Top PDF A bat-inspired t-way strategy for mixed-strength test suite generation

A bat-inspired t-way strategy for mixed-strength test suite generation

A bat-inspired t-way strategy for mixed-strength test suite generation

2.1.3 Boundary Value Analysis 13 2.1.4 Cause and Effect Graphing (CEG) 14 2.1.5 Interaction Sampling 16 2.2 The Mathematical Notations for t-way Test Suite Generation 16 2.3 A Problem Definition Model for t-way Test Suite Generation 19 2.4 Formal Definition for t-way 30 2.5 The Existing t-way Strategies 33 2.5.1 Deterministic t-way Test Suite Generation Strategies 35 2.5.2 Probabilistic t-way Test Suite Generation Strategies 37 2.5.3 The Observation of the Highlighted t-way Strategies 45 2.5.4 The Justification of the Adoption of BA 47
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Test Suite Generation of t- way CIT with          constraints for Web Based Application

Test Suite Generation of t- way CIT with constraints for Web Based Application

Abstract - Web based applications are increasing in importance as consumers use web for wide range of daily activities. Testing the web based applications as banking with large number of interactions is crucial. Combinatorial Interaction testing is a method that generates test suites incrementally using cum-variable strength strategy for testing. There are some unknown combinations that are impossible to occur due to the requirements set to the application termed as constraints. There arise practical concerns when adding constraints between combinations of input domain resulting in combinatorial explosion. This paper presents a new algorithm that features the construction of test suites to support expressive constraining over the input domain using predicates.
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A 
		Bat Inspired strategy for pairwise testing

A Bat Inspired strategy for pairwise testing

Test Vector Generator (TVG) (Arshem 2009) implements a public domain strategy supporting pairwise testing. Our experience exploring TVG indicates that the pairwise generation can be summoned based on three algorithms, namely, T-reduced algorithm, Plus-one algorithm, and Random sets algorithm respectively. Although useful, not much information can be implied as the details implementation has not been made available in the literature. Other pairwise strategy implementation that is lacking as far as documentation is concerned includes CTE_XL (Lehmann and Wegener 2000). Unlike, Jenny is another public domain strategy (Pallas 2003). In the nutshell, Jenny generates the pairwise test in stages. Firstly, Jenny generates test data to cover all the 1-way interaction. Then, Jenny will extend the first stage test data to greedily cover the 2-way interactions. Optionally, this process can continue until the nth-way interactions as specified by the user. Similarly, Pairwise Independent Combinatorial Testing (PICT) (Czerwonka 2006, Ahmed and Zamli 2011) is the public domain strategy implementation developed by Microsoft. Adopting random selection for completing the uncovered pair interaction, PICT often offers non-optimal results.
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A fuzzy adaptive teaching learning-based optimization strategy for generating mixed strength t-way test suites

A fuzzy adaptive teaching learning-based optimization strategy for generating mixed strength t-way test suites

Solano-Aragón, C. and O. Castillo (2015). Optimization of Benchmark Mathematical Functions using the Firefly Algorithm with Dynamic Parameters. Fuzzy Logic Augmentation of Nature-Inspired Optimization Metaheuristics, Springer: 81-89. Srivastava, P. R., P. Patel and S. Chatrola (2009). "Cause Effect Graph to Decision Table

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An experimental study of hyper heuristic selection and acceptance mechanism for combinatorial t way test suite generation

An experimental study of hyper heuristic selection and acceptance mechanism for combinatorial t way test suite generation

Recently, many meta-heuristic algorithms have been proposed to serve as the basis of a t-way test generation strategy (where t indicates the interaction strength) including Genetic Algorithms (GA), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Simulated Annealing (SA), Cuckoo Search (CS), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and Harmony Search (HS). Although useful, meta-heuristic algorithms that make up these strategies often require specific domain knowledge in order to allow effective tuning before good quality solutions can be obtained. Hyper-heuristics provide an alternative methodology to meta-heuristics which permit adaptive selection and/or generation of meta-heuristics automatically during the search process. This paper describes our experience with four hyper-heuristic selection and acceptance mechanisms namely Exponential Monte Carlo with counter (EMCQ), Choice Function (CF), Improvement Selection Rules (ISR), and newly developed Fuzzy Inference Selection (FIS), using the t-way test generation problem as a case study. Based on the experimental results, we offer insights on why each strategy differs in terms of its performance.
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A Tabu Search hyper heuristic strategy for t way test suite generation

A Tabu Search hyper heuristic strategy for t way test suite generation

This paper proposes a novel hybrid t-way test generation strategy (where t indicates interaction strength), called High Level Hyper-Heuristic (HHH). HHH adopts Tabu Search as its high level meta-heuristic and leverages on the strength of four low level meta-heuristics, comprising of Teaching Learning Based Optimization, Global Neighborhood Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Cuckoo Search Algorithm. HHH is able to capitalize on the strengths and limit the deficiencies of each individual algorithm in a collective and synergistic manner. Unlike existing hyper-heuristics, HHH relies on three defined operators, based on improvement, intensification and diversification, to adaptively select the most suitable meta-heuristic at any particular time. Our results are promising as HHH manages to outperform existing t-way strategies on many of the benchmarks.
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The reliability of a tapping test as an indicator of cricket bat performance

The reliability of a tapping test as an indicator of cricket bat performance

A potential limitation of this study was the way in which the sweet spot was approximated by using the point of maximum bat thickness. However, PoMT distance from the true sweet spot will be consistent for bats of the same profile. For this study we make an assumption that relative comparisons of the ACoRs found at the PoMT within a set of bats with the same profile should be similar to those of ACoRs at the true sweet spot. Accuracy in future studies would be improved by measuring the ACoR of the bat at the true sweet spot, which can be found from modal analysis. Another limitation of this pilot study was the level of experience of the players surveyed. Future studies would include elite level players and experienced bat makers. This would reveal whether a higher experience level can assess potential bat performance from the tapping test with more consistency and accuracy. It is also worth noting that while the results showed little consistency between participants’ responses when using the tapping test as a stand-alone measure, further testing could be carried out on bats where the wood grain is visible. This would allow investigation of the effect of prior knowledge with visual observation of the grain pattern before tapping. It is generally accepted by bat makers that bat performance will be greater with higher grades, and grading is done on a visual inspection of the grain pattern alongside imperfections in the willow.
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A hybrid Q-learning sine-cosine-based strategy for addressing the combinatorial test suite minimization problem

A hybrid Q-learning sine-cosine-based strategy for addressing the combinatorial test suite minimization problem

To ensure that the learning is adequate (i.e., the roaming of the search space is sufficient), the QLSCA updates the Q-table for one complete episode cycle (in some random order) for each exploration opportunity. To support the use of 4 search operators within the QLSCA (sine, cosine, Lvy flight and crossover), the Q-table needs to be constructed as a 44 matrix in which the rows represent the state (s t ) and the columns represent the action (a t ) for each state. Fig 6 depicts a snapshot of the Q-table for the QLSCA along with a numerical example. Assume that the current state-action pair is s t = Sine Operator and has a t = Cosine Operator. The search process selects one of the four operators (sine, cosine, Lvy flight, and crossover) as the next action (a t ) based on the maximum reward defined in the state-action pair within the Q-table. This is unlike the original SCA algorithm in that the cosine or sine operator is selected based on the probability parameter, r 4 .
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Test Suites for Natural Language Processing. Work Package 5.1. Auto-TSG: Automatic Test Suite Generation. Part 1: Engine.

Test Suites for Natural Language Processing. Work Package 5.1. Auto-TSG: Automatic Test Suite Generation. Part 1: Engine.

which he/she wants either to change into a test suite where left is replaced by some other verb, such as arrived, or to expand into a test suite which contains sentences with arrived as well. The user may then want to further amend or expand the test suite by replacing He. She, etc. with names. The user can choose which items to replace, and can choose the replace- ments. However, a simple interface is provided which will allow programs external to emacs to suggest replacements. An example of such an external program might be Wordnet , or other thesaurus program; a corpus pro- gram, or an on-line dictionary. Test Suite mode assumes that the external program name is a single word (i.e. a Unix command without options { see below), and makes rather slight assumptions about the form in which this external program returns its results.
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The problematic of strategy: a way of seeing is also a way of not seeing

The problematic of strategy: a way of seeing is also a way of not seeing

these recognitions, metalectics can be considered as a way of describing choice- making through three kinds of complimentary inquiries: namely, an empathetic enquiry, a sympathetic inquiry, and a dialectic inquiry applied dialectically. An empathetic inquiry attempts to understand as much as possible the value assumptions, hidden motivations and arguments of differing positions that support their rationale. A sympathetic inquiry does not deny the value assumptions of assertions, models or paradigms of others but nevertheless raises as many critical questions as possible about them. The idea is to play the devil's advocate in the role of a critical friend and consider whether alternative arguments are more convincing. At the meta-theoretical level of exploration a dialectic applied dialectically goes beyond competing explanations to establish an alternative way of thinking about choice. A dialectic applied dialectically avoids the limitations of compromise that is reached by a dialectic that is applied objectively i.e. the weakening of polarised discourses through a process of denying the strengths of each position. This is an important point because where compromise between argument positions is reached, individuals have no rational or good reason to accept or reject it. In other words, compromise is founded on an individual's or a group's participation in the solution but weak engagement with the struggle. The artistry involved in metalectics is exposed where the individual perceiving extremes in conflict uses their emotional intelligences such as empathy and sympathy to enable engagement with the struggle without commitment to a particular position. The aim is to keep polarised positions in the struggle of opposition because only through this struggle can true dialectic survive. It is therefore necessary to ensure that each discursive theme is not destroyed. A metalectic discourse is thus one that masters the art of argument using the strengths of each of the diverse argument positions to transform understanding.
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Test-suite Augmentation for Evolving Software

Test-suite Augmentation for Evolving Software

We believe that the theoretical foundations of our tech- nique and the results of our studies encourage future re- search that could further improve the effectiveness of test- suite augmentation based on change-infection propagation. In particular, we can identify several directions for future work. On the experimental side, we expect to strengthen our partial symbolic-execution engine to generate require- ments at longer distances, cover more paths, and better handle encapsulation in object-oriented software. We are optimistic about the scalability of our technique because its costs and limitations depend mostly on the complexity of the program in the vicinity of changes, rather than on the overall size of the program. A second direction for future work is to leverage partial symbolic execution and program state comparison in novel ways for specifying additional, complementary requirements that can guide test-suite augmentation. Another direction for future work is the investigation of ways of automatically generating test cases that can cover untested new behaviors identified by our requirements. Finally, static and dynamic analyses could be used to determine in a more precise way whether the state at the entry of a change has been infected by another change and use that information to improve our approach for handling multiple changes.
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STUDY ON TEST-SUITE AND FAULT CHARACTERIZATION

STUDY ON TEST-SUITE AND FAULT CHARACTERIZATION

Model-based GUI testing has the advantage of being automated, but this is tempered by the fact that existing tools for generating and executing GUI test cases are immature. Also, the EFG is only an approximation of actual GUI behavior; because of enabling/disabling of events and other complex behavior in the actual GUI, not every test case generated from the EFG model is executable. For these reasons, each test suite must be generated carefully to ensure that every test case runs properly.

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An HPSG-Annotated Test Suite for Polish

An HPSG-Annotated Test Suite for Polish

Our project is the first attempt at developing tools for evaluating the coverage of formal grammars of Pol- ish. These tools are designed specifically for HPSG gram- mars, but we hope that the test-suite developed here will be equally useful for the evaluation of formal grammars devel- oped within other frameworks, e.g., the DCG-style gram- mars of (Szpakowicz, 1986; ´Swidzi´nski, 1992) (the latter grammar was implemented in the AS parser (Bie´n et al., 2000)). Moreover, this project constitutes the first step to- wards creating a large-scale treebank for Polish.

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Application for Generating GUI Test Suite

Application for Generating GUI Test Suite

Modul parser spracováva skript obsahujúci popis testovacej sady. Na základe obsahu tohto skriptu vytvorí jeho internú reprezentáciu. Tá je zložená z objektov tried modulu parsed-script vo forme usporiadaného stromu. Jednotlivé triedy z tohto modulu využívajú modul criterions, ktorý implementuje generovanie sekvencií udalostí podľa zadaného krité- ria. Modul generator riadi generovanie testovacej sady z internej reprezentácie poskytnutého popisu testovacej sady. Výsledkom je testovacia sada, ktorá je tvorená množinou skriptov testujúcich GUI danej aplikácie. Tieto testovacie skripty využívajú systém LDTP, ktorý je reprezentovaný modulom LDTP. Vykonávanie testovacích skriptov a vyhodnocovanie tes- tovania riadi modul test-engine. Všetky moduly využívajú modul utils, ktorý poskytuje implementáciu často používaných funkcií. Jedná sa hlavne o rôzne konverzie medzi po- užitými dátovými typmi, spracovanie parametrov príkazového riadku a generovanie častí obsahu skriptov výslednej testovacej sady.
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TEACHING STRATEGY: A WAY OF TEACHING

TEACHING STRATEGY: A WAY OF TEACHING

Integrating Technology. Today, educators realize that computer literacy is an important part of a student's education. Integrating technology into a course curriculum when appropriate is proving to be valuable for enhancing and extending the learning experience for faculty and students. Many faculty have found electronic mail to be a useful way to promote student/student or faculty/student communication between class meetings. Others use listserves or on-line notes to extend topic discussions and explore critical issues with students and colleagues, or discipline- specific software to increase student understanding of difficult concepts.
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Genemutant: Test Suite Adequacy Check For Path Coverage Testing Based On Mutating Test Suite Using Genetic Algorithm

Genemutant: Test Suite Adequacy Check For Path Coverage Testing Based On Mutating Test Suite Using Genetic Algorithm

ABSTRACT: Code coverage is a measure used to describe the degree to which the source code of a program is tested by a particular test suite. A program with high code coverage has been more thoroughly tested and has a lower chance of containing software bugs than a program with low code coverage. Many different metrics can be used to calculate code coverage like statement coverage, decision coverage, condition coverage, path coverage etc. Path coverage ensures that every independent path in the program should be executed at least once by the give test suite. The proposed technique check the adequacy of given test suite and design new test cases (if required) by mutating the existing test cases, for path coverage testing based on genetic algorithm using XNOR fitness function.
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Building a Test Suite for Web Application Scanners

Building a Test Suite for Web Application Scanners

There are several benchmarks, with vulnerabilities of different types, which can be used for evaluation of web application scanners. Foundstone has a series of “Hackme” web applications written in different languages [12]. OWASP SiteGenerator Project [19] enables the user to create web pages with vulnerabilities and test them against a web scanner. OWASP has also produced the WebGoat Project [20] which embeds vulnerabilities in its web application.

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The Word Sense Disambiguation Test Suite at WMT18

The Word Sense Disambiguation Test Suite at WMT18

The error analysis in Table 4 exposes other dif- ferences between systems. The rule-based sys- tem online-F is least prone to leaving the am- biguous source words untranslated (0.7%), while this is a more serious problems in the unsuper- vised systems (up to 6.9%) and some neural sys- tems (up to 4.7%). It has been argued that SMT, which uses a coverage mechanism during decod- ing, is less prone to undertranslation than NMT (Tu et al., 2016). On the WSD test set, we find that uedin-nmt-2016 leaves more of the ambigu- ous words untranslated (2.4%) than the contempo- raneous uedin-syntax-2016 (1.3%), but most NMT systems submitted to this year’s shared transla- tion task improve upon this number. While this is a very narrow evaluation of the undertransla- tion problem (only on one data set, and looking at specific source words), we consider it encouraging that we could measure some progress.
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Suitability of ParTes Test Suite for Parsing Evaluation

Suitability of ParTes Test Suite for Parsing Evaluation

The new release of ParTes (15.02) consists in the improvement of the linguistic data sets. Ini- tially, ParTes included a test data module formed by sentences illustrating the syntactic phenomena of the test suite (Lloberes et al., 2014). The cur- rent version incorporates a set of linguistic data for development purposes that extends the capabil- ities of the test suite by allowing the parser devel- opment monitoring and a second iteration of the evaluation task.

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EFSP Certification Test Suite Version 1.2

EFSP Certification Test Suite Version 1.2

Action: Login as selected user. Create new filing for Test court. Verify: Ensure case types presented are associated with Test court. Action: Continue preparing new filing. Add all service contacts to the case. Attach documents to filing. Finish up to the point of submitting filing, but do not submit.

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