Top PDF The Role of Bureaucratic Leadership, Organizational Culture, and Organizational Commitment on Organizational Performance (Study on the Local Government Task Force/ SKPD’s Financial Administration Officials in Jayapura City Government)
Organizationalculture does not have significant influence on organizationalperformance. The existing organizationalculture is not yet able to improve organizationalperformance related to budget realization report, balance sheet, and notes on consolidated financial statement. This research does not support the research finding conducted by Le and Yu (2004), and O’Regan and Ghobadian (2004) as they find that organizationalculture influences performance. As the regulation changes, it requires government officers in local government financial management should adapt to the change quickly and accurately. The changes on values, norms, and rule of financial governance of thee local government become the basic guidance in running daily tasks and functions of the financial managers at SKPD level; however, it is actually not that simple due to a lack of ability among those officers. This condition becomes a burden for the local government financial management officers to be able to adjust quickly to change on the regulation and local government financial management procedure; thus, it directly hinders the creation of accountability culture in local government financial management of Jayapura City government.
To realize clean bureaucracy, accountable and transparent, can be achieved only if we have good leadership ability of bureaucracy in improving service to the public, the leadership that is able to interact and communicate with all levels of society, a form of necessary bureaucraticleadership in achieving good governance. According to Bello (2012), stated that ethical leadership are perceived as having a broad ethical awareness and concern for all stakeholders of the which includes employee. In accordance with the vision of the Public Works Department of Bali Province to perform basic tasks and functions, the Public Works Department of Bali Province grounded on the application of the vision of the establishment of reliable environment and regional infrastructure based on the concept of Tri Hita Karana and mission that includes developing the infrastructure of water resources, improve and maintain roads and urban infrastructure, improving spatial planning and settlements and fields of Cipta Karyaan, realize the management and conservation of energy and natural resources and realize the government apparatus based on the principles of good governance.
The magnitude of the contribution of the three variables X1, X2, and X3 to Y endogenous variables is different. The strongest contribution is determined by the variable job satisfaction. The results of the analysis also show that there are still other variables or factors that determine employee performance outside the variables in this study, among others, namely: Organizational structure, challenges, gender, experience, level of education, scope of position, age, personality, role conflict, level difficulties, union presence and level of control. Furthermore, the path structure of the results of this study can be described as follows:
Organizationalculture refers to the “consistent, observable patterns of behavior in organizations.” Another definition by Perrins defines that “organizationalculture is the sum of values and rituals which serve as „glue‟ to integrate the members of the organization” (Watkins, 2013). There is a positive relationship between organizationalculture, organizationalcommitment, and affective commitment (Azizollah, Abolghasem, & Amin, 2016). Studies found that the dimension of organizationalculture, such as future orientation and performance orientation significant impacts organizationalcommitment (Mitic, Vukonjanski, Terek, Gligorovic, & Zoric, 2016). Another study examined the positive impacts of organizationalculture on organizationalcommitment in IT companies of Jordan (Aranki, Suifan, & Sweis, 2019). Literature shows that commitment by employees has a significant relationship with the relation and interaction with the organization, as well as the behavior of organizations‟ management with the employees. The practical strategies designed under the organizationalculture, predict the organizationalcommitment of employees (Dwivedi, Kaushik, & Luxmi, 2014). As the result of organizationalculture, it articulates several behaviors in employees, for instance increasing organizationalcommitment. A positive and significant relationship between organizationalculture and organizationalcommitment was found by Carville and Sudha (2016). Based on the strong relationship between HR practices, organizationalculture and organizationalcommitment, we propose that organizationalculture can play a decisive mediation role between the relationship of HR practices and organizationalcommitment. Thus, we constructed the following hypothesis in this study:
Most Universities across the world are undergoing changes that are considered profound through huge growth in a competitive atmosphere. At present they are facing a number of new challenges such as economic transformation, globalization an growth in science and technology and these in turn do have an impact on organizational goals. Universities usually try to achieve some set goals. The leader is the most important in order to achieve these goals and objectives. The leader who uses the human factor to guide employees to work effectively toward educational organization goals appears at the top. An effective leader plays an essential role in the accomplishment of these objectives and the majority of researchers recognize the leader‘s performance over the employees as an element for success or failure of the organization. A successful university in this millennium requires a leader who supports traits such as innovation and creativity; he must be ready to draw out the maximum potential of his subordinates and keep them satisfied. The success of an organization is usually dependent on the hard work, loyalty and dedicated managers as well as employees (Bushra & Naveed, 2011). According to (Yukl,2010), followers who perceive their leaders as effective are more confident in facing challenges, experience greater job satisfaction, demonstrate higher levels of commitment to the organization, and display healthier psychological well-being.
Due to forces of globalization organization are going to multinational. Severity of competition is forcing organizations to psychological empower their employees for maximum performance. In the presence of organizational learning culture and supportive leadership psychological empowerment of employee will lead to organizationalcommitment. This paper attempt to analyze the relationship among these variables in the context of existing literature. Present days managers face the challenges of motivating employees. Psychological empowerment is the one of the best tool to provide them felling of autonomy and self drive this conceptual development is presented here with the hope that future researchers will analysis these relationships more deeply for the performance optimization of the organization.
says that the concept of organizational citizenship behavior originally developed by Barnard in 1938 as "the desire to work together", then there is the concept of organizational citizenship behavior, the behavior shown by employees in formal organizations. Usually, it is indicated through the job description that it is responsible so that the good and bad staff can be determined thoroughly by the job description. This is called role- behavior. However, to support the success of tasks within the organization, employees are expected to work not in their respective tasks, but they are required to work extra roles over their formal job description (extra-role behaviors). This is called organizational citizenship behavior.
Edgar H. Schein defines that the work culture is a set of assumptions or belief systems, values and norms developed within the organization that serve as a behavioral guideline for its members to address external adaptation and internal integration (Mangkunegara, 2005:113). Work culture is a group of basic thoughts or mental programs that can be utilized to improve the efficiency of work and human cooperation owned by a community class (Ndraha, 2005:208).
"Organizationalcommitment is the degree to which an employee feels confident, trusts, and understands all organizational goals and wishes to remain in an organization" (Sopiah, 2008). Vincent Obedgiu et al. (2017) states that basically employees highly committed to having a strong desire to show organizational citizenship behavior that can improve the image of local government. This is reflected in the attitude of employees who take an extra role in their work, help fellow colleagues, work according to applicable regulations, pay more attention to their work because of emotional ties with the regional government. Otto (2018) states that seen from the elements of affective, rational, and normative, organizationalcommitment is able to improve organizational citizenship behavior which is reflected in voluntary actions, sportsmanship, conscience, courtesy, and civic virtue. Rony Jaya (2018) states that the higher the commitment will have an impact on the increasing organizational citizenship behavior. From the statistical description shows the contribution of organizationalcommitment has an effect of 65.2% on the organizational citizenship behavior, while 34.8% is influenced by other factors. This proves that organizationalcommitment is the initial condition for emergence organizational citizenship behavior. Indicators for measuring organizationalcommitment in this study are sourced from Vinsent Obedgiu et al. (2017, Otto (2018) and Rony Jaya (2018), namely: (1) Affective commitment, (2) Normative commitment, and (3) Continuance commitment.
This study investigates the relationship between leadership behavior, organizationalculture on turnover intention among employees in local Thai companies and multinational companies (MNCs) in Thailand. It also examines the role of organizationalcommitment as a mediator on the relationship between leadership behavior, organizationalculture and turnover intention. Data are collected through questionnaires, from 1,650 respondents, 8 companies in Songkhla, Province Thailand. This research adopted several analytical approaches to analyze the data. Through a factor analysis found leadership behavior is reflected into single dimension, labeled as leadership behavior. The organizationalculture is reflected into four dimensions namely; hierarchical, rational, teamwork, and reward and recognition, the organizationalcommitment is reflected into three dimensions: affective commitment, continuance commitment and emotional attachment commitment. The multiple regression and hierarchical multiple regression analyses are used in testing the hypothesis. The results of this study find that the direct relationship between leadership behavior and turnover intention is found to be significantly different between employees in local Thai companies and MNCs. However, the direct relationship between organizationalculture and turnover intention is not significantly different between employee in local Thai companies and MNCs. Furthermore, the results of hierarchical multiple regression show that organizationalcommitment mediates the relationship between leadership behavior, organizationalculture and turnover intention are significantly different among employees in local Thai companies and MNCs. The implication of this study is that managers should recognize the behavior of leadership in which the behavior that able to motivate the level of employee commitment to organization and reduce employee turnover intention.
The technological advances and international specialization have contributed to the success of the Taiwanese electronics industry, known for a complete supply chain, solid technical backgrounds and global logistics management. Currently, the semiconductor industry, given its high capital and technology intensity, remains the focal point of the economic development in Taiwan. Among the countries with leading positions in the semiconductor industry, Taiwan is the only country with a vertically integrated supply chain. The government seeks to boost the productivity of the industry by establishing science parks and creating cluster effects. In fact, Taiwan is the role model for countries who seek to develop their semiconductor industries. The semiconductor industry in Taiwan is known for unparalleled competitiveness in efficiency and cost due to a comprehensive supply chain. This also provides an ideal backdrop for the booming development of IC design houses (Peng, 2009).
Leadership is a skill used to influence followers in an organization to work hard in order to achieve company goals for the common good (Barrow 1977; Cyert 2006; Plsek and Wilson 2001). Leaders are not always the most important and not always in front, but a leader must be able to bea servant serving his followers and have an interdependent role, no longer a hero or solo leader but a team leader (Bolden et.al., 2003). Some authors believe that leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve organizational goals (Ursachi, 2005). Servant leadership trusts subordinance to act in the best interests of the organization and focuses on followers rather than organizational goals (Stone, Russell and Patterson, 2004). Leaders who serve, appreciate people, develop people, build community, open and give and share in their leadership. Patterson (2003) states that an important dimension of servant leadership is agape love, humility, altruism, vision, trust, empowerment, and service. Spears (1998b) emphasizes listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment, and community development. Empirical research in servant leadership began in the early 2000.
This study has a few limitations that ought to be recognized. The main constraint of this study is that control of time this research could not get all employees. So, this study can be more precise and perfect by expanding sample size.. We take only NGOs that were working and located in district Gujranwala. For future researcher which is interested to know deeper affect of this model should be build more comprehensive model for this study and broader effect of organization commitment. In addition, this type of research should be conducted in other organization which is relater with ethics and diversify culture.
The relationship between research variables is built based on relevant theories and results of previous studies. Theoretical reviews and empirical findings are used as the basis for describing the conceptual framework of the research and are used as the basis for deriving the research hypothesis. Leader behavior or leadership is one of the important factors that can affect job satisfaction. Leadership style has a positive relationship to job satisfaction of employees (Russell & Gregory, 2002). Leadership is a pattern of consistent behavior that they implement in working with others through consisting of directive leadership, supportive leadership, participatory leadership and achievement-oriented leadership (Hersey & Blanchard, 1969). The creation of high performance is supported by competence, that competence is the basic foundation of people's characteristics and indicates how to behave or think, equate situations, and support for a long period of time (Spencer & Spencer, 1993). Competencies can be in the form of motives, traits, self-concepts, attitudes, or values of cognitive skills or behaviors of individual characteristics (Rivai, 2009: 426).
Avolio and his friends (2004) derived a significant and positive relationship between leadership style and organizationalcommitment in the research they carried out with 520 participants. The results of research revealed that change-oriented leadership, which is predominant in organizations having a reformer organization culture, positively affects employees’ affective and normative commitments (Avoilo, Zhu, Koh and Bhatia, 2004). In another study, the relationship between six leadership attitudes identified by Conger and Kanungo and two organization commitment factors identified by Porter and Smith was analyzed. 245 people from six organizations in southeast America participated in the research. The factors of the two subjects were discussed, and 5/6 of leadership attitudes were found to be related to organizationalcommitment. These findings reveal that leaders’ sensitivities toward employees’ needs is related to having a clearer vision ofthe organization as well as to stating more clearly the objectives and values of the organization as they relate to organizationalcommitment. This research underlines the strategic role of managers, one which has been changing for a while now (Rowden, 1999; Karahan, 2008).
Organizationalculture (X2) has also a significant and direct effect on organizationalcommitment (X4). The correlation for both variables is 0.408 and the coefficients of regression and path are 0.226 and 0.310 consecutively. It is similar to the findings of Wambui and Gichanga , Sinisa Jelena, Edit, Bojana and Katarina ; Yavuz . Wambui and Gichanga declared that organizationalculture is a factor that contributes positively the relationship between organizationalcommitment, satisfaction and employee’s performance. Sinisa, Jelena, Edit, Bojana and Katarina showed the relationship between the dimensions of organizationalculture and organizationalcommitment. The result is statistically significant. Also, the dimension of organizationalculture could be used significantly as predictor for organizationalcommitment. The most dimensions of organizationalculture are positively and significantly correlated to the dimensions of organizationalcommitment. Some dimensions of the culture also made contribution to predict organizationalcommitment significantly. Additionally, Yavuz exposed in the education field that organizationalculture and organizational justice affected affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment for teachers.
In behavioral term, changes in behavior are likely to be individual and in small groups, not in the broad context by looking at the organization as a holistic entity. So it can be said to be a micro level. Meanwhile, the structuralism approach see the organization in a macro perspective, the organization as a whole to look at all aspects relating to each other in the organization at both the organizational level below it, or at the same level, and the vertical organization. However, in the renewal of the bureaucracy, both approaches are complementary. Structural approach will succeed if accompanied by efforts to influence the behavior of the members and groups within the organization , as it becomes focus of the behavioral approach. Khan illustrated bureaucratic reform as changes in bureaucratic practices, behavior, and structure. Turner and Hulme mentioned as bureaucratic updates include updates in the structure, functions, processes, and administrative procedures (1997:106). By Thoha (1998 : 117-119 ) bureaucratic reform includes three things: (1) leadership, (2) institutional, and (3) the system of public administration.
In terms of purpose, this research is applied and in terms of data collection, it is descriptive -correlative. The statistical population included all of Yasuj city municipal employees among them 146 people were selected as a sample by using Cochran formula and simple random sampling method was used. The research tool consisted of three questionnaires (Herzberg’s job motivation, Neife’s learning organization and Spreader’s psychological empowerment) based on five point Likert scale. The Herzberg Job Motivation Questionnaire included eight indicators (success, appreciation, nature, growth and progress, supervision, relationships, security, and salary and rewards), The Neife organizational learning questionnaire included seven indicators (shared perspective, organizational learning culture, group work and learning, knowledge sharing, systemic thinking, participatory leadership and employee’s competency development), and
3. Transformational leadership has a positive but not significant effect on the organizationalcommitment of village governments in East Nusa Tenggara Province. The results of this study are the same as those of Ampofo (2016), Porter (2015) and Ramachandran and Krishnan (2009). This study does not support the theory of Suresh and Rajini (2013: 155) stating that: transformational leadership is the process of involving others to create connections that increase the motivation and morality of leaders and followers, leaders pay attention to needs and try to help followers reach their maximum potential. This study does not support the results of Gillet and Vandenberghe's research (2014), Avolio et al. (2004), Suadnyani and Netra (2018). 4. Transformational leadership has a positive but not significant effect on the
Ward & Mckillop (2010) sugges that voluntary workers are needed in CU organizations including in Indonesia. Snyder & Omoto (2008) define voluntary work as freely chosen activities and to provide assistance in the long term, without expecting other rewards or compensation through formal organizations, and those carried out on behalf of individuals who want assistance. Transformational leadership is needed to encourage the spirit of volunteerism of their followers to realize and accept group missions and prefer group interests (Bass, 1999). Although this study found that transactional leadership does not significantly influence organizationalcommitment, CU needs to consider strengthening this leadership style. Referring to Heinecke et al. (2014), transactional leadership plays a role in managerial aspects and organizational effectiveness. In connection with the declining number of CUs in Indonesia, referring to the results of this study, it is possible that CU leaders focus more on bringing employees to care for the common welfare. Whereas CU has two important missions, not only mutual welfare, but also business benefits. In the context of CU in Indonesia, CU leaders need to clarify expectations of business profits and provide feedback in managing CU. However, this possibility needs to be tested empirically. Subsequent studies need to identify the role of transformational and transactional leadership in CU business performance.