Benefittransfer entails using estimates of non-market values derived at one site as approximations to benefits at other sites. The method finds favour because it can be applied quickly and cheaply, however the validity of benefittransfer is frequently questioned. Published studies generally indicate that errors from the approach can be extremely large and could result in significant resource misallocations. Assessing the validity of benefittransfer is complicated by differences in the nature of study and policy sites, the changes being valued, valuation methods, time of study, availability of substitutes and complements, and demographic, social and cultural differences. A choiceexperiment was used to evaluate the transferability of benefit estimates for identical goods between two different populations. The study design allowed most of the confounding factors to be controlled, so provides a strong test of benefittransfer validity. Several different tests were applied to evaluate benefittransfer validity, with conflicting results. The paper investigates the merits of the alternative tests and concludes that utility functions were different for the two populations.
Patients and methods: Following a systematic review of the literature, the benefit criteria within the statin BRA model were defined as a reduction in the plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and a reduction in myocardial infarction incidence; the risk criteria were hepa- totoxicity (Liv) and fatal rhabdomyolysis (Rha). The scores for these criteria were estimated using mixed treatment comparison methods. Weighting was calculated from a discrete choiceexperiment involving 203 Korean patients. The scores and weights were integrated to produce an overall value representing the benefit–risk balance, and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results: In this BRA model, low-density lipoprotein (relative importance [RI]: 37.50%) was found to be a more important benefit criterion than myocardial infarction (RI: 35.43%), and Liv (RI: 16.28%) was a more important risk criterion than Rha (RI: 10.79%). Patients preferred ator- vastatin, and the preference ranking of cerivastatin and simvastatin was switched post approval because of the emergence of additional risk information related to cerivastatin.
Results: Two hundred and seventy-four questionnaires were completed. The mean age (SD) of participants was 56.7 (12.9) years. Forty-nine percent of participants were insulin users, and 17% had type 1 diabetes. Overall, patients’ ideal insulin treatment would provide better glucose control, result in fewer adverse reactions, have the lowest cost, and be administered orally. Overall, there was a strong positive preference for better glucose control relative to the other attributes. Segmented analyses by insulin use and type of diabetes suggest that there may be an important psychosocial barrier to initiating insulin therapy but that patients tend to adjust to subcutaneous administration once they initiate therapy.
From the experimentresults, it shows that the experiment group (Group A) performed better in “Form Ex- pressivity”. Therefore, it is suggested that teaching on this subject should be enhanced in order to find out better solutions to promote teaching results. In other words, in the aspect of form expressivity, the students in the ex- periment group are shown to have made significant progress, with the ability to express form completely, and considerable accomplishment in the transferal of tacit knowledge. The research applied TKTM in sketching in- struction. It is helpful to promote students on “perspective accuracy”, “line stability”, and “form expressivity”. Other researchers can extend the results in the study of other arts and craft instruction to maximize its teaching benefit.
monitoring activity: substantial within-country variation (OECD 2000). The Hungarian public employment service is organised by counties, of which there are 20. Each county has considerable discretion to interpret the relevant legislation as it sees fit. Practice varies from office to office within the counties as well. We collected information on office practices in Autumn 2002 from 28 offices (out of a national total of 170) spread over the six counties in which our field experiment was to be conducted. The counties were picked in part to provide a good spread of labour market conditions (see Section 3). Of these, 16 required that UI recipients returned every three months. In six offices the frequency was once a month and in the remaining six somewhere in between. 6 In addition, in all offices claimants could be contacted within this interval and asked to attend in person to receive information on a specific vacancy that the office deemed suitable.
Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to experimentally investigate the effect of elicitation modes in intertemporal choice by using decision frames where the difference between the SS and paired LL option is explicitly indicated to the participants in each decision problem that we called an explicit penalty decision problem (e.g., “€75 in 61 days vs. €55 today with a penalty of €20”). Decision problems with an explicit penalty will be used and compared to standard modes (e.g., “€55 today vs. €75 in 61 days”). By using this paradigm, we hypothesise that, by giving test subjects simple information about the amount of money the participant has to give up for choosing the smaller and sooner option, individuals tend to shift their preferences in favour of the LL option, and then increase their tendency to be more future-oriented. Specifically, we speculate that the explicit penalty may act as a nudge; that is, an indirect suggestion influencing decision-making without coercive measures (Thaler and Sunstein, 2008), that leads individuals to be more far-sighted. Successful long-term planning has been found to be connected with the ability to anticipate future events, by foreseeing the pleasure/pain connected with possible future events, and, at the same time, to resist immediate or short-term temptations. Anticipation and self-control, together with
2 relevant given the fast increase in the use of online surveys and in particular when using web panels rewarded for survey tasks. Also Rose and Black (2006) start out from the hypothesis that response times reflect the cognitive effort of the respondents, which in turn then would affect the quality of their choices in SC experiments. They explore the link between response times and data quality by including interactions between response times and the mean and variance of the random parameter estimates, finding it significant in many cases. This paper does not analyse the discrete choice responses and hence the issue of data quality is not so relevant in the present context.
Labeling is the most important risk management tool in reducing exposure to allergens. Studies have shown that the current labeling system is insufficient in prevent- ing allergen exposure [28, 29, 41]. Labels that are ambig- uous and confusing have led to decreased consumer confidence in allergen labeling and increased risk expo- sure. Our results suggest that labels need to be standard- ized and intuitive to make them easily understandable by the broader public. A more definite allergen content statement is preferred as well as the use of symbols to communicate allergen information. Further studies are required to determine reasons behind the consumers’ stated preferences and to compare these stated prefer- ences with actual decisions. The current iteration of the Canadian regulation addressed the need for allergen con- tent specificity on the labels however the results of this study identify additional changes that will make Cana- dian allergen food labels more effective according to stated consumer preferences.
AT815a microphone and Sony Walkman Professional WM-D6C (Sony, Tokyo, Japan) or Marantz PMD222 tape recorder. Field recordings were digitized at 22 050 Hz but were resampled from 22 050 to 44 100 Hz using SIGNAL 5.10.29 software (Engineering Design, Berkeley, CA, U.S.A.) in order to be used as experimental stimuli. In experiment 2, we also used songs recorded during the dawn chorus period at a field station in the John Prince Research Forest (Fort St James, BC) between 28 April and 16 May 2006, 2008 and 2009. Songs from the John Prince Research Forest were recorded with a Sennheiser MKH70, Sennheiser ME67 or Audio-Technica ATB815a microphone and a Marantz PMD430 tape recorder or Marantz PMD671 digital recorder. Songs from all populations were of high quality (i.e. no audible interference such as other conspecific or heterospecific vocalizations) and low background noise when viewed on a spectrogram with amplitude cutoffs of -35 to 0 dB relative to song peak amplitude. Stimuli were band-pass filtered outside the range of the songs to remove background noise using GoldWave version 5.58 (GoldWave, Inc., St John’s, NL, Canada). Using SIGNAL, songs were edited from longer audio files to contain 5 ms of silence before and after each song, the stimuli were tapered to remove transients and amplitude was equalized. During the
attitudes towards GM food. There is, however, significant differences in consumer preferences between GM technologies in which plants are modified by the introduction of genes from other plants and those GM technologies in which plants are modified by the introduction of genes from animals and plants. Their results also disclose that consumers are WTP higher food bills for a reduction in chemical use; safer food, and locally produced food, where consumers’ WTP for these attributes increase in the frequency of their purchase of organic food. A follow up study by Rigby and Burton (2005) investigate the heterogeneity in consumer preferences further and reveal that even though the average WTP measures are not significantly different in the two studies, there is considerable heterogeneity in WTP for all but one of the attributes, which was not captured by Burton et al. (2001). Inclusion of the status quo in the analysis reveals that the consumers are WTP to preserve the current system, i.e., non- GM food market.
providing the highest marginal benefits. The public preferred less expenditure on income support. The choiceexperiment also identified the impacts of demographic factors. The approach is offered as a complement to prior approaches that research public preferences for budget allocation, with prospects for revelation of richer information for informing social decisions.
The search for new phenomena is of course today the main focus of the CMS experiment. While the studies of 7- and 8-TeV collisions have revealed no signiﬁcant departures from SM predictions, the range of possible signals of new physics hiding in the huge datasets so far collected is quite broad, and surprises are still possible. A mention of the many results produced by those searches is impossible in this brief report; a summary can be found in the reports from the parallel sessions in these proceedings. This document is organized as follows. Section 2 provides a brief description of the experiment. In Section 3 is oﬀered a short review of the most interesting results of the investigations of the nature of the new 125 GeV scalar particle. Section 4 describes two recent top physics results using Run 1 data. In Section 5 are highlighted a few recent results from the analysis of the 13 TeV collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider since June 2015 . Some conclusions are o ﬀ ered in Section 6.
In light of the above, we propose a di¤erent approach. We focus on identifying the choice structure of a framework that relaxes rationality in a way that is common across a wide variety of seemingly disconnected positive behavioral models and admits the standard rational choice model. We show that choice data is consistent with rational choice if and only if they satisfy Arrow’s (1959) axiom of choice. Choice data that satisfy Cherno¤ ’s (1954) axiom of choice (also Sen’s (1971) axiom ) is compatible with the behavior of a DM who is not internalizing all the consequences of her choices on herself. In the latter case, preferences revealed from choices may not be an appropriate foundation for making welfare assessments. Choices may be coherent in Bernheim and Rangel’s (2009) sense, but
of two functionally identical detectors, which have been placed 14 mrad oﬀ-axis. The NuMI (Neu- trinos at the Main Injector) facility at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (USA) provides a muon (anti-)neutrino beam for the experiment. The neutrino beam, with a peak energy of 2 GeV, travels 810 km through the Earth’s crust to the Far Detector at Ash River (Minnesota). Muon neutri- nos may oscillate to electron or tau neutrinos as they propagate. The NOvA detectors can measure the transition probabilities P ( ν μ → ν e ) and P ( ν μ → ν μ ). From these measurements NOvA is able to extract oscillation parameters: Δm 2
The huge cross section of processes yielding bottom quarks in the ﬁnal state of 7-TeV proton- proton collisions again comes to the rescue. CMS can collect semileptonic B-hadron decays of medium to large transverse momentum thanks to inclusive electron and muon triggers, as well as exploit the signiﬁcant branching ratio of B-hadron decays to J /ψ and ψ(2S ) mesons by triggering on the resulting pairs of low transverse momentum muons. Indeed, a simple graph showing the invariant mass of muon pairs collected by muon triggers speaks volumes about the heavy ﬂavor potential of the experiment (see Fig. 3).
In the atmospheric sector, the disappearance of muon neutrinos was ﬁrst established by the Super- Kamiokande experiment  and then conﬁrmed with accelerators by K2K  and MINOS  long- baseline experiments. Although the ν μ → ν τ oscillation channel seems to be the dominant one, no explicit observation of tau neutrino appearance has been conﬁrmed so far.
Many hormones such as auxin, cytokinin, gibberellins and ethylene have been implicated in bulb formation, though many attempts to correlate hormone levels with bulbing have been unsuccessful (Brewster, 2008). Ethylene has been externally applied as a spray of ethephon, which induces a swelling of leaf sheaths and a small increase in bulbing ratios, but the normal elongation of leaf sheaths which cause bulb swelling does not occur and normal typical bulbs do not develop (Sobeih and Wright, 1987). In addition, ethylene antagonists do not repress bulb initiation in inductive photoperiods (Lercari, 1983). Thus, it was regarded that ethylene is responsible for pseudobulbing rather than true bulbing. Several studies also have been aimed at the implication of gibberellins in onion bulb formation (Brewster, 2008). Results showed that an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis promotes bulbing in non-inductive photoperiods which suggests an inhibitory role in bulb initiation (Mita and Shibaoka, 1984). Gibberellin also has an inhibitory role on flowering in strawberry (Thompson and Guttridge, 1959). However, gibberellin was successful to promote flowering in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) through the activation of the promoter of the floral integrator gene LEAFY (LFY) (Blazquez et al., 1998) and is also involved in onion flowering (Rabinowitch, 1990). It was also reported that cytokinin has some effect in bulb initiation under inductive photoperiod (Lercari and Micheli, 1981).
A cloaking tool allows the individual to only show those attributes that are important to them. This might be useful if there are many attributes that can describe the alternative. It might also justify making relatively obscure information available within the choice environment, as that information need not overwhelm those people who do not wish to see it. A literature has developed examining various attribute processing rules, where one such rule that the decision maker might employ is to ignore or not attend to certain attributes when making their choice (e.g. Rose et al., 2005). There is evidence to suggest that attribute attendance as stated by the respondent is not reliable, and that sounder methodologies include a stochastic treatment of attribute attendance (Hensher et al., 2007) or the use of other model outputs such as conditional parameter estimates (Hess and Hensher, 2010). Cloaking tools might not cover all attribute nonattendance, as revealed attributes might still be ignored, but attributes that are not revealed can be definitively considered as not attended to, and removed from the utility expressions of a choice model.