Twenty years ago, researchers from the Technical University of Munich attested that seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) technology should be made fully operational as soon as possible. This is to increase efficiency of conventional energy sources. Additionally, substituting them with renewables such as solar requires some form of storage. Apparently, duct systems with vertical heat exchangers could very well be built onto areas with no groundwater or low flow velocities. Technically and economically, it would be most feasible to store heat seasonally in the ground with temperature ranging up to 90 °C. They used an underground duct system to store industrial heat. They managed to reuse 266 MWh/a of the stored 418 MWh/a thermal energy that would have otherwise been lost. The price for this energy was calculated to be close to other energy sources such as liquid gas. (Reuss, Beck & Müller 1997.)
Nonlinear mechanical property of reinforced concrete members in two dimensions has been extensively studied by many researches. Then upgrading of seismic safety assessment system on underground structures in nuclear power stations has been advanced so far. The system has indeed contributed to streamline design practice on two dimensional structures such as ducts and waterways that have the same section in the longitudinal direction. However, the application to three dimensional structures was dealt with as a future subject. Here, three dimensional structures can be found, for example, pump room with walls orthogonal to water flow direction, curve of waterways and section changing part which represents in the connection between waterways and pump room. Although dynamic analysis based on finite element model plays a key role to estimate three-dimensional seismic response, it is essential to reduce the structure model with degrees of freedoms in accordance with that of periphery ground. Therefore, understanding of mechanical property in a macroscopic level of wall member is important. For this purpose, loading test for single walls and simple assemblage of walls was conducted and three dimensional mechanical properties of them were investigated.
After having run our simulation, we will obtain 60 × 60 × 125 values of the thermal con- ductivity distributed on a Cartesian grid (Figures 4 and 5). In this case, we are considering a real thermalresponsetest that was run on an almost homogeneous soil, made by marl and only 1.5 m of clay at the surface. Unfortunately, we do not have cores; we only have the information about the stratigraphy. Our purpose is to check what would happen if we were using this test to dimension six different boreholes located in the same area: would the performance be different in the other five because of the thermal conductivity variabil- ity? Therefore, the dynamic simulation will be run on six boreholes all in the same area; that is why we needed to extract six columns of data from the simulation, which, from now on, will be considered as real data along the borehole.
Recent work published in the accompanying paper used a combination of 3D morphological reconstruction to define optical spread functions and heat transfer physics to study how external heat energy would reach the sensory membrane within the facial pit of pitvipers. The results from all of the species examined indicated asymmetric directional sensitivity, e.g. the pit would preferentially respond to stimuli located below and behind the snake. The present study was intended as a test of these findings through a quantitative neurophysiological analysis of directional sensitivity in the facial pit of the western diamondback rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. An infrared emitter was positioned through a coordinate system (with varying angular orientations and distances) and the response it evoked measured through neurophysiological recordings of a trigeminal nerve branch composed of the afferents from the sensory membrane of the facial pit. Significant differences were found in the strength of the membraneʼs neural response to a constant stimulus presented at different orientations (relative to the facial pit opening) and over different distances. The peak sensitivity (at 12 deg above and 20 deg in front of the facial pit opening) was in good agreement with the predicted directional sensitivities based on optical spread functions and 3D topography. These findings support the hypothesis that the topography, and functional performance, of the facial pit has undergone an adaptive radiation within the pit vipers, and that differences in the behavioral ecology of the pit vipers (i.e. terrestrial versus arboreal) are reflected within the facial pits.
Although in previous validation of the model it was shown to perform well in reproducing the thermal behaviour of the test pile, subsequent work had shown that the inherent simplification of represent- ing the pipes as 1D lines of nodes in the FE mesh might lead to less accurate calculations when pipes are placed very close together (Loveridge and Ceci- nato, 2016). To investigate this potential effect, the numerical model was modified by changing both the FE mesh and the user subroutines, to represent the exchanger pipes in 3D. The scheme adopted in- volves representing each pipe in the pile cross- section with a set of nodes (2, 4 or 8) distributed along the pipe’s circumference, so that each node represents a part of the total pipe surface involved in the heat flux (Figure 6). On the other hand, in the original model a single node represents the whole pipe surface in a pile cross-section.
like DistributedThermalResponseTest (DTRT) associated with line source evaluation. Moreover, it is advised to compare the results given by an infinite and a finite line source method in order to evaluate the impact of finite length effects: even if in the foregoing these seem to affect only the long term behaviour of the borehole, according to Signorelli et al., , these could be detected in the short term too. TRT is not usually done for smaller installations for economic reasons; it is anyway preferable a method that would allow to avoid oversizing in this case too. The only way to achieve this is of course lower the cost of the test itself, making it convenient. The duration of the test cannot be decreased significantly as it has an intrinsic lower limit; it can be at most optimized by means of techniques such as the diagnostic plots. GSHPs are usually made for new built buildings as they work well with low temperature heating systems. Considering that the major expense for a TRT is the borehole perforation, it is reasonable to think about an integration between geotechnical and thermal surveys.
There is an unmet clinical need for novel therapies in each of these three cancer entities, with the targeting of the Wnt pathway representing a potentially useful strategy. However, a greater understanding of the effect of Wnt signalling modulation is required. In this study we revealed that both Wnt inhibition and hyper-activation are therapeutically valid approaches to neuroblastoma, once high levels of modulation are achieved, with each resulting in distinct beneficial outcomes. We also report numerous novel functional interactions between the MYCN and Wnt pathways. In line with the rapid advance of precision medicine in clinical oncology , to help potentially assist future treatment decisions we also used our functional transcriptomic readouts to inform the construction of a β-catenin gene signature predictive of neuroblastoma patient outcome. Finally, we extended our findings to show that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is not just a bi-directional vulnerability of neuroblastoma cells, but also of malignant melanoma and even β-catenin driven colorectal cancer cells.
miRNAs on T-cell-mediated anti-cancer immunity, the miRNAs may produce an overall net anti-cancer or net pro-cancer effects. Preclinical trials show lots of miRNAs with significantly potential in cancer therapy, but these data are mainly from miRNAs-modulated tumor cells using in vitro and immunocompromised xenograft models, and eliminate the effects of miRNAs to T-cell-mediated anti- cancer immune response. To then end, we strongly recom- mend the use of immunocompetent mouse models in preclinical trials of potential miRNA therapeutics to give consideration to our body immune system and cancer cells themselves. Therefore, identified and dissected the miRNAs crossing both T-cell immunity and cancer cell growth is of the utmost importance, as there is currently plenty of excitement in the administration of exogenous miRNAs mimics and miRNAs inhibitors for controlling cancer growth. Such studies may be necessary and urgent in driving miRNA-based therapeutics from preclinical trials to clinical practice.
To test whether the best-first approach compensates for C LAVIUS ’ looser constraints (§1.2), a simple bottom-up multichart parser ( § 1.1) was constructed and the average number of edges it produces on sentences of varying length was measured. Figure 8 compares this against the average number of edges produced by C LAVIUS on the same data. In particular, although C LAVIUS generally finds the parse it will accept relatively quickly (‘C LAVIUS - found’),
The bidirectional dc-dc converter is also called a buck- boost converter. This converter has the capability of making the input DC voltage to boost or buck depending on the Pulse Width Modulation and switching. The conversion of the voltage may occur in any direction. Either from buck to boost or from boost to buck, any type of conversion can be done by varying the modulation index. That is why this type of converter is needed in electric vehicles; plug in hybrid vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. Bi-directional converters may reduce the cost; it may improve efficiency and also improves the performance of the system. In the electric vehicle applications, an auxiliary energy storage battery absorbs the regenerated energy fed back by the electric machine. With the ability to reverse the direction of the current and power flow of the system, the bidirectional dc-dc converters are being used vastly to achieve power transfer between two dc power sources in either direction.
Abstract— An experimental system for the speed and direction control of brushed DC motor using a microcontroller has been developed successfully. The speed control of the DC motor is achieved using standard PWM techniques in a sensor-less closed loop feedback control fashion. Motor functions such as start-stop, forward and reverse direction and speed increment and decrement are controlled through keyboard commands. The control software for the microcontroller is written in Assembly language. The present paper discusses the experimental system and the test results.
the 2 mm of separation. Therefore, both the load at 2 mm of separation and maximum load achieved before 2 mm of separation were recorded. Also recorded was the load required to completely cause the specimen to fail (this might have occurred after 2 mm of separation) and the type of rupture. The type of failure was classified as suture failure, knot slippage, or tissue simulant failure. The data was recorded in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. In the spreadsheet, the mean, standard deviation, and other descriptive statistics were calculated. One-way ANOVA was performed on the data, using α = 0.05 in order to identify significant differences among the different types of sutures under test.
Abstract: In industrial applications, rotatory motions and torques are often needed. State-of-the-art actuators are based on either combustion engines, electro-motors, hydraulic, or pneumatic machines. The main disadvantages are the construction space, the high weight, and a large amount of needed peripheral devices. To overcome these limitations, compact and light-weight actuator systems can be built by using shape memory alloys (SMAs), which are known for their superior energy density. In this paper, the development of a scalable bi-directional rotational actuator based on SMA wires is presented. The scalability was based on a modular design, which allowed the actuator to be adapted to various application specifications by customizing the rotational angle and the output torque. On the mechanical side, each module enabled a small rotatory motion, which added up to the total angle of the actuator. The SMA wires were arranged in an agonist-antagonist configuration to provide active rotation in both directions. The presented prototype achieved a total rotation of 100 ◦ . The modularity of the mechanical concept is also reflected in the electronics, which is discussed in this paper as well. This consideration allows the electronics to be adapted to the mechanics with minimal changes. As a result, a prototype, including the presented mechanical and electronic design, is reported in this study.
O-cells have been placed within these piles, plunging the reinforcing cage and test assemblies to depths of up to 50 m. Utilising a modified O-cell assembly design to facilitate plunging the entire cage into the wet grout/concrete, O-cells of significant cross sectional area with respect to the pile diameter, have been used. Table 1 illustrates limits of the geometries employed so far.
Abstract In this paper, we present a novel approach to keyframe-based tracking, called bi-directional tracking. Given two object templates in the beginning and end- ing keyframes, the bi-directional tracker outputs the MAP (Maximum A Posterior) solution of the whole state se- quence of the target object in the Bayesian framework. First, a number of 3D trajectory segments of the object are extracted from the input video, using a novel trajectory seg- ment analysis. Second, these disconnected trajectory seg- ments due to occlusion are linked by a number of inferred occlusion segments. Last, the MAP solution is obtained by trajectory optimization in a coarse-to-fine manner. Exper- imental results show the robustness of our approach with respect to sudden motion, ambiguity, and short and long pe- riods of occlusion.
The aim of this work is the thermal design of a modular direct liquid cooled package for 1200V–35A SiC power MOSFETs, in order to take full advantage of the high power density and high frequency performance of these devices, in the development of a modular integrated solution for power converters. An accurate electro-thermal fluid dynamic model is set up and validated by thermal characterization on a prototype; numerical models have been used to study the internal temperature distribution and to propose further optimization.
Bidirectional training 11 (BIT) phase is used in the beginning of each
TDD frame to speed up the convergence of the iterative algorithms A number of blocks of pilots are alternately transmitted in the downlink and the uplink