In order to enhance its abilities in information integration and analysis, the company invested in business intelligence software, to grasp a clear vision on future developments. Besides, in order to locate excellent supplychainmanagement partners, the company implemented a Supplier Performance Management System (SPMS), using key performance indicators (KPI) to screen and manage prospective suppliers. Based on SCOR model as well as literature previous discussed, the SPMS was implemented with 3 important dimensions and 15 related KPIs, as shown in Table2.
Service and repair companies, big stores, industries and power companies having complex issues on inventory brought this idea for solution. The in- ventory department of PHCN generating unit has obsolete and sometimes non-availability of materials. The company faces maintenance, repairs, re- placement demands and outage-related problems. In order to cater for these demands, some classifications that would aid PHCN in making effective deci- sions as regards spare or service parts were made. This research has developed inventory control system that provides automated inventory management system and graphical interface ability for decision making. This is to “right-size” inventories such that the total level of inventory held can be re- duced and replenished without exposing the company to risk of stock-out. The system is a model for dynamic supplychainmanagement using spare parts inventory policy tools to enable PHCN to dynamically perform conti- nuous review, one to one lot, service differentiation, backordering, demand lead time, threshold rationing and clearing mechanism.
Integrating supply with demand is a fundamental challenge for managers today. Mastering supplychainmanagement can enable companies to increase market share , reduce cost, Improve customer service, and increase market value through improvements in return on assets. If your company makes a product from parts purchased from suppliers, and those products are sold to customers, then you have a supplychain. Some supply chains are simple, while others are rather complicated. The complexity of the supplychain will vary with the size of the business and the intricacy and numbers of items that are manufactured. Following things are important in supplychain , price and over supply, Technology involved, price and demand, consumer behaviour, factors affecting the supply of product.
According to Li (2009), Zara spent more than three decades in perfecting its supplychain strategy by combining “focused factory” with “throughput management”, what is called leagile, what means lean thinking in conjunction with agile ideas. In the efficient supplychain of Zara, the chain coexists with brand (Zhang, 2008). The four parts of the whole process of the Zara supplychain -product organization and design, purchase and production, product distribution, sales and feedback- work together around the brand and target customers, and all the efforts are for purpose of pursuing high efficiency and fast speed of supplychain. Romano (2009) compares the Zara’s and Benetton’s supply chains to understand the differences between time performance. Caro et al. (2010) presents how Zara use operations research models to determine each inventory shipment it sends from its two central warehouses to its 1,500 stores worldwide. With respect to the literature reviewed, this paper can be positioned near to the works by Giannoccaro (2011), Agami et al. (2012) and Liu et al. (2012) but from an organizational point of view of the SCM department into the company rather than from a SCM performance measurement approach. Contrarily to the work by Giannoccaro (2011), this paper does not try to change the integration level of supplychain between different companies or belonging to the same business group. It is looked for a SCM reference group in all the operative calculations. Thus, that SCM defines the calculus model for the whole supplychain and every participant has to follow these procedures to be able to interact in the chain. Because of it, the SCM should be out and over operations to be able for establishing the standards. Also, we try to get the best of two well-known supplychain strategies, such as Zara’s and IKEA’s supplychain strategies for exporting it to our approach. Thus, our proposal provides an understanding of how SCM functions can be the engine of a multiglobal company by using an organizational strategy from the bottom to the top management, what is different from the existent literature.
Inventory accounts for significant capital investment in an organization. Blackburn(1991) 14 Shorter and shorter product life cycles as well as growing innovation rates make demand extremely variable and the collection of statistics (which are required by stochastic models) less and less reliable, this makes efficient inventory management very important. Giannoccaro et. al. 15 Inventory decisions in SCs are made independently at each stage (as it is often the case), they are usually based on the local inventory status and local performance objectives (local policies). The paper proposes to deﬁne a inventory management policies that are both easy to be implemented and near optimal for the whole SC. It presents a methodology to deﬁne a supplychain (SC) inventory management policy, which is based on the concept of echelon stock and fuzzy set theory. It presses for an periodic review policy then a continuous review policy, and asks for clear definition of inventory policy. n firms with better capital intensity tend to have lower numbers of days holding their inventories. Sahari et. al. 16 has investigated into the correlation between the inventory day, return on assets and capital intensity as a measure of supplychain performance. It finds a significant negative relationship between inventory days and return on assets. Sahin et. al. 17 explores the impact of radio frequency identity – RFID technology on supplychain operations and finds significant cost improvement and reduced inventory data record inaccuracies with its use.
Since the transaction cost economics revolves around the cost considerations that are required in the decision-making related to outsourcing , therefore, supplychainmanagement has gained considerable interest by many researchers, also it has been adopted by them for research facilitation . On the basis of the definition by  i.e. transaction cost being an economic counterpart of friction, therefore, this study views transaction cost to be a friction cost of working among the suppliers. Although, frictions primarily arise as a result of the interaction of the focal company with its supply base, for acquiring the required parts, services, and material inflows. There are various sources of frictions, such as, identifying the set of qualified suppliers, monitoring suppliers, contracting with them, and carrying out agreements are the potential friction sources. Some particular kinds of transaction costs were also offered in a study, these are: order placement, preparation, inspection, goods transportation, return of parts, correction of orders, and follow-up .
In summary, there are four implications of suggested SCS in this paper for businesses that try to integrate it into their supplychainmanagement. First, SCS is driven by and built on the stewardship theory, which requires management to be the steward of the company’s resources and aim its SCS strategic decisions through the effective utilization of resources. Management, as the steward of business resources, has the primary role for improving sustainability performance and managing related risks, maximizing utilization of all capitals from strategic to financial, reputational, manufactured, human, social, and environmental to create shared value for all stakeholders. This suggests that management accepts its responsibility of creating shared value for all stakeholders through the promotion of SCS. Second, in compliance with the continuous performance improvement concept, the main objective function for business organizations is to create shareholder value by maximizing firm financial performance through continuous improvements of both financial ESP and non-financial ESG sustainability performance. The ESP and ESG sustainability performance dimensions are interrelated and complement/complete each other and thus they should be integrated into supplychainmanagement. Third, the focus of business sustainability and SCS should be on creating long-term and sustainable shared value for all stakeholders. This suggests that management realizes the importance of integrating sustainability into supplychainmanagement and business operations. Finally, companies should effectively and transparently communicate their business sustainability performance and SCS with all stakeholders by periodically releasing their sustainability reports. This suggests that management uses sustainability reporting to disclose its SCS information to all stakeholders and to signal its good practices of business sustainability.
sellers together without ever touching the product. While all met with some degree of success, they also found significant resistance in the supplychain as they challenged the power balance between customers, distributors, and suppliers. Today, the three survivors (Instill, eSkye, and SciQuest) have all reoriented their business model toward selling procurement software, specifically oriented to their individual industry. The PassAct case examines the problems faced by exchanges and why many have failed. A related case, Quantum, examines the supplychain challenges of a digital storage device company and its reaction to the development of an industry consortium exchange (eHITEX, which later became Converge). The I2 TradeMatrix case is focused on strategy of a supplychain software maker to leverage its expertise in supplychain planning to become a major developer of both public and private exchanges.
holdings are of great importance in this sector as they produce, process and sell products. They are also interested in completing the production cycle and expanding the scope of company activities. In addition, all agricultural businesses are interested in increasing profits and reducing costs by maximally satisfying the demand for the goods produced. Therefore, the improvement of the supply system of goods from the producer of agricultural products to consumers is an urgent issue. This is facilitated by supplychainmanagement, which is a complex system that ensures the turnover of agricultural products on the market . Supplychainmanagement is a set of management approaches and information tools that contribute to the effective integration of suppliers, manufacturers, intermediaries and sellers . A supplychain is characterized by limited time, high flexibility and mobility of all resources. This approach has been successfully implemented in industrialized countries since the 1990s . The approach is used by such companies as Amazon, Zara, and Seven-Eleven. Supplychainmanagement helps them deliver the right product to the right place at the right time with minimum costs . As the value generated by the life cycle becomes more important for manufacturing enterprises than the value generated by sales, customer relationships and the entire value chain are being changed . Supplychainmanagement methods in agricultural business are being gradually improved with the focus on agile supplychainmanagement.
The methodology for e-strategy creation presented in this paper supports a larger work on e-Business readiness framework, such as knowledge management, supplychainmanagement, business environment, IT design deployed, and Economic theories. The framework defines components and metrics instrumental in the creation and implementation of e-Business in a company, an industry, and on a country level. This paper provides an introduction to the background technological knowledge needed to understand more specific aspects e-business discussed elsewhere in the subject guide. As technology evolves, more applications are developed, and learning‟s increase for e-Business, we expect the framework and supporting methodologies to also evolve.
The growing concern of environmental issues and the focus on businesses pursuing green practices creates the question of why some firms are more proactive in their environmental strategies than others. It could be down to different motivations from the company as to the benefits to be gained (e.g. lower costs and increased profitability), a greater concern for the natural environment, or the different strategic responses resulting from an organisation’s mission and culture. The capabilities of the SupplyChain function can also affect how proactive a firm is environmentally. The greening of the supplychain is becoming more popular and is something that could potentially contribute to a higher level of environmental soundness within organisations.
Based on a literature review, some management principles are useful for improving the performance of a company. They include management principles such as process management (Kanji & Asher, 1993; Zairi, 1997), customer satisfaction (Fornell, 1992; Gorst et al., 1998), teamwork (Scholtes, 1992; Tjosvold, 1993), strategic leadership (Edgeman & Dahlgaard, 1998; Kanji, 1996; Tribus, 1998), systems thinking (Senge et al., 1994), continuous improve- ment (Imai, 1986) and scienti® c management advocated by Frederick Taylor. For a company to perform well, blending together of these various management principles is required. In fact, TQM is a holistic and integrated approach blending together these various principles that are necessary for a company to achieve business excellence. According to Kanji and Asher (1993), because of the holism, TQM can be distinctive in aþ ording a strong philosophical underpinning to its prescriptions. A company which has adopted TQM will normally make use of the total quality principles to achieve business excellence. Within the company, the top management, the middle management and the operational management will work together towards satisfying the needs of the customers. This is the vertical view of TQM as suggested by Youssef et al. (1996) and the concept of internal partnering of Goetsch and Davis (1997).
Our study confirms that visibility and real-time data transfer between supplychain partners also creates new challenges for logistics service providers. These service providers will be more tightly integrated into the supply chains through various e-business applications. It is assumed that operational measures such as delivery accuracy, delivery frequency, and delivery time become even more important. Thus, the second theme (Theme 2) in our research agenda calls for research and development of new logistics service concepts and their role in the more integrated supply networks. Additionally, as integration with these new logistics services would enable companies to focus on their core competencies (Prahalad and Hamel, 1990), more knowledge is needed as to how collaboration should be organized and what type of changes must be made to the various business processes, both at the logistics service provider and at the local company. This theme is also discussed in more detail in Publication II, where we identify potential reasons for preventing successful co-operation between a technology start-up company and its logistics service provider. The case study highlights the importance of understanding the business processes related to the collaboration and the need for appropriate measures and tools to monitor the performance of logistics service providers.
The mission of Logistics and Operations Management is to produce the appropriate goods or services in the right quality and quantity, and to distribute them to the right place at the right time, thereby making the greatest contribution to the organization. In a business environment, Logistics and Operations Management encompasses the design, implementation and management of systems for efficient deployment of personnel, physical facilities, raw materials, in- process inventories, finished goods and related information or services. Logistics and Operations Management covers the whole supplychain, from the acquisition of raw materials, through production, to the point of consumption. Logistics and Operations Management analysts must be proficient in the use of quantitative models and computers, and communicate effectively. Logistics and Operations Management are composed of four components e.g. i. Warehouse flow optimization, ii. Inventory planning, iii. Ordering and Replenishment, iv. Transportation Network Management. Warehouse optimization is a discipline of vital importance for many organizations. Optimization and automation of a warehouse can help save time, space, and resources, reduce picking mistakes and manual handling, and improve flexibility, ergonomics, management, and communication. Warehouse Management Systems (WMS) become important and more complex and users find it quite hard to manage. The software market offers large variety of solutions with different system requirements and possibilities, and to choose the suitable system for every company is not quite an easy task, because it is influenced by many aspects which must be considered, and one of these aspects are optimization methods based on automated processes for tasks dynamically changeable in time. The WMSs which drive logistic warehouses and distribution centers are core elements of the material and goods flow in logistic chain and they will be subjected to further investigation in following text related to optimization of technical and operational structure.
Abstract— Supply-chainmanagement has been defined as the "design, planning, execution, control, and monitoring of supplychain activities with the objective of creating net value, building a competitive infrastructure, leveraging worldwide logistics, synchronizing supply with demand and measuring performance globally. Management of materials and information flows are key strategic priorities for construction companies. A good performance in these areas can provide them with significant benefits and allow the adding of greater value for clients. The market of the construction company is mostly local and highly volatile. The long durability of the construction “product” contributes to the volatility. The product specification process before the customer order arrives shows different degrees of specifications: engineer to order, modify to order, configure to order, select a variant. A construction company only executes a small part of the project by its own personnel and capacity. This is a way of risk spreading and risk mitigation and to compensate for an unstable market.
The course aims at linking theoretical knowledge that students acquired during their Master studies with practical aspects of international logistics and familiarizing students with the logistics modules of SAP, one of the main ERP management information systems. In the first part of the course, the case of a company that produces two end-products in its manufacturing plant in Europe and sells these products to a non-EU country is treated. The students are wanted to obtain the demand forecasts for the next three years and the bills-of-materials of these two end-products. With the aim of satisfying the obtained demand forecasts, they determine purchasing and transportation plans of raw-materials, production plans, locations of distribution hubs, and transportation plans of end-products. While establishing these plans, the students face a wide range of practical supplychain decision-making problems, in each they are wanted to minimize the operational costs of the company. They determine the selling prices of the end-products taking into account purchasing, production, and transportation costs. In the second part of the course, the students get familiarize with the logistics modules of SAP through hands-on navigation, process cycle, and parameterization exercises. Accordingly, they are wanted to parameterize the ERP system of the manufacturing company studied in the first part of the course.
Epicor Software is a global leader delivering business software solutions to the manufacturing, distribution, retail, hospitality and services industries. With 20,000 customers in over 150 countries, Epicor provides integrated enterprise resource planning (ERP), customer relationship management (CRM), supplychainmanagement (SCM) and enterprise retail software solutions that enable companies to drive increased efﬁ ciency and improve proﬁ tability. Founded in 1984, Epicor takes pride in more than 25 years of technology innovation delivering business solutions that provide the scalability and ﬂ exibility businesses need to build competitive advantage. Epicor provides a comprehensive range of services with a single point of accountability that promotes rapid return on investment and low total cost of ownership, whether operating business on a local, regional or global scale. The Company’s worldwide headquarters are located in Irvine, California with ofﬁ ces and afﬁ liates around the world. For more information, visit www.epicor.com.
technological perspective. They considered the following eco-innovations: (1) End-of- Pipeline Pollution Control Technologies - which consists of applying end-of-pipeline solutions in order to treat, handle, measure or dispose emissions and wastes from production (DEFRA - Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs, 2006). Examples of end-of-pipeline technologies include effluent treatment plant and exhaust air scrubbing systems; (2) Integrated Cleaner Production Technologies - refers to new or modi ﬁed production facilities, which are more efficient than previous technologies, and contribute to pollution reduction. Examples of integrated technologies include improved housekeeping, which refers to improvements in management practices, monitoring, and maintenance; changes to process technologies, changes to products with the use of new technologies, which reduces the consumption of resources, waste and emissions; and changes to inputs by substituting toxic materials with