such as unusually low maintenance costs or low yearly mileage). Department heads may make this determination on a case-by-case basis, using these guidelines as a starting point for their deliberations. Before disposal or sale of any vehicle, the Office of Procurement Services shall make a determination that the lifetime use and mileage of the vehicle has been maximized and it would not be feasible for another university department to use this vehicle. Procurement Services must approve all disposals.
The 15-passenger vans are higher off the ground, longer, taller, and heavier, have less visibility, and are more powerful than typical passenger vehicles. Add the weight of 15 people and some gear and you’ve got quite a truck-driving job ahead of you. Whoever is driving needs to be skilled, trained, and experienced. Why can’t we load them to maximum capacity? The center of gravity of an empty van is already higher than most passenger vehicles. The risk of having a roll-over crash is about the same as for a pick-up truck, while the van is empty. As you add passengers, you add weight above the axles. If you pack the rear of the van first, you add weight behind the rear axle, shifting the center of gravity not only upward, but to the rear. This results in less ground pressure at the front, where you count on the front tires to steer with. The NHTSA report cited earlier stated that by the time you have ten people on board, you’ve tripled the risk of rollover that you had with only a driver on board. Fill all fifteen seats and the risk is now five times greater. Add in the difficulty in steering because your front wheels are barely touching the ground (and may even be coming off the ground if driving over bumps), and the risk is unacceptable.
The GPS System was created and realized by the American Department of Defense (DOD) and was originally based on and run with 24 satellites (21 satellites being required and 3 satellites as replacement). Nowadays, about 30 active satellites orbit the earth in a distance of 20200 km. GPS satellites transmit signals which enable the exact location of a GPS receiver, if it is positioned on the surface of the earth, in the earth atmosphere or in a low orbit. GPS is being used in aviation, nautical navigation and for the orientation ashore. Further it is used in land surveying and other applications where the determination of the exact position is required. The GPS signal can be used without a fee by any person in posession of a GPS receiver.
In following framework the area of vehicle is sent to remote place and it is finished by GSM modem. Worldwide Positioning System (GPS) modem requires least 3 satellites to figure the correct area. This modem conveys just in single route with Arduino microcontroller. This implies it can just transmit information to microcontroller. GPS Modem does not get any information from microcontroller. GPS modem gets motion from satellites as scope and longitude facilitates. By utilizing these directions we can track our vehicle position on electronic maps utilizing web. Microcontroller gets the directions from GPS modem and afterward it sends this data to the client in content SMS.
Abstract— In today’s era everyone is using mobile phones for communication. At the same time Mobile Providers are also providing the variety of services to users. In attempt to expand on this, we propose a GPSbasedvehicletracking system for an organization to help to find addresses of their vehicles and locate their positions on mobile devices. The organizations are investing money in monitoring and tracking vehicles aiming at improving services and ensuring the safety in cargos transports. The proposed technology allows organizations to track real-time information about their organizational vehicle during travel. Today for local transport most people use Bus as a medium. But due to their irregularity public faces various problems like not reaching on time, bus failure, no proper schedule etc. By this scenario author has created an Android application which provides the exact location of all organizational vehicles.
ABSTRACT: :Each year number of stolen vehicle is on rise. To prevent this, a physical type counter measure like padlock, disk break lock and other devices are used but it is not enough safe. This paper describes the design of a system that can give information of vehicle position every time there’s a request for it. The main aim of this project is to design the controllable system that combines GPS receiver module with GSM communication network. GPS(to point the location) and that data can be transmitted using GSM modem(as a means for communicating with the vehicle) through SMS(Short Message Service).The information accessed by the website and the position of the vehicle will be displayed through the Google Map. The system can be installed in vehicle at hidden place, the action starts by activating the engine without a key this will cause a signal to be sent to the microcontroller. The microcontroller will detect the signal and send a message to the owner via mobile phone and can stop the engine immediately by disconnecting the power supply. The system will work normally when the owner disables it. The proposed system is simpler, reliable and more efficient.
“Please clarify the last statement in this requirement: “APN requirement: The M2M SIM cards should be restricted to a specific destination IP network to be specified by UNHCR, and the restriction must be enforced in the APN offered by the bidder. The M2M SIM cards should not be allowed to connect to the Internet, with the exception of the address of the pre-defined GPStracking server. The internet access (web, email, video, etc.) must not be billed.” - Does this mean that UNHCR wants the same rate regardless of which county the device is operating. The service must be provided with a flat rate all inclusive of roaming charges, per M2M SIM card per month. “
enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. The GPS provides critical positioning capabilities to military, civil, and commercial users around the world. The United States government created the system, maintains it, and makes it freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.
Vehiclefleet model is a practical way of estimating changes in the vehicle stock flow over time. Several types of fleet models have been developed for vehicles depending on the research aspect such as energy consumption, emissions or market development. Some existing comprehensive transportation models usually include vehiclefleet model as an integrated module. Despite the past developments, the integrated fleet models may not be easy to use and may not correspond to a specific market area. Trost et al. developed a vehiclefleet model for estimating the long-term developments in terms of fleet structure, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy demand in Germany [ 16 ]. Their approach is based on individual vehicle purchase decisions influenced by the total cost of ownership (TCO). A special emphasis was given for electric vehicles and power-to-gas technology. Their simulated results showed a significant shift to alternative powertrain technologies and significant reduction of CO 2 emissions by 2050. Although, the research assumed that electricity production was based on renewable energy sources without direct CO 2 emissions. Another bottom-up approach is agent-based modeling, which is often highly complex and may involve many agent attributes but have been successfully used for evaluating the future market shares of electric vehicles [ 17 ]. The sector specific CO 2 reduction targets were evaluated with an integrated multi-sectoral model that combined the European electricity production and road transport [ 18 ]. The model enabled estimating the required share of electrified vehicles and increased electric energy demand in the future.
The GPStracking system uses vector shape data to generate the city maps and can be zoomed out to a national or citywide format. It can also be zoomed in to street level with a 2 metre resolution. The software allows an unlimited number of map views to be launched per login. This enables PC’s with multiple monitors to have the maps at different
Due to the insecure environment the ratio of vehicle theft increases rapidly. Because of this is manufacturers of luxury automobiles has the responsibilities for taking steps to ensure the authorization for the owners and also in built the anti theft system to prevent the vehicle from theft. The proposed security system for smart cars used to prevent them from loss or theft using Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) processor. It performs the real time user authentication (driver, who starts the car engine) using face recognition, using the Principle Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm. According to the comparison result (authentic or not), ARM processor triggers certain actions. If the result is not authentic means ARM produces the signal to block the car access (i.e. Produce the interrupt signal to car engine to stop its action) and inform the car owner about the unauthorized access via Multimedia Message Services (MMS) with the help of GSM/GPRS modem. Also it can be extends to send the current location of the vehicle using the GPS modem as a Short Message Services (SMS).
This paper examines the criteria on which companies with their own vehicle f leet can successfully carry out the vehicle procurement process and fleet renewal. By choosing an appropriate vehicle, the company reduces its transportation and maintenance costs, thereby increase its profit and competitiveness on the market. The authors defined four basic groups of criteria: vehicle construction criteria, initial vehicle procurement costs criteria, vehicle exploitation criteria and post-exploitation criteria. Each criterion has either impact on transport costs, maintenance costs or energy efficiency. Some of the criteria can have multiple impacts (a combination of the aforementioned impacts). In this sense, the transport costs are influenced by the criteria of vehicle engine power, load capacity, vehicle and load compartment suitability to the transport requirements, vehicle price, vehicle age, coverage of maintenance service centers, specific fuel consumption, fuel price, existence of modern on-board systems, vehicle and its parts recyclability, the price of used vehicle (re-selling). Due to the close connection between transport costs and energy efficiency, the criteria that have an impact on energy efficiency include all the aforementioned criteria, except recyclability and the prices of new and used vehicles and fuel price. Besides the vehicle age and the existence of modern on-board systems criteria (which affect all groups), the manufacturer’s warranty period, warranty conditions, vehicle maintenance costs (in and out of the warranty period) and the availability of spare parts have a direct impact on maintenance costs. The mentioned criteria have interdependent impact and affect differently the vehicle
New vehicle and equipment purchases for all City departments and agencies are funded through the Planned Fleet Replacement Special Revenue Fund, except for those operating with enterprise funds (i.e. Denver International Airport). Revenues for this fund come from General Fund transfers and interest income. Each department and agency prepare a list of prioritized fleet replacements, which are then submitted to the Budget and Management Office for a final decision on which replacements will be purchased during the budget cycle. In addition, the City has an informal Utilization Committee that meets periodically to review and identify under-utilized vehicles. Agencies with under- utilized vehicles are given the opportunity to justify retaining the vehicle. The Utilization Committee is comprised of the Director of the Budget and Management Office, Director of PWs Fleet, a representative from the Mayor’s Office, and the Department of Finance. As a method of budget savings in 2010, a majority of scheduled fleet replacements were deferred, saving the City approximately S10.4 million.
Our research has been focused on the reduction of overall cost of tracking and to do so we have used NAVSTAR-GPS, a satellite based service developed and provided by United States Department of Defense. Global Positioning System (GPS) is a 24-hour world wide service. It provides accurate, three-dimensional information of the location as well as precision velocities and timing services. It is accessible to an unlimited number of global military, civilian and commercial users . The service is free of cost to everybody. Google Map is used for mapping the location. The tracking device