Better utilizing a limited data set becomes the major concern in developing such a method. Efforts are basically divided into two categories, focusing on accurate source location and focal mechanism, respectively. Tremendous work has been done to better locate a seismic event in the context of the CTBT. Various strategies include devel- oping new techniques for more accurate travel time measurements, utilizing travel times together with slowness and azimuth information (e.g. Bond´ ar and North, 1999; Bond´ ar et al., 1999; Uhrhammer et al., 2001), implementing better regional velocity models (e.g. Kremenetskaya et al., 2001), and deriving various source-specific station corrections (e.g. Yang et al., 2001a,b; Ryaboy et al., 2001). At the same time, rather than focusing on travel times of impulsive body wave phases, Yacoub (1996) reported locations of 16 nuclear explosions that were well determined by using arrival times of the maximum Rayleigh wave energy estimated over a narrow frequency band of 17– 23 s, in the same manner as P -wave travel times are used. Similar experiments and results were reported later by Stevens et al. (2001). The improvement on epicenter location from various validation tests is encouraging. Accurate depth determination is, however, still an open issue.
The one–way wave equation approach has been shown to accurately simulate the propagation of elastic waves in generally–anisotropic (for the elastic case) and smoothly varying heterogeneous, 3D media. Since the one–way propagator can be implemented in the frequency domain, I have shown also the poten- tial of modeling wave propagation in visco–elastic media, such as the case of frequency–dependent fractured media. Although the vector elastic narrow–angle wave equation is the most restrictive of all the elastic one–way wave equations derived by , it does allow the closest examination of the influence of the elasticity tensor on wave propagation in terms of the local directional prop- erties of the slowness surface and polarizations. Furthermore, adaptation to curvilinear coordinates can improve the narrow–angle restriction , increas- ing the range of allowable slownesses as well as introducing point–sources. A key feature of the one–way approach is the ability to model gradual vector (for the narrow–angle equations) and scalar (for the acoustic wide–angle equation) waveform evolution along the underlying wavefront. This is important because the Earth displays not only vertical, but also lateral variations in heterogeneity and anisotropy. Across a dense array of receivers, the gradual evolution of the seismic wavefield is observable and the variations in the frequency dependent effects due to anisotropy and heterogeneity can be significant. The capability of modeling the evolution of these wave phenomena across an array can not only help in constraining both the vertical and lateral variations in material properties, but also highlight significant observable wave phenomena. Thus, it is expected that the one–way propagator approach will be useful for a range of transmitted wave 3D global, exploration and engineering scale applications.
The main objective of inverters is to produce an AC output waveform from a DC power supply where the amplitude, phase, and frequency of the voltage should always be controllable which is a requirement for many applications such as adjustable speed drives (ASDs), uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), active filters, etc 
In this paper, we have proposed a multiple mobile anchor based localization technique using Particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. PSO is used to determine the trajectory of the mobile anchor nodes which is based upon the node density and the distance between the nodes in the network. We consider three anchor nodes for localization. The mobile anchor nodes broadcast packets according to the PSO visiting schedule. It contains id and location to the visited sensor nodes. The unknown nodes having less received signal strength (RSS) value than the mobile anchor nodes on receiving the packet calculates the estimated distance between each of the mobile anchors to the unknown node. Each unknown node maintains anchor list having the anchor coordinates and estimated distance. After that, localization of the node is done using trilateration method. The unknown node will get two anchors from the list and localize them using trilateration method with the reference node which is the mobile anchor node having least distance to the unknown node. From our simulation results, we have shown that the localization delay is reduced since multiple mobile anchor nodes are used and the visiting schedule of the mobile anchors enables it to traverse through the dense and sparse network.
RAM [23-26] is a multi-view modeling approach that combines different modeling approaches to model aspect-oriented class, sequence and state diagrams into one approach. This allows the use of the most appropriate notation to model each view of a system. The RAM’s notion that it views all of the concerns that are potentially reusable in a single system or a set of systems as aspects makes it different from other aspect-oriented modeling approaches. This essentially enhances, as well as supports, the reusability at all levels of development. Different views, i.e., structure, message, and state views, of a reusable concern are encapsulated in a special UML package, which represents the aspect model. The model comprises of three compartments. These compartments use a UML class, state and sequence diagrams each corresponding to the structural, state, and message view of the modeled concern, respectively.
An efficient bit-sequence based, one-pass algorithm, called MFI-Trans-SW (Mining Frequent Item sets within a Transaction-sensitive Sliding Window), to mine the set of frequent item sets from data streams inside a transaction-sensitive sliding window which contains a rigid number of transactions has been suggested by Hua-Fu Li and Suh-Yin Lee . The suggested MFI-TransSW algorithm contains three phases: window initialization, window sliding and pattern generation. Initially, every item of each transaction is programmed in an efficient bit-sequence representation in the window initialization phase. The suggested bit-sequence representation of the item was applied to diminish the time and memory required to slide the windows in the subsequent phases. Next, MFI-TransSW applied the left bit- shift method to slide the windows competently in the window sliding phase. At last, the entire set of frequent item sets inside the current sliding window was created by a level-wise technique in the pattern generation phase. Experimental studies demonstrated that the suggested algorithm not only achieves highly precise mining results, but also run considerably faster and devoured less memory than do presented algorithms for mining frequent itemsets over data streams with a sliding window.
User plane latency: is the average time between the first transmission of a data packet and the reception of a physical layer ACK. One-way user plane latency is half the round trip (RTT) user plane latency. LTE requirement is that one-way latency across the radio access network (RAN) is as low as 5 ms in optimal conditions but the value is dependent on the system loading and radio propagation conditions. This value corresponds to an RTT of 10 ms which is challenging to achieve in practice.
When an application is completely parallelized into n different tasks implemented by n resources at the same time, the performance can be improved when the reliability of the network and computing resources are high. Otherwise, it will cause the application to restart, demanding a number of redundant computational and network resources to perform the same tasks, particularly for those failure-prone grid resources. Assigning many redundant resources for the applications may improve the system reliability can reduce the performance of the system by not fully utilizing the resources with more jobs assigned to it [7, 10]. Thus, the performance, and the reliability should be examined together.
A text understanding technology, Opinion mining assists people locate relevant opinions in a large review collection volume. An opinion mining technology based search engine shows potential to address this issue. An opinion- mining tool pores over product reviews for extraction of opinion units saving them in opinion databases. When users input opinion- searching query, search engine extracts product names and attribute from query, forwards a complicated SQL query to opinion database and displays output on Web interface. Opinion-search engines arrange information based on opinion and not on the document. Hence, product review information is accessed quickly/easily .
Each user in the organizational network will be provided with a unique ip for network access after registered with necessary details. The registered information is verified and validated based on the levels of users automatically. That unique ip is the unique login id for RSSE. This login id is used for both validation and agreement process. Based on the id and default gateway, history details are stored and aids for the proposed algorithm as it contains what type of query was processed for which ip from which network. The accessibility for the registered user is used to retrieve the required information with more precision.
Power line communication (PLC) is a promising technique for information transmission using existing power lines. PLC technologies can be used in an inside-building low voltage environment, a short-distance medium voltage environment, or a long-distance high voltage environment. Mixed high voltage, medium-voltage, and low-voltage power supply networks could be bridged to form very large networks for communications, as alternative telecommunication networks. In October 2004, the U.S. FCC adopted rules to facilitate the deployment of “Access BPL (Broadbandover Power Line)”, i.e., use of BPL to deliver broadband service to homes and businesses. Several competing organizations have developed specifications, including the HomePlug Powerline Alliance, Universal Powerline Association and HD-PLC Alliance. In October 2009, the ITU-T approved Recommendation G.hn/G.9960 as a standard for supporting high-speed home networking over power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables .
SPAN  is a prominent core selection algorithm which is distributed and asymmetric frame work operates both in singular and non singular solution space. SPAN initially identifies some intermediate nodes having multiple paths between source and receivers and considered as candidate cores. The ultimate cores can be selected based on the optimized cost of the network basing on that core and multipoint path.
The emergence of Internet and computer science in general has established to have great roles in human’s life through the World Wide Web. E-learning education is dependent on the web as an important advance in technology; therefore, it is crucial for the humans to access web applications. This applies to the learners with hearing problems as well. This study aims to investigate the deaf learners’ level of interest and satisfaction towards a developed e-learning platform named e-HearMe (http://www.e-hearme.net), which offers e-ICT courses specially designed for deaf learners. To achieve the aim of the study, an interview protocol was used as a research instrument to interview teachers who were teaching in schools offering Hearing-Impaired Education Program. In total, 30 teachers were randomly selected from three schools which were executing the Hearing-Impaired Education Program in the whole Malaysia. The results of the interviews showed that the teachers were really satisfied with the existence of e-HearMe platform as a medium which offers e-ICT courses specifically developed for the deaf learners. The interviewed teachers also stated that they could share and exchange their knowledge with other teachers and students from all over Malaysia, regardless from educational or social purposes.
With the fast growth of wireless technology and wide availability of the wireless hotspots in indoor areas, wireless network system is now considered as the best option in developing a robust indoor localization network. This is due to its scarcity and the availability of the network when the users are in indoor location. WLAN technology does not require any additional hardware to be installed, efficient in cost utilization and affordable to be implemented.
computation on entity-relation graphs. Hopcroft et al.  tracked evolving communities of computer science research papers by exploring the CiteSeer citation graph from 1998 and 2001. Joorabchi and Mahdi  used CiteSeer documents to evaluate the performance of their automatic classification of research papers according to a standard library classification scheme. Popescul et al.  employed CiteSeer data to train and test their new classifier that categorized research papers into publication venues. Šingliar and Hauskrecht  performed a component analysis of a partial CiteSeer citation graph. Zhou et al.  used thousands of CiteSeer documents in the construction of a real-world network to test their graph partitioning algorithm for the discovery of temporal communities of computer science researchers. Chen et al.  proposed a system based on the coauthorship network of CiteSeer X to recommend potential collaborators. He et al.  designed a recommender system suggesting cited references for a given article based on the many citation contexts available in CiteSeer X . Abstracts from CiteSeer X documents were employed in the construction of hierarchical topic-based communities of authors by Wu and Koh .
Currently, a number of biometric based technologies are in use and hand-based person identification is one of these technologies mainly used. This technology provides a reliable, low cost and user-friendly solution for a range of access control applications (Kumar and Zhang 2003). Some features related to a human hand are relatively invariant and distinctive to an individual. Among these features, the palmprint modality has been systematically employed for human recognition, using the palm patterns. The rich texture information of a palmprint offers one of the powerful means in personal identification (Fang and Maylor 2004). In contrast to other modalities, like the face and iris, hand based biometric recognition offers some distinct advantages. Firstly, data acquisition is simple using off the shelf low-resolution cameras, and its processing is also relatively simple. Secondly, hand based access systems are highly suitable for several usages. Finally, hand features are more stable over time and are not susceptible to major changes (Sricharan and Reddy 2006).
For the past few years, scholars have concentrated on evaluation of website quality. Former benchmark assessments were focused on number of hits a website can handle within a given time. Some of the evaluation models and techniques were discussed in this section. Academicians of  have evaluated the quality of different Malaysian University websites using a hybrid model. The model is the combination of Linear Weighted Model (LWM) and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP). They have calculated the page size, response time, load, broken link, accessibility errors, optimal score, etc, using the hybrid model proposed. The model proposed were better performed and also fairly guaranteed the performances on the criteria. This work has some limitations in terms of time factor and number of sample size used for evaluation. In  to evaluate the website, authors used neural network. Experimental results section of that paper showed that, neural network based technique have evaluated the website very quickly and accurately. Authors of  have analyzed the quality of e-commerce website based on the information systems success model and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). They have found that three major quality factors of website have different effect on user satisfaction as shown in Table 1.