Today, computer science has established itself as the science of algorithms. The scope of this science is broad, drawing from such diverse subjects as mathematics, engineering, psychology, biology, business administration, and linguistics. Indeed, researchers in different branches of computer science may have very distinct defi- nitions of the science. For example, a researcher in the field of computer architec- ture may focus on the task of miniaturizing circuitry and thus view computer science as the advancement and application of technology. But, a researcher in the field of database systems may see computer science as seeking ways to make infor- mation systems more useful. And, a researcher in the field of artificial intelligence may regard computer science as the study of intelligence and intelligent behavior. Thus, an introduction to computer science must include a variety of topics, which is a task that we will pursue in the following chapters. In each case, our goal will be to introduce the central ideas in the subject, the current topics of research, and some of the techniques being applied to advance knowledge in the area. With such a variety of topics, it is easy to lose track of the overall picture. We therefore pause to collect our thoughts by identifying some questions that provide a focus for its study.
1989). Also see Jurgen Thorvald: Century of the Detective (Harcourt, Brace and World, New York, 1965); Crime and Science (Harcourt, Brace and World, New York, 1966). 27. See, generally, Saferstein, supra, note 9, at 3–7. The Saferstein text is the standard text in the ﬁeld and should be in the library of anyone interested in the forensic sciences. The following summary is adapted from his introductory pages. Mathieu Orﬁla (1787–1853), often referred to as the father of forensic toxicology, was a Spaniard who became a famous French professor of medicine and wrote the ﬁrst major work on the detection of poisons and their effect on animals; Alphonse Bertillon (1853–1914) developed a system of measurement of the facial features of criminals to identify criminals from witness statements. (See discussion infra, re Bayesianism); Francis Galton (1822–1911) made the ﬁrst serious study of the possibility of a ﬁngerprint identiﬁcation theory and system. His seminal work Fingerprints was published in 1892. The statistical study therein serves as the basis for today’s system; Leon Lattes (1887–1956) and Dr. Karl Landsteiner (1901) developed blood typing (A, B, AB, O). Lattes developed a system for determining the typing for a dried bloodstain; Calvin Goddard (1891–1955) pioneered ballistics identiﬁcations through his work with the comparison microscope, still the basic laboratory tool of contem- porary ﬁrearms examiners; Albert Osborn (1858-1946) authored the standard text Questioned Documents, establishing the discipline of examining questioned docu- ments; Hans Gross (1847–1915) was the author of Criminal Investigation, the ﬁrst book to analyze systematically the many applications of the natural sciences to the investigation of crime. This was the “bible” in the area of criminal investigations for many years and is still quoted, although most recently by feminist legal scholars for his dubious references to women as morally unsuitable witnesses; Edmond Locard (1877–1966) is famous for his theories and experiments regarding what today is referred to as “trace evidence” (ﬁber, glass shards, soil, metal traces on clothes and tools etc.), and the famous “Locard Principle”—i.e., something is always left and always taken away as a predictable result of close contact of two persons; August Vollmer and Paul Leland Kirk (1920s–1950s) were architects of the ﬁrst major, professional crime laboratories in California.
[PDF] BIOLOGYSCIENCE NOTEBOOK – GLENCOE GLENCOEMCGRAWHILL
Are you also searching for BiologyScience Notebook – Glencoe GlencoeMcGrawHill? Get it only at our library now. vi Using Your Science Notebook Skim Section 1 of the chapter Write three questions that come to mind from reading the headings and the illustration captions. BiologyScience Notebook – Glencoe GlencoeMcGrawHill eBooks is available in digital format.
(i) Identify the method of soil conservation used in the resource above. (½ mark) (ii) State two benefits of using the method of soil conservation shown above. (1 mark) (iii) State a disadvantage of this particular method of soil conservation. (½ mark) (c) The information below describes an experiment.
G.C.E. (A/L) Agriculture Science is a subject with a dominant weightage to its practical aspect. The learning-teaching process here, has been so planned as to ensure that the student gains hands on experience related to each stage without his being totally confined to the classroom. Opportunities have been provided to enable the student to inculcate habits of life while actualizing the expected skills. An activity continuum has been provided for this purpose. A maximum of three hours have allowed with respect to each activity. But the time allocated for the subject is quite adequate for the purpose of changing this time according to requirements.
For instance, suppose in the early phase of a project, the team is told to create a recommender system for the business and that the way to do this is by speaking with three people and integrating the product recommender into a legacy corporate system. Although this may be a valid approach, it is important to test the assumptions and develop a clear understanding of the problem. The data science team typically may have a more objective understanding of the problem set than the stakeholders, who may be suggesting solutions to a given problem. Therefore, the team can probe deeper into the context and domain to clearly deﬁne the problem and propose possible paths from the problem to a desired outcome. In essence, the data science team can take a more objective approach, as the stakeholders may have developed biases over time, based on their experience. Also, what may have been true in the past may no longer be a valid working assumption. One possible way to circumvent this issue is for the project sponsor to focus on clearly deﬁning the requirements, while the other members of the data science team focus on the methods needed to achieve the goals.
Jupiter the giant Jupiter is the biggest planet in our solar system. There are a lot of storms on Jupiter. The storm clouds make Jupiter a very colourful planet. Jupiter has a lot of moons. Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto are some of the moons that orbit Jupiter.
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Forest soils have high ratios of fungi relative to bacteria, especially under coniferous forests. The fungi are predominately ectomycorrhizae that infect tree roots and then extend their hyphae into the soil. This greatly increases the tree’s effective root zone, allowing access to a greater area of soil from which to extract water and nutrients. The mantle created by mycorrhizae around the root also prevents pathogenic fungi and bacteria from attacking the root system. Arthropods can be quite numerous in forests because the soil is rarely disturbed. Earthworms are common in deciduous forests, but rare among conifers. Where non-native earthworms (e.g., fishing bait) have been introduced into deciduous forests, significant changes in understory vegetation have been observed (Minnesota DNR, 2004).
The growth of knowledge shares many features with living things. Ideas multiply and mutate, successful ideas survive to pass on information to the future. But living things are not immune from extinction, any more than their individual careers are immortal. We have considered some ways in which science might continue, significantly slow down, or even grind effectively to a halt. In practice, the limits of science are dominated by the limitations of scientists rather than by fundamental restrictions upon what can be known. Thus, we can envisage a future in which human fallibility becomes more and more significant. When mistakes are made and wrong conclusions drawn from evidence, they could be categorized by the amount of time it takes for the error to be corrected. Some are corrected almost immediately; others, like 'cold fusion' take a little longer; others, like Aristotle's theory of motion, might persist for more than a thousand years. We are used to living in an environment where scientific successes outnumber mistakes, so that there is a gradual increase in our fund of tested and effective information about the Universe. As the seams of easily accessible knowledge are mined out we shall have to dig deeper for new truths. These truths will be harder to find, more susceptible to erroneous or incomplete formulations, and therefore less reliable as bases for technological innovations. We can easily envisage progress into an era where mistaken deductions become the rule rather than the exception and scientific knowledge becomes unreliable.
Home Science in Daily Life
10.2 FIBRES AND THEIR SOURCES
We have talked about fibre as the basic unit of fabric. Do you know what a fibre looks like? To understand, this take a small amount of cotton and pull out the smallest part from it. Study carefully. These may be long or short strands with a smooth structure that looks like white hair. Actually, these are fibres. A single fibre of cotton is difficult to locate but can be easily recognized in a mass of cotton.
Many of the experiments in this book may be appropriate for science fair projects. Experiments marked with a symbol ( ) include a section called Science Fair Project Ideas. The ideas in this section will provide suggestions to help you develop your own original science fair project. However, judges at such fairs do not reward projects or experiments that are simply copied from a book. For example, a picture of the food pyramid, which is commonly found at these fairs, would probably not