In a recent article in The New York Times, Brendan Nyhan (an assistant professor of government at Dartmouth College) writes about a recent study conducted by Yale Law School professor, Dan Kahan, who finds, according to Nyhan, that “with science, as with politics, identity often trumps the facts” (3). In other words, if I identify as a conservative or as a liberal, if I identify as a Christian or an atheist, that identity will win out, when I am faced with facts that may betray or conflict with my own belief system, as a conservative/liberal, Christian/atheist. As a rhetorician, I am deeply invested in the idea that facts are interpretations of information that is, itself, constituted by [discourse-spe- cific] language and formulas for thought. On the other hand, the treatment of all arguments as equal and the belief that one simply can and should select the arguments that one likes or agrees with and reject others are damaging practices that increasingly threaten the productive functioning of this democracy. Obvi- ously, not all arguments are equal (some are more dominant and pervasive than others, for example). Obviously, I cannot simply select what arguments I like and reject others in some belief buffet. Or, perhaps I can, but in order for them to do any real work—on me, on others, on the discourse—choice is not enough. There are whole histories that come with a particular argument (that make the argument make sense) and politics that dictate its value. To ignore both is to rob the argument of its place in those histories and politics, to rob it, in the end, of its ability to be engaged as more than simply a product to be consumed, as more than simply an idea to be adopted to affirm who and what I already think I am.
To further explore what this different mode of engagement might look like, the fourth chapter takes one kind of meditative practice in self writing and ex- amines it much more closely. Specifically, I argue that imitation is one kind of meditative practice in which the writer must attend closely to the texts of others, test the truths available in those texts, and ultimately be re-constituted in that negotiation. As many rhetoric and composition scholars have pointed out (e.g., Connors and Corbett), imitation may work in a variety of ways: paraphrase, translation, straight copying, etc. In this chapter, I focus on how the practices of imitation can be transformed and made productive according to the ethic of the care of the self: how they encourage attentiveness, make genuine response possible, enable change or transformation, etc. To do so, I examine the ways in which Seneca, Foucault, and Nietzsche make use of the same metaphor (the beehive), referencing each other’s use of the metaphor explicitly, but then consti- tuting the metaphor differently within their own work and, thus, transforming the metaphor, their work, and the self-page relation. One of the most exciting implications of this examination of imitation as a practice in the care of the self is that, despite concerns about assimilation and homogeneity in imitation, the possibilities for the constituting of the subject and for self-transformation seem limited only by the variety and complexities of the truths and contexts that are available to writers for imitation.
historical objectives associated with the professional project. The concept of the professional project suggests that professions, as social collectivities, adopt strategies designed to improve their occupational and financial position through processes of collective action and mobilization. These efforts involve the attempt to translate one set of scarce technical and cultural resources into an institutionalised system of rewards. This has historically included a wide range of tactical initiatives but it has traditionally prioritised the institution of effective closure regimes. Closure guarantees ‘the creation of artificial scarcity, by means of which the theoretically inexhaustible knowledge resource becomes socially finite’ (Larson 1977: 223). Traditionally, the achievement and maintenance of effective closure has guaranteed a profession’s financial privileges and explained its success. In the case of the contemporary legal profession, we have a particular example of the reworking of closure. This reworking is in response to external threats, and in the face of increasing opportunities for professional fee earning only within limited enclaves of professional practice.
An integral step in working with women who have experienced abusive relationships is that of identifying the strengths and resilience that has been established through the experience. Using the vortex of violence one can use that which was identified as being within the vortex and reframe to find new resilience and strengths that have developed through the experience of abuse and trauma. This is in line with strength based practice that suggests that trauma can be a catalyst for growth (Smith, 2006). For example, while working with a client, she identified within the vortex that she had become angry and violent, a well documented phenomenon (Cavanagh, 2003; Worcester, 2002). Having captured this in the early stages, we were then able to explore, challenge and deconstruct this anger and violence to find a positive strength.
DebateGraph and used by an Argumentation Engi- neer, where information processed at one stage gives greater structure for the subsequent stage. In partic- ular, we: harvest and pre-process comments; high- light argument indicators, speech act terminology, epistemic terminology; model topics; and identify domain terminology and relationships. We use con- ceptual semantic search over the corpus to extract sentences relative to argument and domain terminol- ogy. The argument engineer analyses the output and then inputs extracts into the DebateGraph visualisa- tion tool. The novelty of the work presented in this paper is the addition of terminology (domain top- ics and key words, speech act, and epistemic) along with the workflow analysis provided by our indus- trial partner. For this paper, we worked with a corpus of texts bearing on the Scottish Independence vote in 2014; however, the tool is neutral with respect to do- main, since the domain terminology is derived using automatic tools.
Each of these identified areas would require very careful policy guidelines. There is need for capable manpower, technologies, resources for such programmes and projects to be effectively implemented. For example, climate change will badly affect the overall agricultural sector in Bangladesh and thus the question of food security is in real stake. There is a need to take immediate actions to ensure food security for avoiding any unwanted circumstances in future. Problems like health hazards and social protection are other areas which require long-‐term policies. The Draft Disaster Management Act (2008), Draft National Plan for Disaster Management (2008-‐2015) and Draft National Disaster Management Policy (2008) of the GoB outline these issues. However, formulation of policies is not the end but only a step towards dealing with the problem. Effective implementation of plans requires careful operational strategies alongwith provisions for enough resources. Bangladesh does not have the required resources and technological know-‐how to undertake immediate measures towards adaptation and mitigation actions.
On the Bayesian account, it is the specific content of the argument that fixes the key probabilistic quantities involved. At the same time, systematic relationships between argument structure and the values that these quantities can take emerge. Exploration of these relationships has been able to explain, for example, why arguments from ignorance are typically less convincing than corresponding arguments from positive evidence. Formal analysis reveals that across a broad range of possible (and in everyday life plausible) numerical values for both how likely the evidence would be if the claim were true and if it were false, positive arguments are stronger than their corresponding negative counterparts based on the same set of values (Hahn & Oaksford, 2007; Oaksford & Hahn, 2004). In other words, the account seems able to capture both characteristics of particular argument types, and of particular instantiations of these types. Finally, the Bayesian framework, through its interpretation of probabilities as subjective degrees of belief, accords with the general intuition that argumentation contains an element of audience relativity (see Hahn & Oaksford, 2006).
ing Group began a process of building OEP into iTunes U practice and policy, with small but significant changes made to the Curriculum Development collection in iTunes U. This collection of podcasts was assembled from LaTrobe academics and visiting scholars on educational design and policy, and recordings of professional development seminars have been reaching wider audiences since 2009, when the collection was established on iTunes U. In late 2013, the podcast of a seminar by visiting scholar Professor Marcia Devlin on Inclusive Teaching for Low SES Background Students was uploaded to the library digital repository rather than the central marketing server. With the permission of the presenter, a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence was applied to the podcast and slides, with both uploaded to the digital repository as OER (Figure 4). The web link from the repository was then linked to the iTunes U collection with the same Creative Commons licence (see Figure 5).
ABSTRACT: This essay explores new forms of improvisational practice being developed by Iranian musicians in a tradition where the canonic radif repertoire has been central to improvisational practice for more than a century. I focus on the work of two musicians, Amir Eslami (nei) and Hooshyar Khayam (piano), and discuss pieces from their 2010 album All of You (Hermes Records, Iran). This music takes inspiration from the radif but lies outside the radif tradition and differs in important respects from “traditional” forms of improvisation, not least in the discussions that precede performance and in the discursive foregrounding of compositional thinking by the musicians themselves. I ask what the work of these musicians might tell us about the future direction of creative practice in Iranian classical music.
the who and why rather than the how and when. In practice, this prompts us to look more closely at a given individual ’ s or a society ’ s low-carbon initia- tives; are they temporary commitments? Contradict- ing their espoused values? Or are these efforts potentially transformative inasmuch as they seek to replace the framing of industrial growth with one of human – environment wellbeing? Similarly, as vulnera- ble societies seek to build resilience and preemptively adapt to climate change, are they prioritizing eco- nomic functions, communal ways of life or ecosystem integrity? Which actors and institutions are responsi- ble for governing the transformation and why might they seek to steer it in a certain direction? Answering such questions will require consideration of different actors ’ ideas and interests but also the sociocultural peculiarities of their interactions with one another. Without such micropolitical detail descriptions of social change will always tend toward the aggregate, eliding the daily creative con ﬂ ict of actors, networks, and worldviews in favor of broad conclusions about structure, management, and hegemony. Perhaps, the biggest challenge this poses to ST and SE frameworks is the need to look beyond the system. Dissolving the discrete levels and borders of the multilevel perspec- tive or the SE system might open up their actors and institutions to potentially transformational engage- ment with fundamentally alien discourses and practices.
coordinative and convergent is equated with multiple argument- ation. However, the reader should be aware that these two clusters of distinctions are made from different disciplinary perspectives, and therefore cannot be equated. To confuse the dialectical structure with the logical structure of an argumentation is to confuse different things. Some authors have erroneously thought that there is just terminological difference, which is not the case (see for example Walton 1996, pp. 114- 115). The pragma-dialectical paradigm analyzes argument structures from a dialectical perspective, whereas informal logic analyses from a logical perspective. From a pragma-dialectical perspective, argument structures result from various dialogical exchanges aimed at resolving a difference of opinion, whereas from the perspective of informal logic it is the logical relations between the “arguments” (“premises” in the terminology of informal logic) that determine which structure they have. Subordinatively compound argumentation in Pragma-dialectics results from the protagonists effort to overcome doubts or criticism of acceptability, whereas serial argumentation in informal logic holds because the premises lend support to the previous in a serial chain.
Remotely sensed (RS) imagery is increasingly being adopted in investigations and applications outside of traditional land-use land-cover change (LUCC) studies. This is due to the increased awareness by governments, NGOs and Indus- try that earth observation data provide important and useful spatial and temporal information that can be used to make better decisions, design policies and address problems that range in scale from local to global. Additionally, citizens are increasingly adopting spatial analysis into their work as they utilize a suite of readily available geospatial tools. This pa- per examines some of the ways remotely sensed images and derived maps are being extended beyond LUCC to areas such as fire modeling, coastal and marine applications, infrastructure and urbanization, archeology, and to ecological, or infrastructure footprint analysis. Given the interdisciplinary approach of such work, this paper organizes selected stud- ies into broad categories identified above. Findings demonstrate that RS data and technologies are being widely used in many fields, ranging from fishing to war fighting. As technology improves, costs go down, quality increases and data become increasingly available, greater numbers of organizations and local citizens will be using RS in important eve- ryday applications.
First, we are interested in the social entrepreneur which has become a significant and identifiable social persona over the last few decades. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor's (GEM) 2009 Report on Social Entrepreneurship (Terjesen et al. 2012) found that over three percent of people worldwide are involved in social ventures. Murray (2012, p.144) sees social enterprise as “a kind of productive democracy...part of a long-term shift...towards...creating new versions of the economy from below”. At its most basic level, social enterprise is a business model that provides goods or services with an explicit aim to benefit wider society and create innovations geared towards tackling social problems. The addition of a ‘social bottom line’ (Elkington 1997) is a significant normative shift in the narrative of the goals of business with direct material effects. But as a social persona, the social entrepreneur is still vague and highly variable and there is no specific legal definition for a ‘social enterprise’ (Defourny and Nyssens 2006; Corry 2010; Peredo, and McLean, 2006; Bacq and Janssen 2011). Personas exist along a spectrum from dedicated social change agents to socially-conscious profit- seekers. Different types of social enterprise arise from economic necessity, unmet social needs, or a “propaganda of practice” intent on showing that another way is possible (Murray 2012, pp.144–145).
A substantial literature in development economics focuses on structural change where economic de- velopment is characterized by labor reallocation from a contracting agricultural sector to the expanding manufacturing and services sectors. In much of the literature, agriculture is equated with the rural econ- omy, and manufacturing and services with urbanization. Although such dualistic perspectives have been at the center of a large body of literature starting from Lewis (1954), and Kuznets(1973), the more recent work emphasizes the need for a broader framework, beyond the binary conceptualization of dualistic mod- els, to capture the richness of structural change in a developing economy. In the context of rural-urban dualism, a growing literature underscores the fact that the “rural” and “urban” are two polar cases in a broader spectrum, and many geographic and administrative units are better characterized as partially urbanized. A simple yet useful framework that goes beyond the canonical rural-urban dualism is where the focus is on areas that contain a small town surrounded by significant rural population and agricultural activities. Contrary to popular impression of most urban people being crammed into mega-cities, recent evidence shows that a large share of urban population and rural-migrants live in the smaller cities and towns (Ferre, Ferreira and Lanjouw (2010);Christiaensen, De Weerdt and Kanbur (2015)). In the spatial spectrum from metropolitan cities to villages, the small towns occupy a space in the middle in terms of population and employment density. As suppliers of goods and services and destinations of rural workers, the small towns have ties with both metropolitan cities and rural areas- the ties being perhaps closer with the rural areas (Haggblade, Hazell and Reardon (2006)). This paper aims to analyze structural change in employment in a ‘small town economy’ with a focus on the role played by higher agricultural productivity in the surrounding villages.
Each year a vast number of studies are published and aim to assess the impact of various strategies for effectively dis- seminating and implementing clinical practice guidelines. Numerous systematic reviews have been written that eval- uate the effectiveness of these different strategies. Recently, in the most comprehensive review to date, Grimshaw et al. systematically reviewed 235 studies eval- uating the effectiveness and cost of various guideline development, dissemination, and implementation strate- gies . The majority of the studies included in this review used measures of process rather than actual patient out- comes, even though only three of the guidelines were overtly evidence-based. Although there was an improve- ment in process of care for the majority of comparisons reporting dichotomous data (86.6%), the authors found considerable variation in results both within and between included studies. The authors concluded that there is insufficient evidence to determine which guideline dis- semination and implementation strategies are likely to be effective under different circumstances, and highlighted the need for further research.
The input data are fundamental to deploying CDS that it is relevant to the right person, with the right in- formation, and output in the right format, features deemed critical to optimizing CDS . Medication or- ders, laboratory data, problem list and encounter diag- noses codes, and administrative data, for example, can all serve as inputs to a rule process used to generate de- cision support outputs. In some cases, input data will be poorly represented in an EHR system. For example, the USPSTF guideline for gonorrhea requires an assessment of sexual activity, input data that may not be routinely recorded in a structured format within an EHR (al- though virtually all EHRs have the capability of record- ing this information in a coded form, e.g. via the social history tab in the EHR). Theoretically, input data can be obtained directly from patients. Historically, the collec- tion of patient-reported data (PRD) in routine practice has been limited by the operational and logistical chal- lenges associated therewith . Without actionable pa- tient data, the key steps in the translation process (Table 1) are unlikely to occur in a seamless and auto- mated manner. The emergence of web-based technolo- gies will allow for the capture and real time use of structured PRD. However, PRD will not be useful in fa- cilitating translation of CPGs to practice unless data are captured in a reliable, accurate, and actionable form to represent patient experience and can be mapped to existing clinical vocabularies.