Top PDF Bibliometrics Research on Immune of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Bibliometrics Research on Immune of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Bibliometrics Research on Immune of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Both the quantity and quality of publications were measured to evaluate the contributions of different countries and regions. A total of 4152 articles from 1995 to 2018 met the search criteria. After screening, a total of 4005 articles are available for analysis. We can see that TCM-Immune related articles have increased rapidly in recent years from Figure 1 A. Figure 1 B shows the trend of publications in five countries with the largest number of articles on TCM-Immune in recent years. China has the fastest growth and the largest number of papers since 2011. Although the number of papers issued by the United States, South Korea, India, and Japan has increased, there is still a big gap with China in this field, which may be related to national history, the cultural background and so on. The above-detailed information is shown in Table 1. People R China had the first place when ranking for the number of publications (1408, 35.16%), followed by USA (763, 19.05%) and the South Korea (313, 7.82%). The USA had the most citations with a number of 25158. People R China ranked 2nd with the citation number of 19154.
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Effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine in treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome: 2004–2014

Effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine in treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome: 2004–2014

Substantial progress has been made in China in using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Our objective was to review the latest developments in TCM treatment of AIDS in China between 2004 and 2014. We reviewed the content of original articles investigating the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS published in Chinese and English language journals. Relevant references from 2004 to 2014 were found using PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database. We found that TCM has been widely used for treating AIDS and its complications in China. The number of TCM studies has increased, which indicates efficacy and safety. Measures of efficacy in the reviewed articles included the alleviation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related signs and symptoms, improvements in quality of life, improvements in long-term survival, counteraction of the adverse side effects of antiviral drugs, promotion of immune reconstitution, and improvement of laboratory results. In sum, the literature indicates that TCM is safe. TCM plays an important role in the treatment of AIDS. Some studies have attempted to measure the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS, but more evidence is needed. Therefore, more research on this topic is required in the future.
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Try to Apply T Cell Receptor Repertoire Diversity Detection for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Research of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Try to Apply T Cell Receptor Repertoire Diversity Detection for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Research of Traditional Chinese Medicine

for application of the technical approach embracing the concept of TCR repertoire diversity into research of AIDS with TCM treatment, due to little report in China. The results of calculation positive detection rate, including 53% positive patterns for TCR-β Tube A, 70% positive for TCR-β Tube B, and 98%positive for TCR-β Tube C, were suggestive of change in diversity pre-TCM and post-TCM. Nevertheless, owing to little reference, it is currently unclear that whether or not reliable the data is to elucidate the mechanism of TCM treatment on AIDS. In the near future, we intend to detect more and more samples to define the variation trend. Additionally, establishing a cohort research to long-term observation, analyzing the correlation to the level of CD 4 + T cells and viral load, and discussing the
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<p>Effect and Molecular Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Tumor Targeting Tumor-Associated Macrophages</p>

<p>Effect and Molecular Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Tumor Targeting Tumor-Associated Macrophages</p>

Many studies have demonstrated that chronic in fl ammation has an important functional effect on the tumor microenvir- onment. Immune cells constitute a part of the tumor immu- nosuppressive microenvironment (TIM), which is related to immunologic function, angiogenesis and lymphangiogen- esis in tumors, and could promote tumor progression. Therefore, researchers have regarded the TIM as a promising target for tumor treatment and have thought TCM treatment could potentially enhance tumor immune responses in the TIM. 101 MHC class I molecules have the capacity to kill tumor cells by activating cytotoxic lympho- cytes (CTLs) and launching a sequence of cytolysis reac- tions; MHC class II molecules have the ability to induce a cellular-mediated immune response by presenting tumor antigens to CD4+T helper cells. However, immune cells and malignant cells in the TIM downregulate the expression of MHC class I molecules and upregulate the expression of nonclassical human leukocyte antigen (HLA), which is related to poor prognosis in cancer patients. Studies have proven that TCM, eg, Invigorating Spleen and Detoxi fi cation Decoction (ISD), can enhance the expression of both MHC class I and MHC class II molecules to pro- mote the immune response. 102 TCM induces apoptosis in tumor cells via the Fas/FasL pathway, which is known as an important immune regulatory pathway. FasL overexpression is related to the promotion of tumor cell immune escape, and tumor cells rarely express Fas or express nonfunctional Fas. 103 The TCM treatment Yang Wei Kang Liu Granule (YWKL) has the ability to increase the expression level of FasL and reduce the expression level of Fas, which results in tumor cell apoptosis. Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) partici- pate in promoting the formation of the TIM and prevent antitumor responses because they express low quantities of immune recognition molecules and costimulatory mole- cules. Investigations have shown that TCM may attenuate the oncogenicity of CSCs; for example, bufalin could inhibit the proliferation of CSCs, 104 and Huaier (Trametes robinio- phila Murr.) aqueous extract could downregulate the Wnt/ β - catenin pathway to inhibit the self-renewal of CSCs. 105
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Original Article Flora regulation of BuzhongYiqi decoction in patients with food allergies after surgery for anal fistula

Original Article Flora regulation of BuzhongYiqi decoction in patients with food allergies after surgery for anal fistula

In clinical practice, delayed wound healing after surgery for anal fistula often occurs in patients with immune dysfunction. Especially in patients with food allergy, wound healing is significantly delayed. Whether delayed wound healing is related to the types and composition of micro- organisms in the wound is still unclear. In the present study, anal fistula patients with or with- out food allergy were recruited to investigate the relationship between wound microorgan- isms and wound healing after surgery for anal fistula. According to the Traditional Chinese Medicine, weakness of the spleen and the stomach and deficiency of Qi and blood are the major cause of delayed wound healing. Thus, in the present study, BuzhongYiqi Decoction (BYD), a classic Traditional Chinese Medicine, was used in these patients. It has been con- firmed that BYD is able to regulate the immune function, exert antibiotic effect on Helicobacter pylori in mice [9], inhibit the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells [10], regulate the inflammation in allergic asthma mice [11], exert anti-aging in mice [12] and inhibit IgE secretion in mice [13]. Metagenomics based on the IlluminaSolexa high-throughput sequencing platform was employed to investigate the dif- ference in the bacterial flora between patients with and without BYD treatment.
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Progress on Research for the Treatment of HIV/AIDS with Traditional Chinese Medicine in China

Progress on Research for the Treatment of HIV/AIDS with Traditional Chinese Medicine in China

In order to implement the State Council “Four Frees and One Care” policy, a pilot project named the “National Free Treating HIV/AIDS with TCM Program” was launched by the State Administration of Traditional Chi- nese Medicine on August 2004. By the end of October 2010, 14,244 HIV/AIDS patients have been treated with TCM in 19 provinces. Wang et al. [43] collected data from 8946 HIV/AIDS patients treated with TCM, and the results showed that TCM treatment was effective in re- lieving symptoms such as fever, asthenia, shortness of breath, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and skin rashes, of which the improvement of asthenia was the most signifi- cant. The CD4 count in the asymptomatic period which treated with TCM decreased by an average rate of about 12/mm 3 /year, less than the average natural rate of 30 - 50/mm 3 /year[44], whereas that of the AIDS patients which treated with HAART and TCM increased with time. TCM therapy is able to enhance and stabilize the immune function, improve the symptoms and signs, and improve the QoL.
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Safety in Chinese Medicine Research

Safety in Chinese Medicine Research

Safety of drugs is a common concern, regardless of traditional Chinese medicine or Western medicine. Historical ex- periences tell us that ignored drug safety evaluation would lead to serious consequences. Although Chinese medicine has been used for thousands of years, re-evaluation of the safety is still very important. The criteria for safety of Chi- nese herbal medicines should be the same as those for chemical drugs. Many Chinese herbal medicines have a long his- tory of traditional use. However, many of them do not possess proven safety and efficacy by today’s standards. Well- designed randomized controlled trials and comprehensive pre-clinical toxicological studies were not done. Although the lack of such evidence does not absolutely count against the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbs, laboratory and clinical investigations are still needed before the herbs could be considered safe. This paper reviews the evaluation on the safety of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
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Translational Chinese Medicine: A Way for Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Translational Chinese Medicine: A Way for Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine

In the United States, a Phase I study of PHY906 in com- bination with capecitabine was conducted in patients wi- th advanced pancreatic cancer [8] and a similar Phase I/II study of PHY906 in combination with capecitabine in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were conduct- ed [9]. Phytomics quality control is a characteristic meth- odology adopted, which combines chemical analysis, bioresponse analysis, and animal pharmacology to deter- mine batch-to-batch reproducibility [9]. Formula is the major method and final carrier for TCM pricription. The safety of formula is a case involving human life and thus should to be treated with the utmost care. So, we propose a new concept “formulomics”, a strategy similar to phy- tomics with strict quality control and established clinical efficacy. It is a unified platform integrating: 1) standard extraction process with fixed material basis; 2) exact treatment effects with information-rich bioresponse fin- gerprints; 3) clear target based on absorbed bioactive compound (ABC) [10] and regulatory mechanism based on statistical pattern comparisons; and 4) compatibility mechanism of major ingredients based on immunoaffin- ity Chromatography [11,12]. The research model is diff- erent from phytomics that it includes all classic TCM formulae; not only phyto-derived formulae and it would study the compatibility mechanism. Those classic formu- lae, especially formulae from “Treatise on Febrile Disea- ses” and “Synopsis of Golden Chamber”, are of choice for formulomics research. It is an open platform and a translational medicine strategy to translate the classic formulae of TCM into new clinical drugs. It focuses on quality control and efficacy evaluation for it’s the most important factors for the standardization of TCM [13]. 4.3. Reaffirm the Efficacy of TCM with EBM
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Establishing an EU-China consortium on traditional Chinese medicine research

Establishing an EU-China consortium on traditional Chinese medicine research

WP4 established evaluation criteria for scoring scientific articles and began the creation of an appropriate data- base of literature encompassing functional genomic applications in CHM research. WP5 performed reviews on CHM literature involving animal models, especially models of cancer and its conclusions have laid a solid foundation for further literature analysis on application of functional genomics in CHM research and proposing good practice in animal studies of CHM. WP6 gathered literature on seminal studies in clinical CHM studies and drafted a guideline on clinical trials of CHM. WP6 and WP8 collaboratively designed an online survey tar- geting TCM practitioners and the survey is currently undergoing in collaboration with 30 professional acu- puncture and TCM organisations. WP7 brought together wide-ranging experiences and expertise in drug development and registration from Europe, China, Aus- tralia and North America to discuss the legislative and regulatory issues relevant to CHM. Together they are developing a comprehensive document providing com- parisons of different practices on CHM regulations and this will be extremely helpful for the EU to develop its Table 1 GP-TCM beneficiary members
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The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine

The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great international interest. Recently, a new era for modernisation of TCM was launched with the successful completion of the Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era (GP-TCM) project, the European Union ’ s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action on TCM research. This 3.5-year project that involved inputs from over 200 scientists resulted in the production of 20 editorials and in-depth reviews on different aspects of TCM that were published in a special issue of Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2012; volume 140, issue 3). In this narrative review, we aim to summarise the findings of the FP7 GP-TCM project and highlight the relevance of TCM to modern medicine within a historical and international context. Advances in TCM research since the 1950s can be characterised into three phases: Phase I (1950s-1970s) was fundamental for developing TCM higher education, research and hospital networks in China; Phase II (1980s-2000s) was critical for developing legal, economic and scientific foundations and international networks for TCM; and Phase III (2011 onwards) is concentrating on consolidating the scientific basis and clinical practice of TCM through interdisciplinary, interregional and intersectoral collaborations. Taking into account the quality and safety requirements newly imposed by a globalised market, we especially highlight the scientific evidence behind TCM, update the most important milestones and pitfalls, and propose integrity, integration and innovation as key principles for further modernisation of TCM. These principles will serve as foundations for further research and development of TCM, and for its future integration into tomorrow ’ s medicine.
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Development of models for classification of action between heat-clearing herbs and blood-activating stasis-resolving herbs based on theory of traditional Chinese medicine

Development of models for classification of action between heat-clearing herbs and blood-activating stasis-resolving herbs based on theory of traditional Chinese medicine

The strategy of studying the relationship between TCM-HP and action have changed over the past decades. TCM-HP can not only be limited to a single property, but also need to be considered as a whole [6]. An Apri- ori algorithm was employed for producing association rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy [7]. However, the confirmed 120 result- ing rules were dispersed and single property research could hardly characterize the whole effects of TCM. Hence the four fundamental characters, five fundamental tastes, and meridians need to be as a whole. Only in this way could we reveal the relationship between action and herbal property [8]. Multidimensional property of TCM is inherent basis of multiple action and is a collection of many herbal properties that determine the characteristics for efficiency of TCM [6]. Subsequently, property combi- nation patterns for TCM [9–11] were proposed to reveal the relationship of TCM-HP and action from a holistic view of TCM.
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Health-seeking behaviours and use of traditional Chinese medicine among the British Chinese

Health-seeking behaviours and use of traditional Chinese medicine among the British Chinese

Copyright and reuse: City Research Online aims to make research outputs of City, University of London available to a wider audience. Copyright and Moral Rights remain with the author(s) and/or copyright holders. URLs from City Research Online may be freely distributed and linked to.

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Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy on Acute Pancreatitis Treated with Combination of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine: A Meta Analysis

Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy on Acute Pancreatitis Treated with Combination of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine: A Meta Analysis

Acute pancreatitis, as an inflammatory reaction, could activate pancreatic en- zymes in the pancreas and lead to pancreatic tissue autodigestion, edema, he- morrhage and even necrosis. Clinical features of the disease are acute epigastric pain, nausea, vomit, fever and aberrant serum trypsin. Different period patients have different symptoms. The mild symptoms are mainly showed in pancreatic edema and owned to self-limited trait. While pancreatic hemorrhage necrosis, secondary infection, peritonitis and shock are common in severe acute pancrea- titis. Therefore, acute pancreatitis was regarded as a critical and high mortality disease in the Department of Digestive Medicine. It caused to pay enough atten- tion to this disease by clinicians. Meanwhile, international guidelines have rec- ommended clearly the treatment of internal medicine for acute pancreatitis. At present, the routine diagnosis and treatment of western medicine has formed a mature treatment plan, such as fasting, PPI, somatostatin, ulinastatin, intraven- ous nutrition, and so on. Chinese clinicians and researchers found that the effec- tive rate of the treatment was significantly improved after taking orally/decoction with Qingyi soup on the basis of western medicine treatment. Qingyi Decoction is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription composed of Radix Bupleurum, Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix and Rhizoma et al. , which has the effect of soothing the liver and regulating qi, clearing heat and detoxifying, and removing stasis by purgation. Meanwhile, many clinicians and researchers have explored relative merits in the treatment of acute pancreatitis with combination of tradi- tional Chinese and western medicine and simple treatment of acute pancreatitis via randomized double-blind controlled experiments. The effective rate of com- bination of traditional Chinese and western medicine in treating acute pancrea- titis was significantly superior to single western medicine
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The research advance on modern detoxification drug research methods

The research advance on modern detoxification drug research methods

Many doctors studied on the "poison", they not only thought "poison" as the cause, but also thought that it can be used as the pathogenesis. Almost "poison" caused by the disease, there are two mains: the first, from the outside feelings such as direct invasion of warm toxin; the second is the deficiency of Yang or Yin and the disorders of seven emotions send the fire from the inside of health , which obstructed from poison [2]. A concept of Poison not only has material properties, but also has a concept of Pathology property. The concept of toxin is divided into broad sense and narrow sense: narrowly poison is as a special kind of risk factors, such as sugar poison, fat poison, food poisoning, insects drugs and other poisoning. Generalized poison is referred to a concept in the dual attributes of the etiology and pathogenesis. "Poison" is a general term for a class of pathogenic substances, which can be divided into external and internal toxic [3]. Poison is a or a class of pathogenic factors included external and internal of poison, poison is a kind of pathogens in a natural resource, nevertheless endotoxin is accumulated by the evil [4]. Referring to the performance of the ancient medicine in generalized drug toxicity. "Zhou Li. Tian Guan" existing professional "palmed Doctor's decree, pooled poison for pharmacy," said the Western Zhou Dynasty 2,500 years ago. Chinese medicine toxicity grading is peculiar "medicine poison" theory in our country and is also China's traditional medicine for drug toxicity and scientific application of human knowledge to which is a key initiative and a contribution. In ancient times, there was a diversity of drug toxicity grading, such as "Su Wen. Wu Chang Zheng Da
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Nine traditional Chinese herbal formulas for the treatment of depression: an ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology review

Nine traditional Chinese herbal formulas for the treatment of depression: an ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology review

Abstract: Depression is a major mental disorder, and is currently recognized as the second-leading cause of disability worldwide. However, the therapeutic effect of antidepressants remains unsatisfactory. For centuries, Chinese herbal formulas (CHFs) have been widely used in the treatment of depression, achieving better therapeutic effects than placebo and having fewer side effects than conventional antidepressants. Here, we review the ethnopharmacology, phy- tochemistry, and pharmacology studies of nine common CHFs: “banxia houpo” decoction, “chaihu shugansan”, “ganmaidazao” decoction, “kaixinsan”, “shuganjieyu” capsules, “sinisan”, “wuling” capsules, “xiaoyaosan”, and “yueju”. Eight clinical trials and seven meta-analyses have supported the theory that CHFs are effective treatments for depression, decreasing Hamilton Depression Scale scores and showing few adverse effects. Evidence from 75 preclinical studies has also elucidated the multitarget and multipathway mechanisms underlying the antidepres- sant effect of the nine CHFs. Decoctions, capsules, and pills all showed antidepressant effects, ranked in descending order of efficacy. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, these CHFs have flexible compatibility and mainly act by soothing the liver and relieving depression. This review highlights the effective treatment choices and candidate compounds for patients, practitioners, and researchers in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. In summary, the current evidence supports the efficacy of CHFs in the treatment of depression, but additional large-scale randomized controlled clinical trials and sophisticated pharmacology studies should be performed.
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Traditional Chinese medicine physicians’ insights into inter professional tensions between traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine: a critical perspective

Traditional Chinese medicine physicians’ insights into inter professional tensions between traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine: a critical perspective

between the orthodox versus the non-orthodox, the have-access-to-discourse versus the have-not, the have-right-to-use-technology versus the have-no-right, the in-group of national healthcare financial plans versus the out-group, and the leader in decision making and research versus the follower. Extensions of the dichotomized frames of biomedicine vis-à-vis TCM help perpetuate biomedical dominance in two circular steps: first, discrediting and labeling on claims and beliefs that differ from the biomedical standard such that their validity in discursive spaces is weakened and, second, using the misrepresented frames and appraisals to take away resources. Through this dichotomization process, TCM’s focus on experiential knowledge is bundled with negative value judgments such as being non-scientific, non-objective, and anti-technology. The negative framing subsequently influences the allocation of resources and enforces the marginalization of TCM. Inasmuch as the extended dichotomous frames continue, TCM practitioners are trapped between two options. They can subscribe to biomedical epistemology to secure resources and retain opportunities for collaboration, but by doing so they accept an inferior position in relation to biomedicine, or they can choose to resist biomedical ideology and use whatever resources remain to provide services and develop the discipline. Either way, the marginalization of TCM is continued.
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Review in traditional chinese medicine for stroke therapy

Review in traditional chinese medicine for stroke therapy

Wen Dan Decoction (WDD) documented as early as 652 AD (TangDynasty), is one of famous TCM prescriptions for recovery of patients from many illness. The WDD prescription includes Banxia (Pinellia ternata), Shengjiang (Ginger), Zhuru(Bamboo shavings), Zhishi (Unripe bitter orange), Chenpi(Tangerine peel) and Gancao (Licorice root). All the six herbsare were recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. Papers about clinical studies of WDD have often been published in Chinese journals which are not widely read and not highly understood. Hereby, Jia Hua Xu provided the existing clinical evidence of WDD for ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. 16 Wen Dan Decoction treatment could improve neurological functional deficit score of stroke due to either ischemia, hemorrhage or both. The single prescrition Wen Dan Decoction shows potential efficacy for both ischemic stroke and hemorrhagics stroke, validating the important character of dual modulation by TCM. The dual action is targeting on restoring inner homeostasis. 17 The role of WDD relies on the modulation of Qi Energy. On the one hand, WDD could stimulate Qi Energy to accelerate blood circulation and improve removing the stasis associated with ischemic stroke. On the other hand, the WDD induced Qi Energy might maintain the blood within the cerebral arteries and so stop bleeding and stable the atherosclerotic plaquesin hemorrhagic stroke. 18 So WDD has long been considered as Qi-tonifying TCM for restoring homeostasis with new therapeutic potentials in cerebrovascular accidents. Which means WDD is efficient for stroke.
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Western constitutional medicine: a primer

Western constitutional medicine: a primer

In China, while it has always been part of the theory of TCM, the constitution theory was first proposed in the late 1970s with the first monographs being published in the early 1980s (12). A preliminary system for sorting different physiques was developed during the centuries based on individual's complexion, stature (fat or thin), temperament (brave or cowardice), emotion-thought, age, yin-yang and Five Elements (Wu Xing in Chinese) (48). Interestingly, up until the Qing dynasty, when the technical word of Ti Zhi (body constitution) first formally appeared, there existed only six different constitutional types with relative methods of classification as described in the medical treatise written at that time by Tianshi Ye (49). This matches the initial formalization proposed by Kuang in the late 1970s into six types consisting of balanced, pale, chilly, red, sticky and static types before other classification systems were developed (12).
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Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet?

Biodiversity, traditional medicine and public health: where do they meet?

It is well established that TM plays a crucial role in health care for a large part of the population living in developing countries. In fact, for centuries, TM was the only health care system available to the prevention and treatment of diseases in different cultures. The interfaces among public health, TM and biodiversity conservation encompass a number of relevant and contemporary issues which are becoming increasingly apparent, as exemplified by WHO's goal in medicines: "to help save lives and improve health by ensuring the quality, efficacy, safety and rational use of medicines, including traditional medicines, and by promoting equitable and sustainable access to essential medicines, particularly for the poor and disadvantaged". The formal recognition and respect that major traditional medicinal systems around the world are gaining [92], allied to the extensive practice of traditional medicine in developing countries and the rapidly growing demand for alternative and basic therapeutic means (also in industri- alized countries) constitute the international relevancy of research and development in the field of traditional drugs [93]. Moreover, there is a growing recognition that knowl- edge of TM is important not only because of its potential to discover new treatments, but also because of its socioe- conomic, conservationist and cultural components. As pointed out by Bodeker and Kronenberg [94], public health researchers must lead the development of a research agenda that considers social, cultural, political and economic contexts, to maximize the potential contri- bution of TM to healthcare systems globally.
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Effect of Radix Stemonae concentrated decoction on the lung tissue pathology and inflammatory mediators in COPD rats

Effect of Radix Stemonae concentrated decoction on the lung tissue pathology and inflammatory mediators in COPD rats

Microplate reader (Labsystems microplate reader, MK3), pipette (Pipetman, Gilson P), paraffin slicer (Leica, RM2235), water bath (Leica, HI1210), drying apparatus (Leica, HI1220 horizontal drying type), embedding machine (Changzhou Zhongwei Electronic Instrument Factory, BMJ-111), image analysis system (OLYMPUS, BX51), animal lung function detector (provided by the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shuguang Hospital Attached to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, BioSystem XA SFT3410), electronic scales (Shanghai Precision and Scientific Instrument Co., Ltd., HANGPING FA1004N), optical microscope (OLYMPUS, BX41TF), tray electronic analytical balance (Shimadzu Corporation, AY220), electrically heated thermostatic water bath (Sumsung Laboratory Instrument Co., Ltd., DK-SD).
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