In the summer of 2018, two mothers were shamed for breastfeeding their infants at a public pool. Stephanie Buchanan and her sister-in-law, Mary Davis, were at the pool with all their children, when Buchanan’s youngest became fussy. She could not leave all her children so she simply lowered one strap of her swimsuit and breastfed her infant. This caused others to become uncomfortable and Buchanan was approached by a lady who asked her to stop because her sons were swimming nearby (Raddatz, 2018). But, it didn't stop there; a staff member requested that Buchanan be more discrete or go to the locker room to breastfeed, and when she refused, the police were called (Campisi & Ahmed, 2018). This all happened in the state of Minnesota, where the law states that “a mother may breastfeed in any location, public or private, where the mother and child are otherwise authorized to be, irrespective of whether the nipple of the mother's breast is uncovered during or incidental to the breastfeeding” (The Office of Revisor of Statutes, 2018). This further emphasizes that legislation is not enough to protect nursing mothers in public, but the principle needs to be socially accepted and respected.
In the field of applied linguistics, CDA has been used enormously in various genres analysing the critical phenomena which leads to the emergence of a certain ideology, power relation and domination within a domain, inequality among races, genders, and social classes. It is perceived that the most crucial aspect where power and domination are exercised is in the life of the public through media. Media is an explicit domain and public is exposed to various ideologies which influence and blind-fold their mind as a certain ideology is enforced on them in their daily life. For example, Zhang (2014) examined the political news reports between the context of American and Iraq in the American Newspapers specifically The New York Times utilizing Fairclough’s three-dimensional framework to investigate the discursivity of text, interactions and context in unmasking the different ideologies. Results revealed a positive ideology for the Bush administration as he was classified as friendly and a liberator while the Iraqi community leader Sadam Hussein was labelled as an enemy which portrayed a negative ideology. Further analysis revealed a biased image on both the countries thus portraying diverse ideological notions. Another study by Mayasari, Darmayanti, and Riyanto (2013) in the context of new reports aimed at unpacking the relationship between the aspects of language and ideology in the Indonesia Daily Newspapers based on the construction of the Corruption Eradication Commission (CEC) building. The clichés between both the parties, CEC and Parliament, have led to a positive ideological formation for the CEC as the public supported the anti-corruption body which encouraged donations in order to construct the building. However, the Parliament strongly opposed the construction of the new building which resulted to a negative ideological image. Thus, the negative ideological construction towards the Parliament has been created as members in the Parliament are believed to be corrupted and are involved in corruption.
Critical Discourse Analysis centers on authentic everyday com- munication in institutional, media, political or other locations rather than on sample sentences or sample texts constructed in Linguists‘ minds. [CDA] regards both written and spoken, discourse, as a form of social practice. It assumes a dialectical relationship between particular discursive acts and the situat- ions, institutions and social structures in which they are embe- dded: the situational, institutional and social contexts shape and affect discourse, and, in turn, discourses influence social and political reality. In other words, discourse constitutes soc- ial practice and is at the same time constituted by it (p. 65). Regarding the aim of CDA, Janks (1997) states it is to unmask ide- ologically permeated and often obscured structures of power, political control, and dominance, as well as strategies of discriminatory inclusion and exclusion in language in use. There is a three-dimensional frame- work for studying discourse, where the aim is to map three separate forms of analysis onto one another: the analysis of (spoken or written) language texts, the analysis of discourse practice (processes of text pro- duction, distribution and consumption), and the analysis of discursive events as instances of sociocultural practice.
theory (Austin 1962; Searle 1969) and convversational implicature (Grice 1975) make a clear distinction between what is said by an utterance and what is implicated or performed in a particular linguistic and social context or by saying something (Korta and Perry 2015). Austin (1962) provided a framework for connecting the literal meaning of an utter- ance with its intended meaning. He argued that every utterance has three layers of meaning: (i) a locutionary act that corresponds to the act of saying something with words, (ii) an illocutionary act, which conveys the speaker’s intended meaning on the basis of the existence of a social practice, conventions, or “constitutive” rules in doing things with words (like ordering, offering, warning, promising, etc.), and (iii) a perlocutionary act that reflects the listener’s perception of the speaker’s intended meaning, that is, the effect a locutionary act has on the feelings, thoughts, or actions of either the speaker or the listener (like inspiring, amusing, persuading, etc.). For example, the illocutionary act of the utterance I am free next week, shall we meet on Friday? is a suggestion, while its intended perlocutionary effect might be to invite the hearer to fix a particular day to meet. The illocutionary act is a central aspect of the speech-act theory, developed later by Searle (1969).
However, one of the great advantages of using mass media to promote EBF is that mass media can reach a wider audience than is typically reached through interpersonal counseling by health workers. If carefully crafted, mass media messaging can simultaneously reach pregnant women, nursing mothers, mothers-in-laws and other influential women, fathers, and health professionals. Also, mass media can help change social norms more broadly and shape the environment regarding the target behavior (for example, create a more favorable environment towards EBF). Another advantage of a mass mediated strategy for promoting EBF is that women already have everything they need to exclusively breastfeed. In theory, there are no services that need to be organized (as with vaccinations) or products that need to be distributed (as with anti-malaria bed nets); this contributes to making mass media an appropriate strategy for promoting EBF. In addition, mass media can be particularly effective in reaching new and changing target audiences on a regular basis with repeated messages. This is especially important for EBF because the primary target audience (pregnant and lactating mothers) is constantly changing.
Rumour stance classification, defined as classifying the stance of specific socialmedia posts into one of supporting, denying, querying or commenting on an ear- lier post, is becoming of increasing interest to researchers. While most previous work has focused on using individual tweets as classifier inputs, here we report on the performance of sequential classifiers that exploit the discourse features inher- ent in socialmedia interactions or ‘conversational threads’. Testing the effective- ness of four sequential classifiers – Hawkes Processes, Linear-Chain Conditional Random Fields (Linear CRF), Tree-Structured Conditional Random Fields (Tree CRF) and Long Short Term Memory networks (LSTM) – on eight datasets as- sociated with breaking news stories, and looking at different types of local and contextual features, our work sheds new light on the development of accurate stance classifiers. We show that sequential classifiers that exploit the use of dis- course properties in socialmedia conversations while using only local features, outperform non-sequential classifiers. Furthermore, we show that LSTM using a reduced set of features can outperform the other sequential classifiers; this per- formance is consistent across datasets and across types of stances. To conclude, our work also analyses the different features under study, identifying those that best help characterise and distinguish between stances, such as supporting tweets
Work plays a major role in nearly every facet of our lives. Negative and positive experiences at work places can have significant social and per- sonal impacts. Employment condition is an im- portant social determinant of health. But how exactly do jobs influence our lives, particularly with respect to well-being? Many theories address this question (Archambault and Grudin, 2012; Schaufeli and Bakker, 2004), but they are hard to validate as well-being is influenced by many fac- tors, including geography as well as social and in- stitutional support.
This framing is further evidenced in the language choices of the pre-fabricated tweets provided at the bottom of the website: “ Let ’ s get our priorities straight – subsidies to the rich cost us 54x as much as beneﬁt fraud <website-url> #beneﬁtsstreet ” [Pre-fab tweets, Parasite Street website], see Figure 1c for further examples. Here, the term “ Let ’ s get our priorities straight ” initially conveys a sense of action through “ let ’ s get ” , while “ us ” and “ our ” engenders an inclusive element to the message that aims to reach out to the reader. This phrase explicitly states the priorities of society are wrong, and that we need to ﬁ x them. It is hinted that this can be achieved, or at least elucidated, through reading the Parasite Street website. By ascribing emotion and politics, the tweets appeal to not only the reader of the Parasite Street website who is choosing which tweet to share, but to readers of the #bene ﬁ tsstreet Twitter feed who will also see these tweets. The pre- fabricated tweet mechanism could be described as slacktivistic in nature. It relies on a simple interaction (click a button), and it is headed with the words “ Share this if you agree ” . Therefore, readers are encouraged to participate in sharing the Parasite Street discussion on socialmedia as a way of expressing their agreement, and the content of the tweets does not incite readers to carry out any further political participation, such as attending a rally. This falls neatly into the deﬁnition of slacktivism as presented by Morozov (2012). However, SR ’ s intention here was to create a talking point around the issues raised in the website, without any further political aspiration. This stance is reinforced by SR during the interviews:
Abstract This study examines the nature of the socialdiscourse of advertising used as a brand positioning discourse. The focus is on consumer advertising, which is directed towards the promotion of some product or service to the general public. The study, however, is not meant to exhaust all the aspects of this particular discourse, or present an answer to all the problems it poses. This paper aimed at analyzing some different commercial advertisements (product/non-product ads) to investigate the intentions and techniques of consumer product companies to reach more consumers and sell more products. Norman Fairclough's 3-D model and Kress and van Leeuwen's grammar of visual design were used to analyze the data for professionals, but we are pointed on using stereotypes. Traditionally, stereotypes are defined as patterns or schemes via which people organize their behaviors and activities. Psychologists have been extremely interested in the persuasion techniques used by advertisers. The implicate question that most of such studies have entertained is whether advertising has become a force molding cultural mores and individual behaviors, or whether it constitutes no more than a “mirror” of deeper cultural tendencies within urbanized contemporary society. The one thing which everyone agrees is that advertising has become one of the most recognizable and appealing forms of social communication to which everyone in society is exposed. However, it could be understood from the results that the producers, generally tend to use their power and ideology to change people's behaviour and thought. Sometime more efficiently is used ”old” stereotypes and do not try to going to change people’s behaviuor but do conversely use their power to preserve previous behaviour try to reinforces this behaviour, shown this like some traditional value what confirmed customers identity. When we consider gender stereotypes we look at notions about the supposedly traditional behaviours of men and women and the characteristics and standards of these behaviours, as grounded in our culture and society. This idea allows to producers make customer feel belonging to this society and psychologically be involved into story what is shown by advertisers. Culture covers human values, action patterns,
differences. A researcher regards this manifestation of cultural identity as a special form of representation of ethnic dialogue in the language . However, the lack of a "hyphenated form" of identity consists in the isolation of a smaller social group through its specific nomination from a large ethnic, national community, and in creating the ground for a discourse of hate in the society on the basis of "own vs. alien". In the Russian mediadiscourse ethnonyms consisting of two or more lexical items are also present, as evidenced by the following headlines: На МКС полетят русский киргиз и американский китаец / The Russian Kirghiz and the American Chinese will fly to the International Space Station (ISS); Русский татарин /Russian Tatar; Российский гастарбайтер прислуживал английской королеве / Russian gastarbeiter served the English queen. Unlike the dominating in the German language, the hyphenated form of writing (bilexeme), the form of the binary substantive- attributive phrase in Russian possesses the transparency of the main and dependent word. In the role of the main constituent of the phrase is usually presented a noun.
Reddit.com is divided into over a million different affinity spaces, or subreddits. Subreddits are forums collectively sustained by participants who share and facilitate knowledge production through writing. Reddit.com users, or Redditors, can join various subreddits to “find, share, rate, and discuss content and opinions in real time from all over the web” (“About”, 2006). While the network explicates a list of guidelines for users to follow, the network’s individual subreddits are primarily self-policed by community members and moderators. Like other users, moderators are interest-driven participants within the subreddit motivated to ensure productive, meaningful discourse.
phrases might exert stronger effects when they include certainty terms (e.g., “arrived extremely late”), or they might be attenuated by tentative terminology (e.g., “it was kind of nice”). The differential effects these types of sentiments have on overall sentiment strength remain unexplored. In addition, SAT recognizes that sentiment strength can be expressed implicitly (Perrault and Allen 1980), an idea that remains underexplored in consumer literature (Kronrod and Danziger 2013). For example, we know little about the distinct impacts of recommendations (e.g., “You must read this book”) versus promises (e.g., “I will keep buying his books”) versus statements on overall sentiment strength. Finally, consistent with research on mixed emotions (Aaker, Drolet, and Griffin 2008) and advances in text modeling (Buschken and Allenby 2015), perhaps patterns in an overall discourse convey meaning, beyond that implied by the individual sentences. For example, sentiment incoherence and trends in a message (e.g., moving from negative to positive sentiment) might influence the overall tone of a review (Goldberg and Zhu 2006; van Dijk 1997). Drawing on SAT, we therefore investigate the differential, asymmetric, and direct effects of these three speech act features on consumer sentiment strength, which enables us to offer three main research contributions.
The punctuation marks listed above characterize the standard, normative use of a written speech. Today, under the influence of virtual electronic communication forms (sites, blogs, chats, instagram and other social networks, etc.), the norms of punctuation are increasingly violated, becoming freer and more mobile, which is reflected in the fact that some punctuation marks start to perform unusual functions, i.e. they are used in an unusual context, sometimes erroneously, sometimes performing other functions (for example, playing or ludic). So, some interesting examples of the unusual use of an apostrophe in the modern English language are cited by L. Truss, cf. .: Come inside for CD's, DVD's, VIDIO's and BOOK's [1, p.1], where the apostrophe marks the plural forms of nouns.
To this extent, therefore, it becomes possible to see that media would have to a certain degree, acculturated the sample used in this hypothetical study. This would be so because the programmes watched and listened to during the experimentation might be seen as more ideal and, subsequently, favoured above other programme types. In due course, the programmes preferred would impact on attitude and behaviour. This acculturation may be temporary or permanent depending on other social and psychological realities. The fact that media acculturates people is not new in scholarship, though it continues to be an on-going discussion in contemporary debates. Answers such as “how exactly”, and “to what specific degree”, remain the major challenges.
Let me end by briefly clarifying the implications of the approach signposted here. I have suggested it might be productive for critical mediadiscourse researchers to examine what social actors do with the term “ideology”, and other signifiers of ideological commitment, in media spaces. Attention is focused on how popular subjectivities are discursively positioned through the mediatized naming and non- naming of identities as “ideological”, “neoliberal”, “political”, and so on. In one sense, this approach is consistent with what researchers have been doing all along; CDA scholars are hardly indifferent to the ideological potency of labels. However, when mediated by an analytical perspective that is less concerned with documenting the semantic organisation of individual texts, it offers an empirical route into critically understanding the ideological and political comportment of neoliberalized regimes that are articulated as post-ideological. As with traditional ideology critique, this approach is attentive to the ideologically distorting effects of media representations. Yet, it also recasts ideology as “a property of politics, not a malfunction” (Finlayson 2012, p. 753). It questions its historical status as a pejorative category of critical analysis.
discourse. That is, discourse analysts see all discourse as social practice. People use discourse to do things - to offer blame, to pay compliments, to present themselves in a positive light, etc. To highlight this is to underline the fact that discourse does not occur in a social vacuum. As social actors we are continuously orienting to the interpretative context in which we find ourselves, and constructing our discourse to fit that context. This is very obvious in relatively formal contexts such as hospitals or courtrooms, but it is equally true of all other contexts too. To take a crude example, you might give a different account of what you did last night depending upon whether the person inquiring was your mother, your boss or your best friend. It is not that you would
It is true that the concept of media convergence was based on an actual examination on technological changes that was brought about by the development of digital and transmission technologies. However, at the same time, the term has strong sense of prediction, as the concept presumes that it will be expanded over media. In other words, the concept was often regarded as a revolutionary phenomenon that will impact the overall media, culture and society. For example, European Commission’s Convergence Green Paper (1997) which initiated the discussion of media convergence in Europe, showed that media convergence is strongly linked to the vision of Information Society. In the paper, it was noted that “convergence is not just about technology. It is about services and about new ways of doing business and of interacting with society. […] The emergence of new services and the development of existing services are expected to expand the overall information market […]” (European Commission, 1997:ii). Furthermore, Jenkins (2001:93) also saw that “media convergence is sparking a range of social, political, economic and legal disputes because of conflicting goals of consumers, producers and gatekeepers […] the digital renaissance will be the best of times and the worst of times, but a new cultural order will emerge from it”. Accordingly, Dwyer (2010:8) said, “convergence is never just a technological process but is implicated in, and expressed as, profound and ongoing social, cultural and economic change”. In line with this, Vick (2006:27) rightly captured that the concept of media convergence was being inflated in the UK. He said, “it did not take long for ‘convergence’ to take on broader meanings. The term acquired a near-utopian resonance for some, who prophesied that the physical characteristics and functions of different media fora would become indistinguishable, the variety of available programming and content unbounded, and special regulation of communications industries unnecessary”. Therefore, it can be said that in many cases, the concept of media convergence has been used in the context of imagination and presumption about the future of media and society. And it seems that this is partially attributed from the concept’s broadness and ambiguity, as examined above. That is, because the concept was not a specific demonstration of a phenomenon, it could be easily manipulated to be an inflated concept.
Socialmedia became a platform popular for Gen- eration X (Gen X): those born between 1965 and 1984 (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010). Although Gen-Xers began the socialmedia movement, forms such as Twitter have been adopted by nearly all age groups. Twitter is a social net- working website where users can send and read micro- blogs of 140 characters or less called tweets, as well as fol- low other individuals and groups (Kwak, Lee, Park, & Moon, 2010). Between 2007 and mid-2008, a 19% increase was noted for Internet users who reviewed blogs, added comments to reviewer websites, and joined social network- ing sites. Approximately 70% of Internet users use socialmedia websites for information purposes, while 60% use it as a way to pass information along to family and friends (Fisher, 2009). The Internet has become an important marketing tool as well as a tool to analyze how individuals interact with each other.
migration, and the social incorporation of newcomers’ (Price & Chacko, 2012, p. 8). Recognising the increasing challenges for cities to support the social incorporation of newcomers and their resettlement, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) developed a framework to assist local authorities to welcome new arrivals and promote ‘supportive public attitudes’ (Taran, Neves de Lima & Kadysheva, 2016, p. 40). The report outlines a framework for success that includes inclusivity, equality, anti-discrimination, anti-racism and anti-xenophobia. The framework also stresses that a deliberate strategy from the media is essential. In contrast to this, the Australian media has cemented negative perceptions of young refugees by sensationalising the connection between youth violence and refugees from African and Pasifika 2 nations.
In this paper, we make two main contributions: (1) We suggest global computational models for operationalizing the Moral Foundations Theory. Given the highly connected structure of the polit- ical sphere on socialmedia, identifying the sim- ilarity between users’ ideologies based on their behavior can significantly improve performance. Our experiments in Section 5 validate this hypoth- esis, showing that our modeling approach is able to perform better than human annotation for moral foundations classification in both supervised and unsupervised settings, and highlighting that mod- els using behavioral information can outperform language-based baselines.