Top PDF Blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) level has a negative correlation with dry eye (DE) degree

Blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) level has a negative correlation with dry eye (DE) degree

Blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) level has a negative correlation with dry eye (DE) degree

The limitation of the current study is that the serum samples were taken from patient’s blood sample. In DE patients there is increased osmolarity of the tear, inflammation of the ocular surface, and potential damage to the ocular surface. Oxidative stress overload can cause damage to the epithe- lial surface and reduce the tears secretion. Thus the sample studied using the tears of patients will make a better result. However, due to limitations in getting samples of tears with the amount of 0.2 ml, then it cannot be done.

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Hypoglycemic, antioxidant and hepato- and nephroprotective effects of Teucrium orientale in streptozotocin diabetic rats

Hypoglycemic, antioxidant and hepato- and nephroprotective effects of Teucrium orientale in streptozotocin diabetic rats

Hyperglycemia causes protein glycosylation, oxidation and alterations in enzyme activities, which are the underlying causes of diabetic complications. This study was designed to examine the effects of methanol extract from Teucrium orientale (TO) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats by measuring glycemia, malondialdehyde (MDA), total sulfhydryl groups (TSH) and activity of some antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidney. This study demonstrated that blood glucose and MDA levels were significantly increased (p<0.05), whereas catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and TSH levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in liver and kidneys of STZ induced diabetic rats. The administration of TO to diabetic rats at a dose of 200 mg kg -1 bw resulted in a significant elevation of TSH content and CAT, GPx, SOD
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Extracellular superoxide dismutase is necessary to maintain renal blood flow during sepsis development

Extracellular superoxide dismutase is necessary to maintain renal blood flow during sepsis development

Acute kidney injury is a well-known, major complication in sepsis. In different models of sepsis, renal hypoperfusion occurs and is associated with the generation of peroxynitrite [20 – 22]. There are reports suggesting that peroxynitrite-induced PARP activation is involved in renal hypoperfusion and in impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation [23]. In a model of endotoxaemia, ECSOD expression was decreased and was consequently associated with decreased renal blood flow [12, 24]. In general, in these models, the animals are not fully fluid resuscitated and antibiotic treatment is missing. Here, in a more clinically relevant model of sepsis, we demonstrated that renal blood flow could be maintained for at least 48 h, which is consistent with early goal- directed therapy to preserve microcirculation both in animal models and in humans [25–27]. In contrast, it was reported in a LPS model that, even when using fully balanced fluids, compromises in microvascular and renal functions occurred [28]. This unexpected result could be related to the regulation of NO production since peroxyni- trite seems to be one of the most relevant mediators of sepsis-induced AKI [13, 20, 21]. SODs are the first defence system against superoxide anion radicals. Vascular smooth muscle cells secrete large amounts of ECSOD, and it is thought that these cells are the major source of the enzyme in the vascular wall [29]. Actually, ECSOD is widely expressed in the cardiovascular system and in the kidney [30], and it is critical to controlling 3-nitrotyrosine formation [31]. In addition, circulating microparticles from septic patients are able to increase ECSOD expression in the rat heart [32], which is consistent with our results. Therefore, despite the decreases in Mn and Cu/Zn SOD content after sepsis, there is an increase in total SOD activity that is probably associ- ated with the observed increase in ECSOD. These results suggest that ECSOD is of major importance in maintaining kidney redox status early during sepsis. Actually, post-ischaemic renal vasoconstriction is associated with an impairment of endothelium-dependent NO-mediated vasodilation in renal vasculature [13, 33], but ECSOD overexpression prevents endothelial dysfunction and preserves blood flow [34]. It has also been demonstrated that a SOD mimetic decreased superoxide formation in the vascular compartment [35], which is consistent with our results. The maintenance of renal blood flow is probably mediated by SOD quenching of superoxide, causing a consequent decrease in peroxynitrite and improvement in vasorelaxation [36].
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Enzyme superoxide dismutase in grain of barley and malt

Enzyme superoxide dismutase in grain of barley and malt

The aim of the work was modification of superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity analysis in barley grain and identical malts with using of the Ransod set. This set from company Ran- dox were used for enzyme determination in blood samples. This method employs xanthine and xanthi- ne oxidase to generate superoxide radicals, which react with tetrazolium chloride to form a red forma- zan dye. SOD is classified as natural antioxidants and enzyme plays a significant role at detoxication of products of molecular oxygen degradation. The largest rate of SOD occurs in embryo of barley grain. Its presence in barley grain and malt thus inhibits rancidity of grain during storage and undesirable beer flavour. The line Wabet x Washonubet (in grain-104,93 and malt 152,42 U/g dry matter) and the variety Annabell (104,65 a 147,21 U/g dry matter) had the highest activity of SOD in grain and malt of barley while the lowest activity was measured in the line KM 1910 (73,15 a 88,16 U/g dry matter) and variety Tolar (74,34 a 96,44 U/g dry matter).
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A Disruptive Treatment to Prevent Amputation and Enhance Limb Salvage in an Elderly Patient

A Disruptive Treatment to Prevent Amputation and Enhance Limb Salvage in an Elderly Patient

Background: Chronic wounds are a growing problem internationally, termed a silent epidemic. To combat this epidemic, it is not sufficient to rely on tra- ditional wound care treatments alone, but to look to innovative and alterna- tive therapies. The indispensable role of oxygen in wound healing is well-discussed in the literature, and in the past two decades the topical appli- cation of oxygen has shown promising results in the healing of chronic wounds. However, the toxic effects of oxygen are usually not appreciated and can often lead to wound necrosis and gangrene in wounds with compromised blood supply. While wounds with adequate blood supply contain free radical quenchers (catalase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione) which neutralize the free radicals (reactive oxygen species) released as a by-product of the Krebs cycle, wounds with deficient blood supply are deficient in free radical quenchers and are further damaged by exposure to oxygen as a result of reperfusion injury/oxygen toxicity. Topical hyperbaric oxygen (THOT®) uses low oxygen tensions in the hyperbaric range to stimulate angiogenesis, while preventing excessive oxygen toxicity. The result is the induction of marked angiogenesis, with increasing capacity for quenching reactive oxygen species, resulting in wound healing of ischemic wounds. Case Presentation: This case report describes a 95-year-old Caucasian female who presented with a stage IV chronic necrotic ulcer on her lower left leg. Surgical pathology re- sults revealed calcifying vasculopathy, which is thought to be responsible for deficient blood supply to the leg, leading to a necrotic, chronic leg ulcer of her left leg. After traditional wound therapies were unsuccessful, she was consi- dered for leg amputation. The introduction of adjunctive treatment with top- ical hyperbaric oxygen therapy saw complete healing of the wound within 15 weeks. The wound remained closed, without the presence of scar tissue, with no signs of wound breakdown at three-month and six-month follow-ups. Conclusions: Chronic hypoxic wounds with vascular insufficiency are con- How to cite this paper: Castillo Benitez,
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Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extracts of Costus Pictus D. Don in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extracts of Costus Pictus D. Don in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

The methanol extract of Costus pictus (C. pictus) D. Don (family - Zingiberaceae) leaf was investigated for its antidiabetic and antioxidant effects in Wistar Albino rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of single dose of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). The methanol extract of C. pictus (MECP) at doses of 120 and 180 mg/kg (p.o.) was administered as a single dose per day. Tolbutamide served as positive control at a dose of 100 mg/kg. The effect of MECP on blood glucose, lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and non enzymatic antioxidants (Vitamin A, E, C and reduced glutathione) were investigated in liver and kidney tissues. The MECP produced significant (p<0.001) reduction in blood glucose and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The extract also caused significant increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and reduced glutathione. From the above results it is concluded that MECP possesses significant antidiabetic and antioxidant effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats.
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Original Article Inhibitory effect of fucoidan on hypoglycemia in diabetes mellitus anim

Original Article Inhibitory effect of fucoidan on hypoglycemia in diabetes mellitus anim

Abstract: In the present study effect of fucoidan on body weight, blood glucose, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rat model was investigated. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 each: Normal group, diabetic group, diabetic group treated with 50 mg/kg and diabetic group treated with 100 mg/kg body weight fucoidan. For the preparation of DM rat model animals were fasted for 18 h and then injected with 60 mg/kg doses of STZ in citrate buffer. Induction of DM in the rats was confirmed by determining the blood sugar level in blood samples collected from tail vein of the rats. The results revealed that fucoidan treatment at a concentration of 100 mg/kg body weight caused a significant increase in the weight of animals compared diabetic group. Fucoidan treatment in rats reduced the blood sugar level which was increased by STZ administration in the diabetic group. Furthermore, fucoidan treatment promoted the activity of SOD, reduced the fastening blood glucose (FBG) level and inhibited the MDA level in the rats. Thus, fucoidan prevents DM in the STZ induced rat model through prevention of oxidative damage.
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EFFECT OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA ON HYPERGLYCEMIA INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ALLOXAN DIABETIC RAT BRAIN

EFFECT OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA ON HYPERGLYCEMIA INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ALLOXAN DIABETIC RAT BRAIN

ABSTRACT: The present study evaluates antidiabetic effect of A. indica leaf extract (AILE) and A. indica bark extract (AIBE) on antioxidant enzymes in the brain of alloxan diabetic rats and compared with insulin treatment. The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf (500mg/Kg body weight) and A. indica bark (100mg/Kg body weight) was given once daily for 21days to separate groups of diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period, blood glucose levels and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G- 6-PD) were measured in cytosolic fraction of whole brain. Lipid peroxidation levels were measured in the blood plasma and brain of all the treated diabetic groups. Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose (p<0.01). Decreased activities of SOD, CAT, G-6-PD (p<0.05) and increased activity of GPx, GR were observed in diabetic rats brain. Diabetic controls showed significant increase in MDA level in brain tissue (p<0.05). Treatment with insulin, AILE and AIBE restored the above altered parameters close to the control ones. AILE and AIBE were found significantly effective in correcting these alterations
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Susceptibility of Diabetics with Superoxide 
Dismutase Gene  2 Polymorphism to Vascular 
Complications.

Susceptibility of Diabetics with Superoxide Dismutase Gene 2 Polymorphism to Vascular Complications.

As already explained, the relaxation of blood vessels by nitric oxide is reduced in diabetes mellitus. There has also been seen increased movement and proliferation of VSMC outside the endothelium, resulting in aggravation of atherosclerotic lesion 48 . There is moreover augmented destruction of VSMC in atherosclerotic lesion, which accounts for easy disintegration of plaque. Elevated synthesis of MMP by inflammatory mediators result in degradation of collagen found in plaque 49 .

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ADAPTIVE REACTIONS INVESTIGATION UNDER EXPERIMENTAL HYPOXIA CONDITIONS WITH THE PRIOR TREATMENT OF THE 4 THIAZOLIDINONE DERIVATIVE

ADAPTIVE REACTIONS INVESTIGATION UNDER EXPERIMENTAL HYPOXIA CONDITIONS WITH THE PRIOR TREATMENT OF THE 4 THIAZOLIDINONE DERIVATIVE

ABSTRACT: The effects of 4-thiazolidinone-derivative – Les-589 as perspective anti-hypoxic agent under the experimental hypoxic hypoxia actions were studied. The values of peripheral blood and hematological indexes as well as parameters of cellular oxidative metabolism (level of lipoperoxidation products, activity superoxide dismutase and catalase, levels and ratio of lactic and pyruvic acids in the blood and liver tissue) of the experimental animals were investigated. The presented data confirm the anti-hypoxic properties of the Les-589 under study conditions and are the strong argument for further Les-589 study as perspective antihypoxant with preventative effect.
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The expression of sirtuins, superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidation status in peripheral blood from patients with diabetes and hypothyroidism

The expression of sirtuins, superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidation status in peripheral blood from patients with diabetes and hypothyroidism

Blood samples were obtained from 22 patients with T2D (10 males and 12 females), 5 with T1D (3 females and 2 males), and 7 with HT (all females), as well as from 13 healthy donors (controls), who attended the diabetic center at King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital during the period from October 2017 – January 2018. The control subjects were non-smokers, did not take medication, did not have high blood pressure or a family history of dia- betes. For the diabetic group, subjects with severe dis- ease complications (e.g. myocardial infarction) and/or presenting with both diabetes and HT were excluded. Subjects with a fasting plasma glucose concentration of > 7 mmol/L and HbA1c > 6.5% were considered as dia- betic according to the American Diabetes Association [28]. Diabetic group was on insulin alongside different drugs, such as generic metformin, NovoMix, Glucoph- age, and Lantus. For the HT group, subjects with dia- betes and other serious diseases (e.g. cardiac disease) were excluded. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) determination is important for evaluating the function of the thyroid gland. Patients with serum TSH > 6 mIU/L were classified as having HT. The exclu- sion of subjects was achieved after clinical assessment and biochemical analysis. All the patients with HT were on thyroxine medication. Patient data including medica- tions, duration of diseases, and anthropometric measure- ments such as weight, height, and body mass index were recorded from the medical patients’ profile. For expe- riments, including ELISA and TBARS, samples were obtained from a minimum of three individuals from each study group.
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Comparative Protein Modeling of Superoxide Dismutase Isoforms in Maize.

Comparative Protein Modeling of Superoxide Dismutase Isoforms in Maize.

Abstract: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one of the major classes of antioxidant enzymes, which protects the cellular and subcellular components against harmful reactive oxygen species. In maize, three types of SODs are present based on their constituent metal ions, namely Cu /Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD. In this study we critically assess the phylogenetic relationship and structural models for maize Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD and Fe SOD. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Mn-SOD and Fe-SODs in maize have a greater degree of similarity between them as compared to Cu/Zn-SODs. The secondary structure of Mn-SOD and Fe-SODs demonstrated similar characteristics of helices, sheets, turns and coils revealed that Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD were closely related, whereas Cu/Zn-SOD evolved independently. We found Mn-SOD and Fe-SOD had structurally analogous beta sheets. Homology modeling-enabled three-dimensional structure prediction helped to understand the molecular functions of SOD proteins in improving tolerance to oxidative stress in maize.
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Superoxide Dismutase: Therapeutic Targets in SOD Related Pathology

Superoxide Dismutase: Therapeutic Targets in SOD Related Pathology

Recent evidence shows that plasma ECSOD presents three distinct domains (when subjected to chromatogra- phy): domain A (with no heparin affinity), domain B (with weak heparin affinity), and domain C (with strong heparin affinity) [43] [44]. These findings suggest that C domain anchors the protein to the endothelial cell sur- faces and the extracellular matrix of blood vessels. The major portion of ECSOD in the vasculature primarily exists in the extracellular matrix and, to a lesser extent, on endothelial cell surfaces linked to heparan sulfate proteoglycans, but a small fraction of ECSOD exists in equilibrium between cell surfaces/matrix and plasma [40]. The hypotheses about ECSOD binding and/or releasing from endothelium surface is thoroughly presented in [45].
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The Alterations of Plasma Iipid Peroxidation and erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase Enzyme Activities During Storage of Blood

The Alterations of Plasma Iipid Peroxidation and erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase and Glutathione Peroxidase Enzyme Activities During Storage of Blood

18) Woolliams JA., Wiener G., Anderson PH., McMurray CH.Variation in the activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and in the concentration of copper in the blood in various breed crosses of sheep.Res Vet Sci. 1983; 34(3):253-6

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Possibility of using superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase as endometriosis biomarkers

Possibility of using superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase as endometriosis biomarkers

Participants and methods: Female patients aged between 18 and 45 years old who came to the Gynecology outpatient clinic, Thammasat University Hospital, during September 2013– 2016 with the complaint of gynecologic symptoms suspected of endometriosis, and who were positively diagnosed with endometriosis, were included in this study. All patients underwent conservative laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy with histopathological report. The control group consisted of healthy females of reproductive age who came to the outpatient clinic. The plasma SOD and GPx were measured from blood samples with commercial kits. A receiver operating characteristic curve was generated for plasma activity of SOD, GPx, and combined tests. The cutoff values were selected at the most appropriate sensitivity and specificity.
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Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase as a biomarker of septic acute kidney injury

Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase as a biomarker of septic acute kidney injury

We should consider some limitations of this study. We only included patients from a single medical center. Regarding AKI definition, we only have baseline serum creatinine of 55 % of patients who developed AKI, for the others we used the lowest value achieved during hospi- talization in the absence of dialysis. Moreover, AKI was defined based upon the serum creatinine levels and not urine output. In addition, due to the relatively small num- ber of patients, analysis of SOD1 according to the stage of AKI was not performed. Timing of antibiotic dosing was also not recorded, and blood was taken within the first 24 h, which is a relatively large window. Finally, the AUC of erythrocyte SOD1 activity was only 0.686, and our study is a preliminary data with a limited internal and external validity. Despite these limitations, we strongly believe that our data contribute relevant knowledge regarding the roles of SOD as early predictor of AKI in patients with septic shock.
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Therapeutic Effect of Deferasirox and Glycine on Chronic Cadmium Toxicosis in Rats

Therapeutic Effect of Deferasirox and Glycine on Chronic Cadmium Toxicosis in Rats

The activities of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, EC 1.11.1.9.) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, Ec 1.15.1.1) were determined in washed red blood cells obtained immediately after sampling from heparinized blood. Hemolyzed cells were stored frozen at −70 °C awaiting analysis. Glutathione peroxidase activity was measured according to Paglia and Valentine by commercially available kits (Ransel test kit, Randox Laboratories Ltd. G.B.) (Paglia and Valentine, 1967). For evaluation of activity of superoxide dismutase, superoxide radicals generated by the xanthine oxidase reaction convert 1-(4-iodophenyl) 3-(4-nitrophenol)-5- phenyltetrazolium chloride quantitatively to a formazan dye (Ransod test kit, Randox Laboratories Ltd. G.B.). Conversion of superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide by superoxide dismutase inhibits dye formation and serves as a measure of superoxide dismutase activity. The activity of catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) was determined by colorimetric method, described by Slaughter & O’brien that involves two steps. Since the rate of dismutation of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen is proportional to the concentration of catalase, samples were first incubated with a known amount of hydrogen peroxide. The remaining hydrogen peroxide, following a fixed incubation period, was then determined by the oxidative coupling reaction of 4-aminophenazone (4-aminoantipyrene, AAP) and 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxy- benzenesulfonic acid (DHBS) in the presence of H 2 O 2 and
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The Influence Water Extract of Black Soybean  (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) on Reducing of Blood Glucose Level and The Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Activity on Diabetes Mellitus Rats Induced With Multiple Low Dose of Streptozotocin (MLD-STZ)

The Influence Water Extract of Black Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) on Reducing of Blood Glucose Level and The Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Activity on Diabetes Mellitus Rats Induced With Multiple Low Dose of Streptozotocin (MLD-STZ)

Theoretically, mechanism for reducing glucose occurs due to insulin secretion. The decrease of blood glucose levels after treatment with extract of black soybean possibly can improve pancreatic tissues to increase insulin secretion. This secretion occurs in the presence of GLUT-2 (glucose transporter) in pancreatic-β-cells in charge for carrying glucose from the blood into the cells. Glucose enters pancreatic-β-cells to further process for glycolysis and phosporilation produce adenosine triphospat (ATP). The resulted ATP is required to activate the closing of kalium-channels in pancreatic-β-cells membrane. This wa followed by opening of calsium-channels. The opening of Ca-channels directs calsium ions enter the cell and increase concentration of calsium ions in cell. A high concentration of calsium in cell are required by pancreatic-β-cells to secrete insulin [9].
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Superoxide and superoxide dismutase in pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction

Superoxide and superoxide dismutase in pulmonary hypoxic vasoconstriction

Gene silencing through dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) has been described in C elegans and Drosophila. We, and others, have recently described RNAi in mammalian cells mediated by small dsRNAs of 21–23 nucleotides (nts) termed short interfering RNAs (siR- NAs) (Caplen NJ, PNAs 2002). Here, we provide preliminary proof of principle that gene silencing through RNAi can be achieved in lung in vivo. Balb/C mice (female 6–8 weeks) were simultaneously transfected with pcDNA3CAT (80µg/mouse ) and 22 nts siRNA cor- responding to CAT (40µg/mouse ) or an irrelevant control siRNA, each complexed with the cationic lipid GL67 (n=12 in both groups). Forty eight hours after transfection the lungs were harvested and CAT activity assayed. CAT expression was reduced by 90% in animals treated with CAT siRNA, when compared to controls (control siRNA: 736.9 (437) pg CAT/mg protein, CAT siRNA: 80.1 (31.4) pg CAT/mg protein, p<0.001. A potential confounding factor is the co-transfection of the plasmid and siRNA, allowing for a non- posttranscriptional silencing mechanism of action. To address this, we compared the silencing of the green fluorescent protein (eGFP) using a siRNA against eGFP either in cells co-transfected with eGFP plasmid and siRNA or cells stably expressing a destabilised version of eGFP (eGFPd2) transfected with siRNA alone. The degree of silencing in both cases exceeded 90%. We have recently shown that, in contrast to the liver, uptake of DNA into the nucleus of airway epithelial cells is extremely inefficient in vivo. However, cytoplasmic transfection can be readily achieved. RNAi has been shown to primarily act within the cytoplasmic compartment and so may offer a major advantage over conventional antisense strategies that have been proposed for several disorders. Although the pathophysiology in CF is not completely understood, several proteins may provide good targets for gene silencing, including the epithelial sodium channel (EnaC), as well as several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-8 and chaperones, which retain delta F508 CFTR within the endoplasmic reticulum.
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Abundance of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase is a negative predictive biomarker for endometriosis associated ovarian cancers

Abundance of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase is a negative predictive biomarker for endometriosis associated ovarian cancers

Sixty-one patients with EAOC treated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shiga University of Med- ical Science Hospital between 1998 and 2017 were en- rolled in this study. The median patient age at the time of surgery was 48 (range, 30–80) years. The median follow-up periods were 66 (range, 1–156) months for progression-free survival (PFS) and 66 (range, 5–156) months for overall survival (OS). The endpoint of the observation period was defined as recurrence or pro- gression by the last visit to the hospital for PFS and as death by the last visit to the hospital for OS. All patients initially underwent surgery and were categorically staged according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2014 criteria. Of 61 patients, eight did not receive platinum-based adjuvant chemo- therapy because of patient compliance or complications. The remaining 53 patients completed standard treat- ment with platinum-based chemotherapy following max- imal surgical debulking. Therefore, all patients were chemotherapy-naive at the time of surgery. Pathological types of EAOC were 41 clear cell and 20 endometrioid carcinomas. Patient samples were selected from primary surgery specimens, including normal ovarian stroma, at the Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital. Forty-three cases (70.5%) had accompanying pathologic- ally (36 cases) or clinically (7 cases) obvious endometri- osis. Clinical and pathological data, age at diagnosis, FIGO stage, elevation in blood marker levels (serum
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