Top PDF Behavioral Interventions for Infant Sleep Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Behavioral Interventions for Infant Sleep Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Behavioral Interventions for Infant Sleep Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial

limiting the infant’s nocturnal sleep opportunity (Supplemental Table 4). For the sleep education control, parents were provided sleep information from a statewide child health service (www. cyh. com; Supplemental Table 4). Families received a booklet describing their intervention, and 24/7 cell phone support (by K.J.). Of calls received, these included clarification of techniques, delaying treatment, and clarifying measurements (saliva, actigraphy), with no perceived differences in the number of calls between groups (unfortunately, no systematic data were recorded for these calls; thus, these data are based on our retrospective recall).
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School based cognitive behavioral interventions for anxious youth: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

School based cognitive behavioral interventions for anxious youth: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Attempts to increase access to evidence-based interven- tions have resulted in a shift in treatment delivery, away from face-to-face high intensity treatments by specialist mental health care professionals, toward low-intensity CBT methods (LI-CBT). No common definition of LI- CBT is found. However, Bennett-Levy et al. [23] argue that LI- CBT aims to achieve similar outcomes with less costly and easier to access interventions compared to standard CBT. LI-CBT typically includes briefer and/or fewer sessions, may include use of self-help material (e.g., books, internet programs), use of group interventions and treatments delivered by less specialized health care workers [23]. This approach aims to make evidence-based treatments more accessible for larger groups suffering from the most prevalent mental health problems, such as mild to moderate levels of anxiety. Despite the increased availability of LI-CBT interventions, few rigorous studies are available that have evaluated the effectiveness of these with young people.
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Behavioral intervention for sleep problems in childhood: a Brazilian randomized controlled trial

Behavioral intervention for sleep problems in childhood: a Brazilian randomized controlled trial

intervention experienced improved sleeping (in 80% of the studies reviewed). Moreover, the positive results were main- tained for 3 to 6 months after completing treatment. A sys- tematic review based on the meta-analysis (Meltzer & Mindell, 2014) demonstrated a moderate level of evidence for the behavioral treatment for insomnia in infants and toddlers. Another review study conducted by an advisory group (Morgenthaler et al., 2006) of the American Acad- emy of Sleep Medicine had identified that behavioral inter- ventions, such as extinction techniques, establishment of routines, preventive education for parents, and sleep hy- giene habits should be considered to be effective therapies for problems related to lying down and awakening at night, resulting in an improvement in sleep patterns. Likewise, scholars (Moore, 2010; Tikotzky & Sadeh, 2010) have already indicated that behavioral interventions, adminis- tered by the parents, were effective in the short- and long-term for the management of insomnia in children.
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A randomized controlled trial of an intervention for infants’ behavioral sleep problems

A randomized controlled trial of an intervention for infants’ behavioral sleep problems

A review of over 50 published treatment studies for children’s BSPs indicated behavioral interventions were efficacious, with over 80 % of children treated demon- strating clinically significant improvement that was maintained for 3 to 6 months [13]. Reviewers recom- mended future studies test group interventions and in- corporate actigraphy as an objective sleep measure, measures of parental depression, and combined objective and subjective (parental diary) sleep measures [13]. Our before-after design pilot study of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention (CBGI) for seven groups of five par- ents (n = 35) with 6-to-12-month-olds experiencing BSPs demonstrated significantly reduced numbers of night wakes and longer night sleep time, by actigraphy, post intervention [14], as well as significantly improved par- ental mood, sleep quality, fatigue, and cognitions about infant sleep [15]. The CBGI involved a two-hour teach- ing session and two weeks of telephone support. Parents in that study reported that participating in a group teaching session with other parents whose children had sleep problems ‘normalized’ what they were experiencing and helped them regard their children’s sleep problems as common and amenable to change. Being part of the group and receiving telephone support calls increased their confidence to manage infant sleep [16].
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The effectiveness of interventions in reducing sleep problems in chronic pain : a systematic review on randomized controlled trials

The effectiveness of interventions in reducing sleep problems in chronic pain : a systematic review on randomized controlled trials

Taking a closer look at the results, it is remarkable that Goldway et al. (2019) found delayed improvements (i.e., 16.2 ± 8.72 months after treatment) in pain in real-neurofeedback, while significant results in sleep were obtained immediately after treatment and were maintained at follow-up. Behavioral and neural learning processes can explain these latent effects. First of all, neurofeedback can be considered as a skill. By applying this skill more often in daily life, individuals continue to practice and thereby improve symptoms and neural regulation (Wiklund et al., 2018). Second, consolidation and reconsolidation processes that underlie learning processes improve over time, regardless of practice. Therefore, it is likely that synchronization or desynchronization of the targeted brain process increase over time (Wiklund et al., 2018). Furthermore, it is also remarkable that the trial of McCrae et al. (2019) found significant results after treatment and at follow-up in sleep outcomes alone (wake-after-sleep onset, sleep efficiency and sleep quality rating). In subjects receiving CBT-I, improvements in clinical pain occurred at follow-up, and no changes in clinical pain were observed in subject receiving CBT-P. These findings are not surprising given contradictions in the literature. Research has shown that both CBT-I (Martinez et al., 2019) and CBT-P (Goldenberg et al., 2004) are promising for reducing clinical pain, but findings often reveal a greater reduction in pain-related symptoms than in clinical pain itself. In addition, if pain reductions in clinical pain were found, they were often small. In light of this, one explanation for the findings of McCrae et al. (2019) is that their trial was not designed to detect small changes in pain.
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Five-Year Follow-up of Harms and Benefits of Behavioral Infant Sleep Intervention: Randomized Trial

Five-Year Follow-up of Harms and Benefits of Behavioral Infant Sleep Intervention: Randomized Trial

strategies. Currently, the information available to parents about the effects of behavioral sleep strategies is in- consistent and out of date. For example, peak bodies including the Australian Infant Mental Health Association and the Australian Breastfeeding Associa- tion, which work to in fl uence policy and practice but argue against the use of behavioral techniques like controlled comforting, have not updated position statements since the mid-2000s. Thus, there is a pressing need to deliver evidence-based information to parents and health care providers, which could be achieved, in part, by updating posi- tion statements, policy documents, and training curricula to re fl ect our current fi ndings that behavioral sleep techni- ques are both effective in the short- and medium-term and safe to use in the long-term.
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A parenting intervention for childhood behavioral problems: A randomized controlled trial in disadvantaged community based settings

A parenting intervention for childhood behavioral problems: A randomized controlled trial in disadvantaged community based settings

Comparison with other research. This study is the first RCT evaluation of an updated version of the IYBP intervention. Previous research has evaluated shorter 9- and 12- session interventions (Hutchings et al., 2007a; Reid, Webster-Stratton & Baydar, 2004), whilst a smaller number of studies have evaluated a longer 20- to 22-session program (Webster-Stratton et al., 2004). Despite these differences in treatment length, the effects of the intervention in the current study are consistent with effect sizes reported in other IYBP trials. The findings from our study, which was carried out in urban settings, are comparable with those of a rural-based study in Wales (Hutchings et al., 2007a) and clinical-based work in Norway (Larsson et al., 2008). The Welsh team reported moderate and large effect sizes of 0.63 and 0.89 on the ECBI Problem and Intensity subscales respectively (Hutchings et al., 2007a). Comparable effect sizes, indicating a consistent benefit of parenting intervention for child conduct problems, are reported here. Our study further indicates more substantial effects of the IYBP intervention for child hyperactivity and social competence. Notably, some of the above studies were undertaken within the context of integrated, multi-
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Relationships between parental sleep quality, fatigue, cognitions about infant sleep, and parental depression pre and post intervention for infant behavioral sleep problems

Relationships between parental sleep quality, fatigue, cognitions about infant sleep, and parental depression pre and post intervention for infant behavioral sleep problems

In our study, there was a marked improvement in par- ents ’ depression from levels at baseline to 18 – 24 week follow-up; there was a reduction in proportions of mothers and fathers scoring above cut-offs on the CESD for depressive symptomatology by between 11 and 30%. The literature has demonstrated that, not only have infant behavioral sleep problems been consistently associated with maternal depression scores [5, 8, 26, 27] and, under the rare circumstances where fathers are assessed, with paternal depression scores [7, 8, 25], but also that inter- ventions for infant behavioral sleep problems have improved infant night waking [4, 8, 23] and maternal and paternal depression scores [8, 25 – 27]. A recent trial by Gradisar and colleagues reported that graduated extinc- tion (also called controlled comforting) improved infant sleep and decreased infant cortisol levels and maternal stress compared with controls (sleep education) [24].
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Infant sleep hygiene counseling (sleep trial): protocol of a randomized controlled trial

Infant sleep hygiene counseling (sleep trial): protocol of a randomized controlled trial

Background: Sleep problems in childhood have been found to be associated with memory and learning impairments, irritability, difficulties in mood modulation, attention and behavioral problems, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Short sleep duration has been found to be associated with overweight and obesity in childhood. This paper describes the protocol of a behavioral intervention planned to promote healthier sleep in infants. Methods: The study is a 1:1 parallel group single-blinded randomized controlled trial enrolling a total of 552 infants at 3 months of age. The main eligibility criterion is maternal report of the infant ’ s sleep lasting on average less than 15 h per 24 h (daytime and nighttime sleep). Following block randomization, trained fieldworkers conduct home visits of the intervention group mothers and provide standardized advice on general practices that promote infant ’ s self-regulated sleep. A booklet with the intervention content to aid the mother in implementing the intervention was developed and is given to the mothers in the intervention arm. In the two days following the home visit the intervention mothers receive daily telephone calls for intervention reinforcement and at day 3 the fieldworkers conduct a reinforcement visit to support mothers ’ compliance with the intervention. The main outcome assessed is the between group difference in average nighttime self-regulated sleep duration (the maximum amount of time the child stays asleep or awake without awakening the parents), at ages 6, 12 and 24 months, evaluated by means of actigraphy, activity diary records and questionnaires. The secondary outcomes are conditional linear growth between age 3 – 12 and 12 – 24 months and neurocognitive development at ages 12 and 24 months.
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Improving practice in community-based settings: a randomized trial of supervision – study protocol

Improving practice in community-based settings: a randomized trial of supervision – study protocol

No existing coding measure was identified that captures general and EBT (e.g., TF-CBT) strategies, including tem- poral focus (i.e., focus on past sessions vs. planning for future sessions). Items on the supervision coding measure for the proposed study were identified by review and synthesis of: an existing, psychometrically valid CBT- focused coding measure (i.e., Supervision: Adherence & Guidance Evaluation; D. Milne, PhD & R. Reiser, PhD, unpublished measure, 2008); a review of supervision interventions [60]; and a self-report supervision ques- tionnaire used in Accurso’s CBS pilot study [17]. Simi- lar to the Garland et al. [30] revised Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy (PRAC TPOCS-S), which itself is an adapted version of the original TPOCS-S [61], our supervision coding measure includes codes for supervision content (e.g., TF-CBT components; administrative aspects; assignment/ review of client homework) and supervision techniques (e.g., symptom review; case note review; behavioral rehearsal), as well as extensiveness (e.g., frequency of use/ time spent; thoroughness; continuous variable: 0 to 6) of content and techniques. We will also code temporal focus of supervision—relative percent of supervision focused on past sessions compared with planning for future sessions.
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Wahakura Versus Bassinet for Safe Infant Sleep: A Randomized Trial

Wahakura Versus Bassinet for Safe Infant Sleep: A Randomized Trial

higher proportion of eligible M ā ori consented to participate compared with New Zealand European. After informed consent, the women completed a baseline questionnaire and were randomized (stratified by parity and deprivation quintile) by using sealed sequentially numbered envelopes to either a wahakura ( n = 102) or a bassinet ( n = 98). The research nurse enrolling the participants opened the envelope and provided the participants with the appropriate device. The randomized order was generated by the statistician by using random- length blocks. Researchers were not blind to the allocated group. After exclusions, the overall recruitment rate was 35.4%.
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Research Paper: Effect of Play-based Therapy on Metacognitive and Behavioral Aspects of Executive Function: A Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial on the Students With Learning Disabilities

Research Paper: Effect of Play-based Therapy on Metacognitive and Behavioral Aspects of Executive Function: A Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial on the Students With Learning Disabilities

Methods: In the current randomized, clinical trial, 49 subjects within the age range of 7 to 11 years with specific learning disabilities were randomly assigned into the intervention (25 subjects; mean age 8.5±1.33 years) and control (24 subjects; mean age 8.7±1.03 years) groups. Subjects in the intervention group received EF group training based on playing activities; subjects in the control group received no intervention. The behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) was administered to evaluate the behavioral and cognitive aspects of EF. The duration of the intervention was 6 hours per week for 9 weeks. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare mean changes (before and after) in the BRIEF scores between the groups. Results: The assumptions of multivariate analysis of covariance were examined. After controlling pre-test conditions, the intervention and control groups scored significantly differently on both the metacognition (P=0.002; effect size=0.20) and behavior regulation indices (P=0.01; effect size=0.12) of BRIEF.
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mHealth technologies in the management of obesity: a narrative review

mHealth technologies in the management of obesity: a narrative review

Abstract: The global pandemic of obesity requires an urgent response. Obesity results in increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The need to provide cost- effective treatment to the millions affected is evident but traditional repeated individual face-to- face management would clearly exhaust available health care services. It is for this reason that the use of mobile health (mHealth) to improve population health, diet, and physical activity has become an active area of research. The aim of this review is to give a perspective of where this field of research currently stands using examples from the published literature. Smartphones provide a medium for the delivery of health information, personal coaching, monitoring of eating and physical activity behaviors and to integrate outputs from other sensors. Health and computer researchers have been developing and evaluating mHealth for the management of obesity but their efforts are relatively small. Text messaging, applications (apps) and a number of multicomponent mHealth programs utilizing a variety of Smartphone functions indicate some success in weight management but the results are mixed. Apart from the ubiquitous nature of Smartphones and devices, the real-time delivery of output data provides the potential for continuous adjustment of interventions according to the changes an individual is making after each message they receive from the mHealth program. This ability to optimize interventions for individual weight management in a timely fashion is the big challenge for researchers. Person- alized heath advice is the preferred option of individuals, and cooperation between computer scientists, behavioral scientists, dietitians, exercise physiologists and medical practitioners will be needed to meaningfully integrate data and responses from automated systems. In summary, mHealth shows potential, but we are still in the early stages of being able to harness its full capabilities for making a meaningful contribution to combatting obesity.
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Diarrhea and dengue control in rural primary schools in Colombia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Diarrhea and dengue control in rural primary schools in Colombia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

This trial is funded by the Research Council of Norway (grant ref. no. 201349) and the Lazos de Calandaima Foundation. The Research Council of Norway grant fully funds DS, and partly funds HJO, TAS, RS, AL, MIM, JFJ, SV, VAO, and NA. NA is also supported financially by United Kingdom Medical Research Council grant number G7508177 to the Tropical Epidemiology Group. We acknowledge the donations of filters by Oxfam; insecticide treated curtains by Bayer CropScience in France, Costa Rica, and Colombia; and pyriproxyfen by Vector and Pest Management LTDA, Bogotá, Colombia. We also thank the mayors and the people of La Mesa and Anapoima. We gratefully acknowledge the support and assistance of Dr. Miguel Otero, Director of Research, Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.
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Protocol for the Cognitive Interventions and Nutritional Supplements (CINS) trial: A randomized controlled multicenter trial of a brief intervention (BI) versus a BI plus cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) versus nutritional supplements for patients wit

Protocol for the Cognitive Interventions and Nutritional Supplements (CINS) trial: A randomized controlled multicenter trial of a brief intervention (BI) versus a BI plus cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) versus nutritional supplements for patients with long lasting muscle and back pain

Seven sessions of individual CBT, over a period of 2-3 months, will be given in addition to the BI. The CBT builds on the message contained in the BI, and is theo- retically based on Chalder ’ s CBT model for CFS patients [17], and on the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS) [5]. This CBT model assumes that cognitive, emotional, physiological, and behavioral responses are linked, and that changes in one of these areas will result in changes in others. During the treatment, patients are helped to change their interpretation of the pain and associated fear, symptom focusing, and avoidance. Parti- cipants are encouraged to see complaints as temporary and reversible, and not as signs of harm, or as evidence of a permanent condition or as a fixed disease pathol- ogy. The aim of the intervention is to help patients change cognitive- and behavioral factors assumed to be partly responsible for the maintenance of symptoms and disability. Return to work is an outlined goal of the treatment.
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Cognitive behavioral therapy program for cannabis use cessation in first episode psychosis patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Cognitive behavioral therapy program for cannabis use cessation in first episode psychosis patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

early in a program of effective treatment. Specifically, the effective treatment of psychotic disorders in patients with comorbid substance abuse is an important goal in clinical practice. Mental health drug addiction services are often run in parallel to other health care services with different, sometimes conflicting, approaches and this further hin- ders the treatment of these patients, who may have diffi- culty integrating into standard treatments and require specific programs. Ideally, interventions for these patients should be tailored to their specific needs. However, this is often not possible given the dichotomy between mental health and substance abuse treatment providers. On the other hand, no clinical treatment trials conducted to date have shown any specific interventions to have effective re- sults in terms of reducing cannabis use and/or improving clinical outcomes in the follow-up of this population.
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Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness

Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness

One of the most serious limitations of the evidence base is the heterogeneity in the outcome measures aggregated as ‘fear of crime’ in this review. This hetero- geneity, and the associated problems with the concept of fear of crime itself, have been subject to sustained cri- tique. The different definitions of fear have been shown to lead to widely varying empirical results and arguably do not access the same underlying construct [78-81]. Supplementary Additional file 4 shows the different types of fear of crime outcome measures included in the studies; as shown, there is wide variation in the types of outcome included. While we have simply aggregated these distinct outcomes in this review as though they re- ferred to the same construct, it should be borne in mind that the heterogeneity of measures places limitations on what can be inferred from the results. In particular, sev- eral of the studies with the most positive trends only measured perceived safety, rather than affective fear; [50,61,76,77] such outcomes could be hypothesized to have a lesser impact on wellbeing.
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The Effect of Sleep Hygiene on the Incidence of Cardiac Dysrhythmia in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Hospitalized in Critical Care Units: A Randomized Controlled Trial

The Effect of Sleep Hygiene on the Incidence of Cardiac Dysrhythmia in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Hospitalized in Critical Care Units: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Researchers have examined the effects of different strategies to improve the quality of sleep in CCUs. For in- stance, Jones et al. and Hu et al. have reported that us- ing eye mask and earplugs can improve the perceived sleep quality and hormone balance in critical care patients (15, 16). Neyse et al. have also shown that using earplugs can improve the sleep quality in CCU patients with acute coro- nary syndrome (17). However, no studies are available re- garding the effect of sleep hygiene on the incidence of cardiac dysrhythmia in patients with MI. Considering the prevalence of sleep impairment among patients hospital- ized in CCUs, the question still remins that “can sleep hy- giene affect the incidence of cardiac dysrhythmia in pa- tients with MI?”
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Diarrhea and dengue control in rural primary schools in Colombia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Diarrhea and dengue control in rural primary schools in Colombia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

This trial is funded by the Research Council of Norway (grant ref. no. 201349) and the Lazos de Calandaima Foundation. The Research Council of Norway grant fully funds DS, and partly funds HJO, TAS, RS, AL, MIM, JFJ, SV, VAO, and NA. NA is also supported financially by United Kingdom Medical Research Council grant number G7508177 to the Tropical Epidemiology Group. We acknowledge the donations of filters by Oxfam; insecticide treated curtains by Bayer CropScience in France, Costa Rica, and Colombia; and pyriproxyfen by Vector and Pest Management LTDA, Bogotá, Colombia. We also thank the mayors and the people of La Mesa and Anapoima. We gratefully acknowledge the support and assistance of Dr. Miguel Otero, Director of Research, Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.
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Effect of Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea by Uvulopalatoplasty on Seizure Outcomes: A Case Report

Effect of Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea by Uvulopalatoplasty on Seizure Outcomes: A Case Report

In December 2006, a 31-year-old woman was referred to a neurologist because of consciousness disorder and fainting. Her main problems were obesity, snoring and waking up with a feeling of suffocation in the middle of sleep. The intraoral examination showed a large soft palate (Fig. 1). The soft palate was scored as class III according to the Mallampati classification (visualization of the soft palate and the base of the uvula) [20]. The electroencephalogram (EEG) showed focal dysrhythmia during hyperventilation with scattered sharp waves (Fig. 2). The patient was depressed and had sleep disorders such as sleep apnea and myoclonus, especially at the onset of sleep. She had experienced several occurrences of complete loss of consciousness during swimming and at work. The patient was on anticonvulsants and antidepressants (at first, she had been prescribed with Lamotrigine for 5 months, but later she was given 500mg Sodium valproate per day).
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