Abstract For authors to publish their research papers in peer-reviewed journals, it is important to provide a clear rationale for their study, have a strong methodology, interpret their findings effectively, and highlight the contribution of their study to existing literature. However strong these aspects of content may be, it is nonetheless authors’ language and communication competence that influence whether or not the message is conveyed to readers successfully. To this end, authors need to be meticulous in sentence construction. Varying sentence complexity is one important consideration in this respect. Although relative clauses play a significant role in sentence complexity, they have received relatively limited attention from researchers investigating academic writing. This case study is an attempt to identify how authors in humanities and socialsciences use relative clauses in their research articles. To this end, we investigated their use in research papers in five journals. Our corpus was comprised of 22,801 running words. Data revealed that relative clauses accounted for 40% of the total number of sentences in the corpus. They were more commonly used in the introduction and discussion & conclusion sections. Reduced relative clauses were also generally more common than full relative clauses, with comparatively frequent use in the results section. We also found that the active voice was more dominant than the passive voice in relative clauses in all sections except the methodology, discussion and conclusion sections. We discuss the results from the perspective of transitivity, and offer some recommendations.
The stability of the publication patterns and their differences within the SSH indicate that the choice of language and publication type is not just a question of new trends versus old traditions. Publication patterns are more deeply rooted in scholarly norms, methods and practices. The monograph, the edited book and the journal article represent different methodologies that may all need to be used at different times. The choice of language depends on the international scholarly relevance of the research versus the societal rele- vance for the culture and society being studied. One and the same research project may well contribute with different parts to both dimensions. As mentioned in the introduction, the SSH would lose their raison d’eˆtre by disconnecting from the surrounding culture and society and mainly communicating in international journals that are only read by peers abroad. At the same time, publishing in those specialized journals on the international level is necessary in order to be confronted with and inspired by the scholarly standards, critical discussions and new developments among other experts in the field.
Note: The Masterate thesis in Media Studies is designed to provide training for and to test the following range of skills: defining an area of research, formulating a question for investigation, developing a sustained and coherent argument, synthesising various forms of data, commenting analytically on material used, meeting the formal requirements of the genre(s) in which results are presented, and furnishing scholarly documentation. The results of the research may be partially embodied in the form of an artistic work. Midwifery (no new enrolments from 2011)
Abstract Every human activity utilizes time, but time is limited in. This means that the supply of time is perfectly inelastic and due to its nature, need for optimal utilization of time is imperative. Therefore, the timely completion of construction projects is considered one of the most important factors referring to project success. The literature reviewed in this paper is on time-cost optimization of Kenya government construction projects delivery by the Kenya Roads Board. The objectives of the literature review include finding out the time-cost optimization techniques used by Kenya Roads Board for the delivery of the government construction projects, examining how the construction time and Cost Management affects the delivery of Kenya government construction projects by the Kenya Roads Board, establishing the relationship between time and cost on the delivery of Kenya government construction projects by the Kenya Roads Board and identifying the time-cost optimization challenges affecting the delivery of Kenya government construction projects by the Kenya Roads Board. The theories that inform this study include system theory, Pareto Principle and the Triple Constraint Theory. The proposed study will apply a descriptive survey design which is deemed appropriate for this research because it can be used to obtain information concerning the current status of events and to describe what exists with respect to variables or conditions in a unique situation. The findings literature review established that the common causes of time and cost overruns in government construction projects is the incompetence of contractors before, lack of client’s commitment to finance projects in timely manner, owing to the outdated procurement processes utilized and corruption on the part of officers involved. The common techniques used in the time-cost optimization for construction projects include PERT, genetic algorithm, Critical Path Method. There are little attempts which have been made with regards to the time-cost optimization in Kenyan government road construction projects. Hence, there is need for a study to be done to examine the time-cost optimization in Kenyan government road construction projects.
Firstly, the intellectual team builds scientific arguments which make an important contribution in planning, reviewing and completing the Party's lines and policies, the State's policies and laws. The sixth Congress of the Party officially adopted the comprehensive renovation policy of the country. The line has been constantly improved and supplemented in the Party's resolutions and documents for over thirty years. It is truly the crystallization of the intellect and creativity of our entire Party and people, including significant contributions from intellectuals in all fields of economics, political, culture and social life. Comprehensive renovation of the country is really a revolution, an indispensable requirement, requiring the Party to gather and promote all resources, especially in context of the current Industrial Revolution 4.0. When formulating directions and strategies for national development in the renovation period, the Party has correctly assessed the role of scientific knowledge, which is a scientific basis for properly evaluating the role and position of national intellectuals in the new era. The sixth Congress of the Party affirmed that for the intellectuals, the most important thing is to guarantee creative freedom. Assessing the capacity and creating conditions for the capacity to be used properly and developed (see ). The affirmation and appreciation of the role of the intellectual staff in the renovation period has been agreed throughout the Party’s General Meetings and Conferences on education and training, science and technology. The twelfth Congress of the Party held in January 2016 affirmed that developing and implementing a policy of training, retraining, utilizing, treating and honoring science and technology staff, especially those who are good experts have many contributions. Creating favorable environment and material conditions for science and technology staff to develop with talents and enjoy benefits worthy of the value of their creative labor. Practicing democracy, respect and uphold the freedom of thought in scientists' research, creation, consultancy and critic activities (see ). During the renovation period, many intellectuals were directly involved in the preparation of decisions of the Party and State. Many useful comments have helped in making strategic and policy-making more accurate. In the atmosphere of democratic activities of the country, the activities of the intellectual team have had many innovations. The Party and the State encourage discussion, get comments to provide theoretical explanations and practical, feasible, and most appropriate practical solutions. Therefore, in building and perfecting the platform, guidelines, policies, laws, and planning the socio-economic development
The profile here uses data from the two ERA audits (2010 and 2012), which assessed the quality of Australian university research against world standards. The National Report for each exercise provides comprehensive, detailed disciplinary profiles, so the purpose here is to contextualise those results. It is important to note that the ERA data does not provide us with the full picture at the level of the individual institution; it is not possible to correlate ERA ratings with institutional investment. It is also important to note that it is not possible to directly correlate the various performance indicators—that is, research income data, performance in NCGP, and ERA performance; as a result it is difficult to examine how the various components of the research and innovation system contribute to the overall outcomes. To start with the indicators of scale, Table 3.20 shows number of Units of Evaluation (UoE), outputs, income and number of full-time equivalent (FTE) at two-digit level across the system; we have provided the totals for HASS and STEM since the comparison helps to indicate the scale of activity in the sector. The reference to ‘weighted’ research outputs in the table (and elsewhere in this chapter) refers to a multiplier that applies to books in the ERA exercise. Books are weighted 5:1 compared with other research outputs, such as journal articles and conference papers. In ERA, this weighting is used only when calculating whether a UoE has met the low-volume threshold of 50 apportioned research outputs in the reference period.
Hello, people, and welcome to this new resource for research students in humanities and socialsciences, which we’re calling Thesis Thoughts Online. The purpose of this resource is to help you think about some of the considerations involved in writing a thesis; to suggest strategies that other people have found useful; and to point you at other really useful resources elsewhere. Many of these have been created by my colleagues at other, mostly Australian universities – people who do the same sort of work that I do, namely, talking to students about how they want to approach their academic work, and how they might solve some of the problems they encounter. In particular, I’d like to alert you to resources that you may not have thought of consulting if English is your first language, because these resources have been designed primarily for students with English as an Additional Language. But this is why they’re so useful, whatever your background, because the people who write them have expertise in linguistics, so they can describe the language of a research thesis in quite specific terms, rather than just saying vaguely that your writing should be clear. And they’re used to thinking about the differences between traditions of learning and writing in different academic cultures, so they’ll focus on particular features of the writing that might seem so natural to your supervisors that they’d just “go without saying”. So as you look through this resource you’ll find a lot of places where I suggest that you go and read material on a website at Monash, or The University of Queensland, or the University of South Australia, or someplace else; and I’d really urge you to go there and have a look. For copyright reasons, I can’t reproduce everybody else’s stuff here, but on their websites you’ll find good, extended explanations and examples of many things that can help you at every stage of the writing process. The homepages of those websites are listed all together in the section called “References”.
EKT has, since many years, identified the fields of the Humanities and the SocialSciences as ones of great potential with regard to developing e-infrastructures and has, accordingly, directed numerous of its activities there, 2 which now also include the innovative pilot project GRISSH. This project addresses primarily the lack of systematic indexing of the Greek output in the SSH and the lack of international visibility, especially for the publications in the Greek language. Further, it essentially offers the structured information on which metrics and other indicator systems can be developed for the SSH publications in the future. The lack of indexing, and thus visibility, can be attributed to the particular research processes in the SSH, whereby the research and publication process is a much longer, and often a solitary, process, whose outputs in publications may take years to materialize. The SSH thus display a much slower dissemination process than, for example, the natural or medical sciences, and one that until recently has relied a lot less on technology than the first. Regional studies in the SocialSciences and the Humanities, often carried out in the local languages, in this case in Greek, further act as a factor of ‘isolation’, in the sense that this type of research is very difficult to include in international indices, such as the ISI or Scopus and disseminate widely. Finally, in contrast with other scientific output, SocialSciences and Humanitiesresearch is harder to evaluate using the standard methodology of referencing and impact factors 3 . For all of these reasons, EKT considers that recording the Greek publications in the SSH and making them widely available is of prime importance and urgency.
Stage 3: After testing the reliability using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Exploratory Factor Analysis - EFA was analyzed to shrink and summarize the data of the scale (Hoang Trong Chu and Nguyen Mong Ngoc, 2005 "Quantitative Research SPSS"). This method is based on extraction ratio factor (Eigenvalue), under which only those factors having ration (Eigenvalue) greater than 1 will be kept, those smaller than one will not show information better than origin variable because after standardizing, each original variance is 1. The method of extracting the main components (Principal components) and original method of factor rotation (Varimax Procedure) were used to minimize the number of variables that have large coefficients for the same factor, which increases explaining the factors. The above results were used to analyze multiple linear regressions to test the assumptions of the model, which examine the impact level of these factors to the search engine optimization (SEO) in Hotdeal.vn.
An example of the compromises that are essential when using different epistemological approaches are those that were involved in the decisions about the nature of the arts activity that was to be undertaken by the participatory artists across the three data collec- tion areas. A realist synthesis methodological review (Pawson, Greenhalgh, Harvey, & Walshe, 2004) of published research on visual arts activities for people in later life with dementia was undertaken (please see Supplementary Material, Appendix 2, Work Package 1) (Windle et al., 2014) to help identify which approaches might be most effective. However, this exercise did not identify a consensus that one approach would be better than another and ultimately the experience of the participatory artists themselves was relied upon, most of whom had worked in this field for some time and had built up exper- tise 20 (one having worked with Newman and Goulding 21 and another with Windle 22 on projects with people in later life who had dementia engaging in arts activities). A positivist approach would describe the work of the participatory artists as an intervention which would need to be highly structured and directly replicable across the project, so, for example, timings and topics addressed would be identical in all settings. However, this would be contrary to the ways that participatory artists work as they are directly respon- sive to the needs of the participants (using a person-centred approach 23 ) in terms of topic and pace and would place unrealistic restrictions on their artistic practice. Practically, strict standardisation would have been unachievable and have risked both the social scientists and arts and humanities team members being unsatisfied with how the arts activities were being undertaken and so data collected. In response to this situation, best practice gui- dance was produced but they provided a relatively loose structure, ensuring quality of pro- vision and some replicability, while allowing the participatory artists to pursue their own practice. The result of this was that team members ceased to use the term intervention and instead used activity, as a more accurate descriptor of what was being delivered.
Therefore, one cannot mechanically rely on Thomson Scientific data to calculate publication rates or produce research impact indicators, nor to compare, rank or benchmark the research performances of research institutions. However, these data can be used to map SSH scholars’ collaborative activities by measuring joint publication of articles and highlighting differences among disciplines. The resulting collaboration rates must be interpreted as being the output of scholars who publish articles, not the output of all scholars in the SSH. In fields in which the article is not a major dissemination medium, our analysis will probably provide less insight into overall practices. However, it will still bring out the characteristics of an important subset of the SSH population of scholars: those who publish articles. Furthermore, in spite of its limitations, measuring collaboration on the basis of articles is probably the best approach currently available. According to M OODY (2004), the collaboration rate for books is generally lower than that for articles. Therefore scholarly articles are a more informative medium for analysing collaboration not only in the natural sciences but also in the socialsciences and humanities, although we must be careful not to generalize the results to all scholarly research output.
The concept of health security has come to embrace many aspects of health and well-being, crossing over to address political challenges in relation to deliver- ing health-care services to those living in situations of socio-economic hardship, political strife or vio- lence. In this sense it is often used as a supplement to human security (see ‘The Homeland’, page 33) in cases where that concept has become weakened in policy terms (Maclean 2006, Paris 2001). The political dimension of the notion of health security likewise links it with considerations of governance in the sense of the ways in which non-state insti- tutions steer group processes. In this literature disease control and health care are viewed as one mode of organising the lives of groups and indi- viduals through non-state means (Camdessu 2001, Lee & Dodgson 2000). The study of health security can also touch upon more basic questions of inter- personal violence. In this perspective, uncertainty and basic needs translate into acts of violence that engage both in obvious physical ways and in more complex interpersonal, social and political ways (Brunetti & Weder 1997, Cukier et al. 1999, Krug 1999). Health security can also involve the issue of illicit drug use, which also plays out at the cross- roads of physical and social health, particularly in relation to the global HIV/AIDS pandemic (Atlani et al. 2000, Barnett et al. 2001). Research on com- municable diseases and epidemiology often applies the notion of security in its analysis. In this portion of the literature, the political organisation of both research and treatment regimes requires a wider understanding and a wider frame of reference than can be found if the investigation of disease control is limited to natural scientific bounds (CDCP 2002, Henretig 2001, McMichael et al. 1996).
Colleges are mandated to support the development of their local regions, and are active participants in their communities, serving on community boards, economic development committees and task forces. College programs are supported through Program Advisory Committees composed of local employers and community representatives. A large percentage of college programs have workforce connections through co-op work placements, internships, and community volunteer activities. Employers and community agencies have increasingly turned to their local colleges for support in innovation activities that lead to new or improved products, programs and processes, and enhanced business practices. The term “innovation” used here follows the definition of the ACCC Science, Technology and Innovation Council (Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC), Productivity through Innovation: Applied Research at Canada’s Colleges and Institutes, Report for 2009/10, February, 2011, p. 1) as the process by which individuals, companies and organizations develop, master, and use new products, designs, processes and business methods. Resulting company-based innovation probably is not “new to the world” but is new to the organization. Most innovation is incremental improvement, or the application of new technologies or knowledge, rather than world-beating invention. The support requested by business and community organizations of colleges is for “applied research” that is focused on solutions to problems, adoption of new
advanced courses in food and nutrition and individual and family living, courses are offered in specialized areas of family studies, from parenting and resource management to fashion design and living spaces and shelter, giving students an opportunity to develop a range of hands-on, practical skills and to refine their research skills in a variety of areas. The general social science courses bring in perspectives from anthropology, psychology, and sociology to help students explore and gain an understanding of current social issues. In the Grade 11 and 12 philosophy and world religion courses, students are introduced to the history of thought on matters of human nature, existence, and knowledge, and are given the opportunity to further develop critical and logical thinking skills as well as skills associated with research in the humanities. Social science and humanities courses give students essential knowledge and transferable skills that are applicable in various areas of their lives – in their personal and family lives as well as in their postsecondary studies and in the workplace. Individual courses provide students with a foundation for a variety of possible postsecondary destinations: positions in the retail and service industries; community college programs in community services (including early childhood education, child and youth work, and developmental services work), creative arts (including fashion, fashion design, garment construction, and chef training), or business (including human resources); and university programs in such fields as anthropology, business studies, education, environmental studies, family studies, food and nutrition sciences, health sciences, human resources, psychology, philosophy, religious studies, social work, and sociology.
The Bachelor of Arts in Religious Studies is designed for those who: (1) want a humanities undergraduate background focusing on religion as a preparation for further study in such fields as education, law, social work, counseling and government service; (2) wish to pursue graduate studies in religion with the aim of teaching and/or conduct- ing research in the subject; (3) are considering a career in various religious ministries or in religious education.
a. The SHARE Release Guides contain all relevant information for working with the respective release X of the data: participating countries, eligibility rules, the additional drop-off questionnaires and vignette studies, as well as general issues in the composition of datasets and types of respondents. It also provides information on how to merge different modules and across panel waves, and on how to merge SHARELIFE data with wave 1,2 and 4. The guide furthermore documents treatment of missing codes, the conversion of currencies into comparable Euro values as well as unfolding bracket questions and multiple answer questions into “dummy” variables. There is helpful information on specific issues like coding open answers, nationality or country of birth. As a cross-national project, SHARE has to deal with different institutional contexts (see “Item Correspondence” below). Furthermore, the release guide holds information on the additionally generated datasets on imputations, weights, housing, health, social support and household composition as well as alive-status. Therefore, it is also documented how the generated variables ISCO, ISCED and NACE were coded.
In its broadest sense psychology explores the thoughts, feelings and actions of individuals and groups. In your study of psychology you can look at many areas including how the brain works, human behaviour, memory and personality. Psychology is a fascinating area because it’s growing and evolving all the time, and because it helps us understand more about ourselves and other people. The two 100-level psychology papers introduce you to the basic concepts in psychology: one from the social perspective and the other from the scientific perspective. Both of these are compulsory papers. There is one other ‘must have’. You will need to pass the 200-level Introduction to Psychological Research paper before beginning any 300-level papers. For the rest of your major you can choose papers in your particular area of interest.