The circular economy, which reimagines waste as an economic opportunity, has been largely overlooked by traditional entrepreneurs. One explanation for this oversight is that limited information flow and cognitive bias constrain recognition of entrepreneurialopportunities and development of ventures. Expanding the role of the incubator can address barriers to circular economy entrepreneurship. Our proposed model of CE-focused business incubators relies on multiple stakeholders to provide information critical to ideation. These stakeholders include firms seeking economical ways to manage waste, firms that might use waste as value-added input, government agencies and circular economy analysts that can provide potentially beneficial information flows, e.g. via Material Flows Analysis. Entrepreneurs are recruited to develop circular economy ventures. As circular economy brings economic and environmental benefits, the government is called on to support initial financing, but the final start-ups stand on their own as enterprises worthy of venture capital funding. The collaborative environment promotes profitable CE behavior, benefiting participating actors. In the development of the model, two challenges, in particular, are identified; access to relevant information, and the development of a supportive network. I conclude that CE-focused incubators will benefit local economies as well as the environment, and advocate for studying the application of CE-focused incubators. Introduction
In this ‘power with’ township, government and the private sector must work together to develop the township economy. Indeed, it will take concerted, coordinated and committed action by all stakeholders working collaboratively for township economies to develop. Government policy and legislation must result in favourable regulations for small businesses, in the township and elsewhere, so that they can play a significant role in the process of economic development. Government and the private sector should improve the quality of entrepreneurial training. The private sector can partner with or mentor small-business owners in the townships so that the small-business owners can learn from them. By so doing, the township economy would be improved greatly. Entrepreneurship must start with human empowerment; that is, addressing issues of identity, self-worth intra- and interpersonal relationships. These must be coupled with business skills to make a successful entrepreneur. Therefore, the author proposes the following model of entrepreneurship: Identity → interpersonal → business skills. Given the author’s experience and observations in Nellmapius, the author believes that unless entrepreneurial training starts with development of personal identity and includes modules on intra- and interpersonal relationships, business skills training alone will not be effective in creating the socially minded entrepreneurs needed to develop the township economy.
RE would help in fostering an economy that is based on the real innovative and entrepreneurial spirit that meet the demands for dynamic and diverse conditions. The drive to establish tolerance and resilience stimulates the competition and drive towards more innovation that creates more sustainable employment opportunities, specifically for youth in the Arab and developing countries. These attempts should lessen the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic sudden shock and reduce total socio-economic dependency on the specific type of sector or activities or resources. Buheji (2017), William and Vorley (2017).
Nations wealth or poverty depends on the capacity it quality skills and acquisitions acquired or not acquired in the development of the economy. Nations like America, China, Singer pore, Germany, Indonesia etc. used their well experience’s to develop their nations with manipulation of skills through individuals and self-help to rise the economy to a level where others nations cannot compete with. The sharp decline for employment opportunities emerges the high desires for entrepreneurial education in our country, where hope of tomorrow is in a continuous increase in the society and the government is on the pressing needs of hard works through skills, initiative and good performance to curb social devices among youths. Indeed, business education programmes are structure through well curriculum planners that catered the desires of our national growth. At the same time, business education program provides students with information about all aspect of business. Business education program should include courses in accounting, marketing, fiancé and management.
The first industrial policy of Bangladesh was announced in 1972. It had heavily emphasized the role of public sector as well as the role of private sector in economic development. But, the investment from private sector was made restricted to only BDT 25 lakh. With passage of time, this policy was revised several times. The last industrial policy was announced in 2010. Government has reiterated the importance of achieving Millennium Development Goals in its industrial policy. It has set a target to achieve and sustain a 10% GDP growth rate starting from 2017 up to at least 2021 by when the target is to become a middle-income country. Unfortunately, much of the target has not yet been achieved. Although, the millennium development goals have been achieved and the country is now working on achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) by 2030. In order to become a middle-income country by 2021, Bangladesh needed to grow at a rate of 8% between 2013 to 2017 and at a rate of 10% thereafter till 2021, which is yet to be achieved. Current growth rate, however, is definitely enviable. In the latest industrial policy, the Government has also stated that it is going to focus more on the development of the labor- intensive industrialization with special attention to the SME sector. The policy also stated that the Government is giving attention to the development of private initiatives or entrepreneurship in order to develop the economy and to reduce poverty significantly. In line with the past as well as the current industrial policies, the Government has taken several initiatives to run several EDPs throughout the country. Some of them are stated below: (MOI, 2019)
The main tool for making progress in our four priority areas is economic growth. Only growth can help people to help themselves. The private sector is key to growth, provided that it works in a sustainable way. Naturally, my government is well aware that without a skilled labour force, progress will be slow. For that exact reason we persist in supporting vocational training. Three examples. We participate in public-private partnerships like Learn4Work, to provide good and accessible vocational training. We support vocational training programmes through Dutch cofinancing agencies. And more than 50% of Dutch embassies in developing countries invest in vocational training.
Furthermore, the identified key issues or problem areas that are crucial for SWM can be ranked according to its relevance by the ULBs. In the context of the issue of SWM, the ULBs of the region are found to lack consistent assessment of their internal and external environment, as a part of the strategic process. With the assessment of the internal and external environment, the ULBs of the region can achieve clarity about its strengths and opportunities along with the identification of its weaknesses and the challenges they face. The ULBs of the region are primarily responsible for the collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste. The exploration of the status of this responsibility revealed a wretched state of SWM in the region. The strategic approach would provide for a mechanism of manpower as well as an audit and identification of deficiencies for the ULBs in providing the service towards SWM.
Both of these dealmakers are differentiated from other profiles based on their vocational background and technical expertise, each possessing skill sets and expertise that allow them to support new firms through their unique bundle of capabilities. In the case of RTP, these two bridge-builder dealmakers cite experience with supporting multiple successful private ventures in their biographical sketches, while serving in a fiduciary role for only three concurrent firms. Indeed, the biographies indicate that both dealmakers cited possess the deepest experience with the widest array of firms in RTP in a non-fiduciary role. Put more simply, these dealmakers serve as intermediaries and have the widest breadth of contacts among the RTP entrepreneurial community. While only fiduciary ties would appear in the algorithm, the biographical information and position descriptions for this profile suggest that they have much greater impact on a broader range of firms than any other category of dealmaker, well beyond the fiduciary ties identified through this analysis. The bridging roles of attorneys and accountants in the entrepreneurial networks have been previously cited in the literature, which appears confirmed by this analysis (Kenney & Patton, 2005; Lee et al., 2000). However, the existing research on bridging capital roles of intermediary service providers has been based on interview data and qualitative analysis. This is the first time to the author’s knowledge that these intermediary relationships have been operationalized quantitatively within an existing network pattern based on third-party data.
The percentage of deliveries attended by personnel trained to give the necessary supervision, care, and advice to women during pregnancy, labor, and the post-partum period, to conduct deliveries on their own, and to care for newborns is a good indicator of a health system’s ability to provide adequate care for pregnant women. Good pre- and post-natal care ameliorates mother’s health and reduces both maternal and infant mortality. A study by Dao (2007) finds that lowering infant mortality does result in a reduction in fertility rate in developing countries, which in turn has positive consequences for women’s health. This helps lift families out of the poverty trap. We thus expect the coefficient estimate for this variable to have a negative sign. Finally, another component of health status (hence of human capital) is the prevalence of child malnutrition as measured by the percentage of children under the age of five whose weight for age is less than minus two standard deviations from the median for the international reference population ages 0-60 months. According to the World Health Organization, the most common indicator of malnutrition is the proportion of children who are underweight. In fact, it has been argued that even mild underweight may raise the risk of death and inhibit cognitive development in children. Also, the problem is perpetuated from generation to generation as undernourished mothers tend to have low-birth-weight babies. To capture the tendency of the reinforcement of the vicious cycle of poverty in developing countries we include the child malnutrition variable for both boys and girls and expect the coefficient estimates for these variables to have a positive sign.
Activities of banks that are providing small loans in poor countries are persuaded very positively. The father of the idea of microloans or microcredit is Bangladesh professor of economics Muhammad Junus who decided to solve the problem of poor people, especially women. In 1976, he founded Grameen Bank in Bangladesh which started to borrow small amount of approximately 100 USD to the people in the villages and distant part of the country for their business. Until now 2.4 million people got the loan from this bank of which 95 % were women and loans were from 98 % recovered 13 . The interest makes 20 % which seems to be high but not when we are comparing to the traditional more than 100 %. Nowadays, the microcredits are successfully used in more than 130 countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa. Although the loans start at the very small amount such as 20 USD and only the successful repayment authorize a client to get a bigger loan they may have a big effect on the lives of individuals in the developing world.
Despite the fact that entrepreneurship education has been seen as a factor that can influence the entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions of students simple empirical comparisons are not particularly revealing (Peterman and Kennedy, 2003). For example, Kolvereid and Moen (1997) study of Norwegian business schools show that graduates with an entrepreneurship major are more likely to start a new venture and have significantly stronger entrepreneurial intentions and aspirations than other graduates. At the same time, Oosterbeek, van Praag and Ijsselstein’s (2010) study of an entrepreneurship course in Netherlands suggests an insignificant effect on students’ entrepreneurial skills and even a negative effect on their entrepreneurial intentions to launch a new venture. Furthermore, Souitaris, Zerbinati and Al-Laham (2007), examining the entrepreneurial intentions of students at two universities (London and Grenoble) after taking an entrepreneurship course, show that although the course increased the students’ subjective norms and intentions, this was attributed to the ‘inspirational’ part of the course rather than the knowledge and the resources it provided.
This research was made possible by UNHCR through the competitive call for proposals on measuring the “Economic Impacts of Refugees on Host Economies.” The authors of this report would like to thank the following team members for their assistance with the project: Caroline Skinner, Manal Stalguitis, Vanya Gastrow, Robertson Tengeh, Vimal Ranchhod, Bronwen Dachs and Maria Salamone. Our thanks also to the many key informants and refugee and South African informal entrepreneurs who agreed to be interviewed for the study. Finally, we wish to thank John Ravenhill, Tiffany Bradley and Jo-Anne Weston at the Balsillie School of International Affairs and Theresa Beltramo at UNHCR for their support.
Sarasvathy views the individual as responsible for initiating the process through either causation or effectuation. The causation process is goal oriented, beginning with a multitude of possible alternatives, from which the potential entrepreneur selects what they think will be the best, fastest and most economically efficient idea, suitable for their skills and resources. In the effectuation process, the set of means is taken as a given. The individual seeks to expand their horizons, from a variety of “localized possibilities to increasingly complex and enduring opportunities fabricated in a contingent fashion over time” (Sarasvathy, 2003, p. 208). In effectuation, the end goal remains uncertain. Neither the opportunity nor the market has yet been developed, and both are contingent on who gets involved and how their abilities and actions will shape the direction of the venture (Read and Sarasvathy, 2005).
The remaining approximately 20% of woodlands in Laela are increasingly under pressure. Villagers relate deforestation, which they perceive as one of the major problems in the village, mainly to charcoal production and firewood collection. Additionally, are houses built from burnt bricks and therefore, as the only potentially successful production requires hot fires over a period of several days, this issue was also considered responsible for deforestation. Furthermore, fires are set to weed grasslands and farm areas which regularly spread into the remaining forests, especially at the end of the dry season. Another reason is the practice of feeding cattle in the remaining forest areas, preventing a natural rejuvenation. As underlying causes for this, villagers stated that no other option exists for them as (low- cost) energy and income opportunities during the dry season are not available. In addition, many villagers are not aware of the problem as (environmental) education is not practiced in the village. One major protection measure could therefore be awareness raising for the positive benefits of sustainable forest management and tree planting campaigns.
RCDA provides guidance on how to use the appropriate practices for any architecting situation and omit practices that would only add waste, making it a very lean architecting approach. RCDA’s focus on risk and cost also makes it mean, enabling architects to focus on what really matters to their stakeholders. In addition, RCDA’s workflow uses architectural concerns as a backlog prioritized by risk and cost, making RCDA agile in dealing with change. RCDA PRACTICES
According to Census of 2011, Indian population is 1.21 billion, and is equal to the combined population of USA, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Japan. Decadal increase in Indian population is 17.64% in which rural population has grown by 12.3% and urban population by 31.8%. India is ranked second among the highest populated countries of this world.The increased population has led to increase in economic activities like production, distribution, exchange and consumption of goods and services, which in turn has resulted in huge waste generation. Waste out of the industrial and personal consumption has been major developmental constraints both for ecology as well as human development. Thus addressing the issue of solid waste in context of India becomes very crucial and demands immediate action oriented approach towards the sustainable solution.The problem becomes more serious and worthy for attention when the amount of waste generated in urban India is projected to increase 101.64 million tons/year by the year 2021. (Table 1) One must acknowledge this issue as problem of urban waste disposal and management would create a contest between increase in population to 342 million in 2021 as compared to constraints of available services and resources (Table 1).
Place and level the first Keystone Arbor Stone unit. Level each additional unit on the base course as you place it, making sure that the outside edges touch. If your wall con- tains both straight and curved areas, start with a straight area and build into the curves. Complete the base course before proceeding to the second course.
generally more interested or disposed towards entrepreneurship. Notwithstanding this self-selection bias, which is an enduring feature of similar studies, our focus was not on the direct effect of the type of course on entrepreneurial intentions, but on its moderation of the effect of self-efficacy. In addition, while we took specific steps to account for self-selection effects across the two types of course, direct generalizations from our findings should be made with care. In addition it would be very interesting in future studies to focus on cases where students attend both theoretically and practically-oriented courses and examine their possible synergistic effects on self- efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions.
There are many elements that affect the project specific cost. The level of scope will define the intensity of gas treatment, which affects the overall equipment count. Fluctuations in the demand for premium materials will dictate the relative cost of equipment. Although site preparation and LNG storage requirements are different for every project, cost intensive marine systems are wholly customized for every location. Sponsors and contractors each have their own contributions to suitably build the project, but site specific labor is a strong cost driver for facilities in a remote location. Lastly, the commercial issues of bringing together sponsors for multi-billion dollar projects results in a cost of raising financing for such an important endeavor.