The total of 686 donorsblood samples form January to May in Tripolibloodbank were screened for HIV, HBV and HCV, their age were ranged from 16 to 93 years old (mean age 33.5±8.5) (Fig. 1). The majority of the donors were males (683, or 99.6%) and only 3 donors (0.4%) were females (Table 1). Donors occupations were concentrated mainly in free workers and less in students (Fig. 2). The donors were from different regions of the Tripoli metropolitan area like Tagora, Soq Aljomaha in the east, Alfernag, Almadina Alrithia in the center and Alsrage, Hayalandlas in the west (Fig. 3). The total 344 (50.1%) were donors who had non- tested before and have very high risk to transfer hepatitis to others, if not diagnosed during the window gap, and 342 (49.9%) were tested before, who are less dangers because they are repeaters of blood donation (Table 2).
Transfusion of blood and blood product is a life- saving measure and benefits numerous patients worldwide. However, transfusion is an important mode of transmission of infection to the recipients. In 2005, all member states of WHO signed a document that commits them to the provision of safe and adequate blood and blood products to patients . Transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases remain a major topic of interest for those involved in blood safety . To avoid infection by blood transfusion, safety is very important because of blood transfusion is an integral part of medical and surgical therapy. Therefore, the tests for HIV, HBV, HCV syphilis and malaria are mandatory in the bloodbank . Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) are a major global public health problem warranting high priority efforts for prevention, control and treatment . Testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is the commonly used screening test in developing countries . The hepatitis C virus was discovered in 1989. It is transmitted via blood and blood products, both parenterally and through sexual contact . Libya, a developing country of approximately 6 million people, belongs to the intermediate endemicity countries with a wide variance of sero-positivity among different regions and populations . A national serological survey for HBV and HCV infections among the general population was performed in Libya during 2003 and revealed prevalence of 2.2% and 1.2% for HBV and HCV, respectively . A local surveys reported that the rate of HBsAg positivity among blooddonors ranged from 1.3% to 4.6% , while the rate of HCV antibodies was 1.2% [9,10]. Very recently, the frequency of HBsAg positive blooddonors and anti-HCV among this sample was 0.8% and 0.7% respectively in blooddonors in western Libya (Tripoli) . There has
The project was approved by institutional review board including ethical clear- ance. The donors were explained the purpose of the study. Written consent for the study was obtained from the donors using a predesigned consent form in lo- cal language. During the period from July to December 2016, all the major blood banks including the private ones in the national capital territory of Delhi were requested to refer the blooddonors found seropositive for HIV, HBV and HCV at their centres to the Centre for AIDS and Related Diseases, National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC). A total of 120 blooddonors (all males), 40 each con- firmed to be seropositive for HIV-1, HBV and HCV at NCDC were selected for the study. The period between detection of seropositivity for HIV-1, HBV and HCV in the blood banks referring the donors and confirmation of the same at Centre for AIDS and Related Diseases department, NCDC was considered dura- tion of infection since diagnosis. In addition, since the donors were repeat do- nors donating blood at intervals of 4 - 8 months, whenever a seropositive blood donor was referred by a bloodbank to our centre, test results for HIV, HBV and HCV at preceding bloodbank attended by the seropositive donors were checked from the records available with blood banks to confirm seronegativity at the time of preceding donation. Forty, age and socioeconomically matched male blooddonors seronegative for HIV-1, HBV and HCV infections and donating at the same blood banks were included as controls.
Blood transfusion therapy is used among patients with se- vere anemia due to various medical, surgical or obstetric conditions, and in patients undergoing transplantation of an organ. Blood transfusion is beneficial and safe for the recipient when it is performed in strict compliance with immunological and hygienic standards, and following a strict screening of donors. In Cameroon, the current blood safety guidelines necessitate blood banks to routinely per- form serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Treponema pallidum ( T. pallidum ). These guidelines progressively followed the exponential rise in blooddonors from 75,000 in 1992 to 130,000 in 2002 , however, necessitate regular monitoring and adaptation to frequently changing epidemiological and demographic pa- rameters that include urbanization, migration flows, and increased demand for blood transfusion in the country. Although blood safety has greatly improved over the past 15 years, TTIs still represent a major public health pro- blem in Cameroon given the high prevalence of HIV infections, hepatitis, malaria, and several sexually trans- missible diseases (STD) [2,3]. Data recorded in 2006 show that 26,079 units of blood were collected in health faci- lities in Cameroon with over 2,477 infected cases, thus a TTIs prevalence of 9.5% among blooddonors. Of these in- fectious risks, viral infections (HIV, HBV and HCV) are the most feared by patients and prescribers [4-7]. In Cameroon, screening for hepatitis B and C virus was not part of routine tests performed in blooddonors until the year 2005. The reduction of the residual risk of contami- nation is currently based on a strict selection of donors and the introduction of new tests such as genomic testing for HIV, HCV and HBV [6,8]. A study conducted among blooddonors at the Yaoundé Central Hospital (YCH) re- vealed that the risk of TTI from patients with residual in- fections remains high (9.8%) in Cameroon . Bacterial contamination remains a major risk of infection during blood transfusions. Endotoxic shock caused by massive, usually Gram-negative, bacterial contamination is rare but represent a very serious outcome that includes sudden death . Bacterial infections including T. pallidum have been reported in Cameroon, and are common in many other countries [11-14].
all screened for syphilis, HBV and HCV. A new initiative through collaboration between BloodBank System and SNAP was developed during this reporting period. Khartoum centralbloodbank unit (major contributor in national blood donation load) was selected to explore if donors are interested to know their blood screen results and thereafter develop a mechanism for those interested to receive confirmatory results on HIV. HIV surveillance and screening programs were established at Khartoum Teaching Hospital (KTH) following the first identified HIV case diagnosed in a hemophiliac boy in November 1987. As of December 1995, 15 cases of symptomatic HIV infection have been observed in Sudanese children (< or = 16 years) at KTH .
The study was conducted in the department of transfusion medicine, a tertiary care teaching hospital in North India. The total number of donors who were screened for syphilis were 28,544. All the donors were screened for HIV-1, 2, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, syphilis and malaria. Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) method was done as a primary screening method of syphilis using carbogen particles (Tulip laboratories). The RPR test was performed quantitatively by double dilution method in all RPR positive sera. The serum samples of RPR positive donors were preserved at -20 o C. A total of 132 RPR
At the RBTC/O, at each stage of the transfusion chain (collec- tion, biological qualification of donations, blood-component preparation and distribution), information related to blooddonors and their donations is recorded and managed by medi- cal software (CTS Inlog server, France). Therefore, donors who have been previously tested positive for HIV, HBV, and HCV are detected and excluded when they return for another donation. For this study, donations and donor information collected included years of collection, sex, age, address of the donor, status of donor (first time or repeated), collection site (fixed or mobile collection), and results (positive or nega- tive) of serological tests for HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis. A repeated donor was define as a donor who had donated blood twice during the study period. Otherwise, they were considered a first-time donor.
Aims: regular donors are often given some sort of non-monetary recognition. In Nigeria, about 92.9% of individuals donate blood because of the benefits they get from hospital. the aim was to study iron status of regular blooddonors who had donated at least one or two units of blood in their life. Methods: the study was prospectively conducted on 290 regular blooddonors. the blooddonors were divided into four groups, according to the number of units of blood they had given. results: the difference in serum ferritin concentration of first group (208.35±60.62 ng/mL) was statistically significant (p < 0.05) compared with donors in third group (34.20±21.89 ng/mL) and fourth group (2.05±0.22 ng/mL). None of the first group donors suffered from iron deficiency, whereas 11% of the donors who had donated between 11– 15 units of blood within a 4-year period had iron deficiency. conclusion: the results of this study
A voluntary donor is a person as per NACO guidelines, who gives blood, plasma or other blood components of his/her own free will and receives no payment for it, either in the form of cash or in-kind which could be considered a substitute for money. This includes time off work, other than reasonably needed for the donation and travel. Small tokens, refreshments and reimbursement of the direct travel costs are compatible with voluntary, non- remunerated blood donation. Replacement blood donor is one who gives blood when it is required by a member of the patient's family or community. This may involve a hidden paid donation system in which the donor is paid by the patient's family .
Results: HBV coinfections were found in 12.9% (79/614) HIV infected individuals including 42/417(10.1%) blooddonors and 37/197 (18.8%) AIDS patients. In the HBsAg positive individuals, 80.0% were HBeAg negative in which 10.0% were HBV DNA negative and 38.3% with HBV DNA lower than 2000 IU/ml. The average HBV DNA levels were lower in donors than in patients. In the HBV DNA positive populations, HBV genotypes B, A and C accounted for 48.1%, 22.8% and 8.86% respectively. Mutations related to the failure of HBsAg detection were found in 2 of the 4 HBsAg-/HBV DNA + subjects. Conclusions: High prevalence of HBV in HIV infected individuals was found in this study. Hence, we recommend routine testing of HBV for patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in China. Some HIV-HBV co-infected patients remain undiagnosed if only conventional serological markers for HBV are used and it ’ s important to detect HBV DNA for HIV infected patients. HBV DNA levels were relatively low in HBeAg negative patients, thus this serologic marker may be useful in prioritizing patients on their need for HBV treatment in settings in which HBV DNA is not available.
In the present study, a total of 607 plasma samples were screened for the presence of anellovirsuses (TTV, TTMDV, TTMV) DNA using nested PCR. The majority of samples were from healthy blooddonors and non- Qatari male nationals. Age, gender and nationality distri- butions were not significantly different in healthy blooddonors and HBV- or HCV-positive patients. Blood do- nors in Qatar were predominantly males, and so did those tested positive for HBV and HCV. It should be noted that the expatriate population makes up the vast majority of residents in Qatar with about only 16% of those residing in Qatar are Qatari nationals. Our study population reflects the demographic distribution in the population. In terms of age, it appears that the majority of the HBV patients were younger than 30 years whilst the majority of HCV patients were older than 50 years as was shown in Table 1.
HCV is a major cause of viral hepatitis worldwide, and an estimated 2-3% of the world’s population is living with HCV infection (15,16). However, prevalence rates may vary due to various factors including the type of selective testing for HCV, sensitivity of the test for the detection of HCV antibodies and performing annual blood screening. In a study in India, the incidence of HCV was
Publications have reported the adverse reciprocal interaction of HIV co-infection with HBV, HCV, or both HBV and HCV that affects every aspect of the co-infection, namely: viral replication, clinical presentation, response to therapy, and outcome of patients with the co-morbidities  -. Research has evaluated the effect of HIV infection on response to hepatitis B vaccination, and has documented reduced and less durable antibody ti- tre after vaccination  . Thus, fewer HIV infected children have protective antibodies against HBsAg after vaccination . The rate of response to HB vaccination is directly proportional to CD4 counts, but has inverse relationship with HIV viral load, although there is no consensus on the immunological threshold at which vac- cination becomes futile . Co-infection of HIV with HBV has been reported to be associated with increased risk of chronic HBV infection, higher HBV DNA levels, thus, higher rates of cirrhosis, end stage liver disease, and death from liver diseases, especially in patients with low CD4 count .
Introduction: The knowledge of the distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups is essential for effective management of blood banks inventory, be it a facility of a smaller local transfusion service or a regional or national transfusion service. The ABO blood group system was first to be identified and Rh blood group system was the 4th one, both are most important for blood transfusion purposes. This study is conducted to determine the frequency of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood groups in Hangal Shri Kumarashwar (HSK). BloodBank attached to S.N. Medical College and H.S.K. Hospital, Bagalkot (Karnataka) in Southern India
Hepatitis B virus was once considered hyper-endemic in Saudi Arabia . The estimated prevalence of HBV in healthy blooddonors ranges from 2.7% to 9.8% [6, 12]. Similarly, the results of this study also indicate that of the apparently healthy blood donor in Qassim region, 0.42% was positive for hepatitis B virus markers. This prevalence for HBV markers is lower than that reported in the Eastern region (6.7%), the southwestern region (5.4%) and to the estimated overall prevalence in Saudi Arabia. Numerous surveys have shown that there is marked regional variation in the prevalence of HBV [8-11] and this is affected by several factors including the size of the population, the number of beds and the specialty of the hospital. The distribution of HBV worldwide shows variations depending on geographical location. In China, 1.4% of blooddonors were reported to be positive for HBV.  High rates of chronic infections were also found in the Indian subcontinent, as 2% to 5% of blooddonors were estimated to be infected.  In Europe, the prevalence of HBV in blooddonors ranged from 0% to 5.2%, and in the United States the prevalence ranged from 0.4% to 1.0% among blooddonors [16, 17].
including developing countries like India blooddonors belong to a minority community (Ahuja and Saluja, 2009). blood, more life,” this was the theme for World Blood Donor Day 2011 on the 14 of June to emphasize the critical need for more people all over the world to become lifesavers by donating blood regularly. Based on reports from 173 countries to WHO, around 93 million blooddonors are donating annually (Buchner-Daley et al., 2013).Donation of blood has always been considered as a humanitarian act and a positive behavioral phenomenon. By and large blooddonors can be categorized broadly as -Voluntary BloodDonors, Replacement BloodDonors, and Professional BloodDonors. These categories are based on the behavioral patterns of the do (Dhara and Dinesh, 2012). There are various barriers to donating blood that influence the behavior of people towards blood donationsuch as cultural beliefs in some ethnic groups, socio-economic factors, their knowledge or lack of knowledge with regards to blood donation and other issues
We have tried to assess the acetylation process in tuberculosis a sample of Libyan patient, Simultaneous measurement of isoniazid (INH) and its main acetylated metabolite acetylisoniazid (AcINH) in plasma is realized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). INH and its main metabolite in human plasma were measured after taken single oral dose (200-300 mg), after 3 hours the samples of patient´s venous blood (4 ml) were collected into heparinized tubes and immediately centrifuged. The plasma samples were then deproteinized by trichloroacetic acid. The analytes separated by HPLC on pinnacle II C18 column (water). Nicotinamide is used as internal standard. The mobile phase is 0.05 M ammonium acetate buffer (pH 6) acetonitrile (99:1, v/v). The detection is by ultraviolet absorbance at 275 nm. Retention time recorded for INH, AcINH and the internal standard were 7.3, 9.9 and 14.2 min respectively. The result obtained showed that the plasma concentration of INH to 48% patient showed slow acetylation, while 52% patients are high acetylator. More than half of TB patients have defect of metabolism isoniazid.
Now that it isn’t significant whether to raise the ALT reject value or to cancel this test simply, it even may degrade the coefficient of resistance of blood transfusion. If the abandoned threshold is too low, it will waste a great of valuable blood. How to face this dilemma between saving blood and ensuring the safety of the blood; it is necessary to find a better way to solve it. The techniques of NAT are not extensively applied in our center be- cause of the expensive reagent now. At present, because heavy pollution are suffering from hepatitis B in china, hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS patients or virus carriers are also more growing. The government of China is gradu- ally promoting nucleic acid detection on blood donations, whose purpose is to further shorten the window period of diseases spread, and to try to reduce the incidence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, which is the most impor- tant thing to protect the health of all Chinese citizens. However, the deficiency blood in clinical in china is very serious. As a non-specific indicator, ALT is the main factor causing blood abandoned, Therefore this paper im- proves the ALT rejection threshold, prevent qualified blood is wrongly discarded. At the same time, it also does not affect the NAT to reduce the risk of a blood transmission diseases. This mode can be said to be the most beneficial. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a voluntary, low cost, low risk blood donor team which is another way to ensure blood safety in our center.
This study emphasizes and recommends the implementation of anti-HBc testing in addition to pre-existing HBsAg inspection as a mandatory screening evaluation to further increase transfusion safety. The study also recommends that donated blood from donors who are HBsAg negative but anti-HBc positive should be discarded. Moreover, Studies should be done to measure anti-HBc and HBV-DNA in other parts of Libya with particular interest to the South (such as Sabha) and the North East (including Benghazi) as there are a high levels of immigration status in that area.
10. Sanei Moghadam E, Khosravi S, Gharibi T. Prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV reactivity in donors embarking on direct blood donation and among first-time blooddonors in Zahedan Blood Transfusion Center. The Scientific Journal of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization. 2004; 1(2): 19- 25.[Persian]