Even if the technical and logistical requirements for biomethane production are in principle available today and in some areas already implemented on a local level, clear criteria for the biomethane quality (transnational) to be fed- into the gas grid and the end use application are necessary. Compared to conventional fuels, the level of standardization is sparse for gaseous fuels. The international ISO (International Organisation for Standardization) has issued a natural gas standard, ISO 13686:1998 "Natural gas - Quality designation" and a stan- dard for compressed natural gas, ”ISO 15403 Natural gas – Natural gas for use as a com- pressed fuel for vehicles”. The normative part of both standards contains no levels or limits, but have informal parts included with information for suggested values for gas composition, i.e. from national standards or guidelines from France, Germany, the UK and the U.S. The absence of quantitative limits reflects the prevalent view of the gas industry that no precise gas quality can be specified, given the wide range of compositions of the raw gas obtained from underground. Up to recent years, the natural gas vehicle business has adjusted to this, international and national standardization focussing more on safety issues regarding vehicle cylinders, other gas-related components and refuelling stations. Regarding biomethane, there is a range of national standards in Europe for the injection of upgraded and purified biogas to the natural gas grid. Work on the international standardization of biomethane has been on-going since 2006. The specific challenge is to define standards which are attractive for the different potential end-user (gas grid owner, automotive industry, etc.) to enter the new market. Intensive discussions primarily concern sulphur and silicon content. Currently, two different standards for grid injection and automotive specification are under development at European level and might be passed by the end of 2015.
Today, the biomethanemarket is still at the very beginning. Different strategies, investment programmes, support schemes and utilisation concepts have been adopted in different countries and there are different stakeholder expectations. Due to the complex supply chain, see Figure E-1, there are different environmental, economic and administrative hurdles for the market introduction of biomethane. On the other hand, a survey of market expectations in five selected focus countries of IEA Tasks 37 and 40 showed that many stakeholders have quite strong expectations for market growth. Even if the response to the survey per country is not sufficient for a statistically sound analysis, it gave an insight in the trends and perceptions in the countries (Austria, Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands and Sweden). Regarding the policy for biomethane, it can be concluded that a good framework is necessa- ry to push biomethanedevelopment forward. Because of the challenging conditions of the post-economic crisis of 2008, biomethane needs political support and as a result of that fin- ancial support. This conclusion is the same for all the countries surveyed. Even in countries like Germany and Sweden that have strongly promoted biomethane, financial support is still an important factor. When asked if international trade should be developing, experts from Belgium, Germany and Sweden answered positively. Respondents from the Netherlands and Austria were more sceptical whether international trade could or should be established in the future. The main reason for doubt is that demand for biomethane in these countries is higher than the production, so there will be nothing left for export. The Swedish respo- ndents reported that they hope to import biomethane to satisfy the increasing demand. Market introduction strategies have to consider the complex provision chain (Figure E-1), which has to include the very different stakeholders.
Other countries should also learn from the drawbacks that the Chinese example has shown. For instance, in countries such as India and the U.S., trade and professional associations have addressed some of the concerns businesses and consumers have regarding the adoption of the cloud. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) has facilitated cloud adoption among its members. It has endorsed different CSPs for payroll solutions, invoice management and payment, financial management and accounting, and tax automation. The AICPA ׳s endorsements are based on an extensive due diligence on the CSPs׳ security practices. CSPs have also started pressuring policymakers for sensible regulations. IT companies such as Oracle, Cisco, SAP, Apple, Google, and Microsoft lobbied to streamline the European Union׳s (EU) fragmented national data protection laws. Because of China ׳s strong state and a weak civil society, such initiatives and pressures are conspicuously absent in the country.
historical factors are critical for bond marketdevelopment. Some Policy variables like macroeconomic stability, openness to trade, protection of investor, cost associated with contract enforcement and privatized pension also have power on economic development. A recent study conducted by Bae (2012) analyse the factorsaffecting the development of bond market in China, conducting survey on forty three developing and developed countries during the period of 1990–2009. This research differentiates among finance, private and public bond market. According to the finding the level of economic growth is measured on the basis of GDP per capita. Fiscal balance plays important role in government bond market with larger deficit lending. In case of financial bond GDP per capital is most vital factor while low rate of interest, established government bond and dominance of banks have significant influence on marketdevelopment for corporate bond. Aktaruzzaman et al. (2008) explained that the small bond market in Bangladesh faces different challenges originating from numerous sources including extreme dependence on bank credit, domination of primary auction based activity in government debt instruments, lack of yardstick yield curve, and absence of product variation. They recommended some policies and actions in several areas like decrease in interest on government savings instruments and registration fees, tax release on income of bonds/debentures, ranking of bond instruments by sovereign rating agency. Jahur (2009) conducted a study on bond market in Bangladesh by taking a personal interview from twenty two financial executive of companies has identified six important barriers to the development of bond market in Bangladesh. In this study he has graded six important impediment to the development of bond market in Bangladesh in order of their magnitude like (i) risk and return (ii) liquidity and government policy (iii) issue
Financial Leasing Companies: The first financial leasing company was established in 1994 by Vietnam Foreign Trade Bank (Vietcombank), however, financial leasing market was officially launched i n Vietnam in 2005 after the Decree 65/2005/NĐ -CP by the Vietnamese Government and until now it is far under its true potential with a limited awareness of customers about financial leasing activities. There are 12 financial leasing companies in Vietnam today including joint stock companies, 100% foreign companies and domestic leasing companies which are owned directly by SOCBs. These companies perform medium and long- term credit activities by leasing industrial and/or construction equipment, transport means, and other types of capital to manufacturers. Although competition between leasing companies is not high, their market share in term of capital mobilization and lending have been reported low too due to the fact that they cannot compete against traditional commercial banks and almost Vietnamese leasing companies have only simple leasing activities. They mainly mobilize capital from bank parents’ loans but the regulation of State Bank for that type of loan is too strict and some commercial banks saw their ratio of outstanding loan on mobilized capital over 100%. All leasing companies have to face to the liquidity troubles though they have to try hard to collect bad debts and limit bad debts occurring. There are the followings their operations are providing medium and long-term credits through leasing activities to manufacturers, they usually spend great amount of capital to buy high value assets like new advance equipment, technology chains for leasing without collaterals while having small registered capital 21 and modest mobilized capital. In addition, financial leasing companies cannot supervise their customers to use their asset in the right purposes, sometimes they receive their assets back in
A er 2004 the principal factor shaping the situation on the agricultural land market in Poland was still the increased demand for purchasing of land. The increased interest in purchasing of agricultural real estate resulted both from the intention of some group of farmers to further increase the produc- tion potential of their agricultural holdings and from noticeable advantages of having the status of the owner of the land property. The latter resulted not only from the interdependency between the direct subsidies and the total area of land, but also from possible use of the structural funds as resources to invest in agricultural holdings. The increase in demand for land was also related to the increase in proﬁ tability of agricultural production observed particularly a er the accession of Poland to the Eu- ropean Union as well as the expansion of marketing outlets for agricultural products. Moreover, the observed rise in agricultural land prices fostered the investment purchases. In addition, the macro- economic conditions had an eﬀ ect on the situation on the agricultural land market, including particu- larly decreasing unemployment rate and still growing economic emigration. Amazingly, the growing possibilities to work outside the agriculture had little inﬂ uence on sale of land as the period was still too short to take deﬁ nite decisions on choosing a place of living and professional orientation. One should expect that in the nearest future the migration from agriculture will have an eﬀ ect on the in- crease in agricultural land trading, particularly as regards leases.
There are mainly five sources of welfare in any country that provides social security to its citizens, i.e. the individuals, the family, the voluntary sector, the market system, and the state (Fitzpatrick, 2010), which can rescue the people economically. Pakistan is a poor country since its birth, with ever increasing heavy debts which is greater than its GNP. Here main sources of welfare are not met through the State; rather the family is responsible for socio-economic development. Poverty has risen in the country during the last decades. Under this backdrop, high population growth rate, low economic growth rate and ever-increasing national debt, which shows debacle for the country seems unsustainable under these circumstances. Here women, being the one half of the total population suffer a lot in their older age or when they cross 40. They have no economic incentive from the State and families are also unable to afford them. Under such circumstances, a mother has to finally rely upon the son in her later age. She considers him as her asset as he is her only source who will protect her in the later life.
Intellectual Property (IP) is a product, process, or technology that has a patent or legal right associated with it. IP has increasingly been stolen as goods are copied in the market place. As the internet and communication technology speed up the world of development, it is easier to knock off a product or process. The Chinese government realizes that this is a major problem in their country and publicly claims that it is on their list of priorities to tend to. This is especially important since the WTO members must abide by the rules established within the Trade-Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which says that countries must protect and enforce IP rights. Unfortunately, many consumers do not realize it when they purchase IP-infringing goods. Some companies have claimed that the cost of losing IP in certain regions, namely China, discourage foreign investment.
premium and economical growth of Nigeria. Result of this study reveals positive and significant relationship between development of insurance premium and economical growth of Nigeria. Insurance sector development and countries economic development positively related to each other. This is also revel by conducting examination on panel data of 29 countries for the period 1999 to 2008 (EGE and SARAC, 2011). Like GDP, Gross National Product is also influenced by all type of insurance premium. Property liability insurance premium of 55 developing countries positively influences economical growth of countries (Outreville, 1990). In case of Malaysia growth of insurance, banking and GDP positively related to each other (Lim and Haberman, 2003). Market size of insurance company is also an influential factor of GDP. Kugler and Ofoghi (2005) examine the long run relationship between the market size of life insurance and gross domestic product of United Kingdom for the period of 1966 to 2003 and the relationship between market size of general insurance and GDP during the period of 1971 to 2003. Result of this study reflects the long run relationship between the size of insurance and economic growth of the countries. Researchers Peter and Kjeli (2006), Curak and Loncar (2012), Curak (2009) conduct their study on development of insurance sector and economical growth of country. They use premium as a measurement tool of insurance development. Their studies reveal positive relationship between GDP and development of insurance. GDP is also affected by reforms of insurance sector. Vadlamannati (2008) conducts his study on reform of Indian insurance company. Result of his study, is insurance sector reforms positively and significantly affect the economic growth of country and insurance sector is an important part of financial intermediation services.
Farm land holding size was strongly and significantly affected market supply positively. This is in agreements with earlier hypothesis that farmers who own large size of farmland are more likely to produce more high yielding wheat output and induce the quantity of market supply. It is also notable to observe that the intensity of market supply increases as land holding size increases among the farmers that adopting high yielding wheat varieties. As size of land holding increased by one hectare, intensity of market supply increased by 6.5 % among the sellers groups and by 5.3 % of the whole sample. The results suggests that those who have large farm size among the adopter farmers devote more of their farmland to the cultivation of high yielding wheat varieties and more increase the market supply of wheat grain. This presumed that farmer who has more cultivated land size have a positive influence on market supply, because if a farmer owns more land, the probability of allocating more land size for high yielding wheat varieties would increase. This reflects that the tendency of farmers to give more farm land size for the production and in turn marketing of high yielding wheat produce that are considered to be of better price value for the farmers. This result is in agreement with the findings of ,  and .
Table 5 presents our results for the final regression with the bid-ask spread as the dependent variable. As previously mentioned, this regression is conducted by using fixed effects as our earlier redundant fixed effect test suggested. We used Eviews to run these regressions and as can be seen the number of observation used in the regression (27.886) was almost a quarter of our total observations. The reason for this is that Eviews only use the observations that have available data points for all cross-sectional units. Turning to our results, we find some interesting discoveries regarding the relationship between our independent variables and our first measure for liquidity (bid-ask spread). Starting with the insignificant variables, we have some results that was in contrast to what we first anticipated. Both the number of shares available for trade by the public, measured by free-floating shares (F_FLOAT), and the number of shares held by institutional investors (INST_SHARES) showed not to be significant for the bid-ask spread. This was not what we expected since earlier studies such as Amihud and Mendelson (2000) suggested that increasing the free-floating stock would decrease the bid-ask spread, however we cannot find such a relationship in our data. Gopalan, Kadan and Pevzner (2012) found a positive relationship between a firm’s assets liquidity and its stock liquidity, and to capture this we included two measurements, cash and cash equivalents (CASH_EQ) and quick ratio (QUICK_R). As can be seen in the results we find that cash and cash equivalents are strongly insignificant for the bid-ask spread but the quick ratio where just barely insignificant on a 5% significant level.
Assessment of pre op and post op iron and related nutrient status was low among patients underwent RYGB. Only seven studies conducted pre operative iron status in patients underwent RYGB 30, 31, 32, 39, 40, 33, 34 , even the rate of post operative follow up was low 30, 25, 26, 39, 44, 34 . In a recent retrospective study (total 21,345 patients) the medical insurance claims of a large population of RYGB patients (17,930 patients) who had undergone nutritional testing for Iron deficiency was found to be only 21% preoperatively which improved at 12 months post surgery (53%) which declined over 13 – 24 months (39%) and 25 – 36 months (31%) 24 . The strong point of this study is large sample size and limitation was methods to define iron deficiency were not specified. The authors may have included serum iron which is not sensitive or serum ferritin which can be elevated during obesity because of systemic inflammation. On the other hand, the results of this study are consistent with others that show exacerbation of iron deficiency when followed from pre op and upto 120 months post RYGB where rates of deficiency were reported preoperatively ranged from 8.7% - 100% 31, 32, 40, 33, 34 . Post operatively reported rate of deficiency were found between 20% - 42% 25, 29,
Infant feeding practices are directly related to the nutritional status of infants and the occurrence of morbidity and mortality among them. In that breast feeding is more important. As breast fed infants are found to be healthier than the supplementary fed infants. Due to lack of proper nutrition, nearly 5.6 million infants die annually. Hence exclusive breast feeding has been recommended. But even today, exclusive breast feeding is low among mothers. 6
4.2 HIERARCHICAL MODEL FOR THE DEVELOPMENTFACTORS
A hierarchical model presented in Figure based on AHP is developed for the selection of the most important developmentfactors. This is a multi objective decision support tool designed to facilitate sound decision making by using empirical data as well as subjective judgment of the decision makers. Based on the analytic hierarchy process, Expert Choice software provides a mathematically rigorous application and proven process for prioritization and decision making by reducing complex decisions to a series of pair wise comparison, then synthesizing the results. Expert Choice not only helps decision makers arrive at the best decision but also provides a clear rationale for the decision.
Among other factors taken into account when planning the market, some were specific to the producers and their activities. Those mentioned were growing season dates, friendliness of vendors, proximity of farmers to market locations, number of producers that could be attracted, truck sizes as well as variety of produce and value added items. With respect to the demand side, tastes and preferences of consumers were taken into consideration and hours of operation were set so as to attract the most people. In terms of marketing, attractiveness of each display, advertisement, publications, use of signs and the coordination of special events to draw people to town and markets were mentioned. Setup and cleanup activities were also factors that played a role when the markets were organized. In addition, the availability of volunteers and the input from Town Hall and residents also had an effect on the planning of farmers’ markets. Conversely, one participant indicated that the market was allowed to evolve by itself.
To estimate the year-end 2016 individual market composition by income level, we leveraged the 2016 OEP enrollment report released by the Department of Health and Human Services’ Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) for all marketplace enrollees. 12 We
also used estimates from our MPACT coverage model for the remainder of the individual market (off-exchange ACA and non-ACA enrollees). (See below for description of MPACT model.) To map projected growth in the net premiums for the second-lowest silver plans, we first estimated how much the premium cap is likely to be indexed annually. The premium cap is derived from two factors: the rate of income growth (based on National Health Expenditure Data 2014 projections) and the rate of premium growth for the commercial group market (based on the Congressional Budget Office’s estimate of 5.3% from its March 2016 report). Second, we estimated the growth in the federal poverty guidelines as set by CMS based on past year-over-year federal poverty level changes.
Software development is a very complex process which engages human beings, underlying systems, nature of applications and so on. It is a dynamic process that differs from project to project. In our modern society, software has become a very important component in all kinds of systems and software failure has become the most crucial factor that terminates the service and proper function of the whole system. Therefore, it is very important and urgent to realize the software development process and eliminate as many potential problems in software as possible .
Mike Eccles, Joanne Smith explains the thinking behind co location. 8] The collocation of software development teams increases the ease, frequency and interaction of communication within the team. It also reduces the time taken to complete a project, and improve the productivity and performance of the Teams. Radically co locating of teams improves the communication, work place design also plays important role and the layout of the work places should be made to facilitate the easy movement of team members and spaces for short and standing meetings.
movements, organizations and institutions have been created to react to such demand. This shows the importance of sport in today’s communities for improvement and promotion of public health and pleasure as well as international achievements (4). While sport organizations have gained considerable incomes in recent years, current costs of such sectors have incrementally grown. In NBA league, mean salary and wage is above 4 million dollar annually (5). In addition, 1 million dollar should be spent for establishment of a new stadium for some NFL teams (6). Therefore, managers of professional and collegiate sport organizations should manage effectively challenges such as heavy costs, competitive market, fans' dissatisfaction and their disconnection as well as explosive growth of modern technologies so as to survive in sport business setting (7). In addition to strong and effective use of marketing, sport organizations should identify their potential clients firstly and then provide a product for meeting requirements of the client as well as for developing strategies of achievement, price and certain product (8). Gundogan (1996) studied collegiate sport marketing and stated that there is an increasing growth in the number of full time personnel, written programs of marketing as well as sport marketing budget showing the increasing importance of sport marketing in colleges (8). In addition, it is stated that marketing program allows the organization to evaluate correctly the requirements of marketing budget and to identify the amount of revenue obtained by sport marketing (7). Pine (2010) concluded that universities should pay attention to cancellation of academic tuitions as a subsidy for students and their encouragement (9). As mentioned earlier, many students are studying scientifically and academically sport industry as well as sport marketing throughout the world in higher education centers (10). Moreover, financial circulation of sport industry of the world has grown considerably within a decade and several thousands of people are working directly and indirectly in this industry as one of the best industries (11). Therefore, sport organizations are seeking development of their marketing activities. Collegiate sport is one part of sport industry and pays special attention to marketing programs. Gundogan (1996)