Science involves observations, formulation of hypotheses, and testing of hy- potheses. This book is directed to quantifiable observations about living sys- tems and hypotheses about the processes of life that are formulated as math- ematical models. Using three biologically important examples, growth of the bacterium Vibrio natriegens, depletion of light below the surface of a lake or ocean, and growth of a mold colony, we demonstrate how to formulate mathe- matical models that lead to dynamic equations descriptive of natural processes. You will see how to compute solution equations to the dynamic equations and to test them against experimental data.
In this chapter, I present the demographic information concerning who traditional calculus students are and how a significant subgroup of these students belongs to the biological and lifesciences. I also review the existing research on quantitative reasoning in the biological and lifesciences. Additionally, I review the existing research on student understanding of the definite integral. I discuss how we find that calculus students are good at using the standard antiderivative techniques taught in introductory calculus (Ferrini- Mundy & Graham, 1994; Grundmeier, Hansen, & Sousa, 2006; Mahir, 2009; Orton, 1983) and that while area under the curve dominates instruction of the definite integral in calculus, the multiplicative structure of the Riemann sum is a more powerful way to conceive of the definite integral as seen in both mathematics and physics education research (e.g., Jones, 2015a; Sealey, 2014). The literature includes the finding that practitioners talk about mathematics differently in mathematics and physics, so students are not always able to readily apply their knowledge in these different fields (Dray & Manogue, 2004; Wemyss et al., 2011). This research emphasizes that part of learning about the definite integral is practice in the different client disciplines that utilize the definite integral.
Exercise D.2.25. Wilson’s statement is a very interesting statement describing a relation between the number of species to be found on an island and the area of the island and has been confirmed in several locations. It does not, however, describe the competition or other interactions between species that might lead to the relationship and therefore does not meet our definition of a Mathematical Model. The relation has been derived from very elementary first principles by J. Harte, T. Zillio, E. Conlisk, and A. B. Smith, Maximum entropy and the state-variable approach to macroecology, Ecology 89 (2008), 2700-2711, that applies when the number of individuals per species is small.
The urine may be extracted by conventional methods. We have employed a modification of the method of Frölich (25) with good success. The urine sample is acidified to pH 4.0, and extracted two times with an equal volume of chloroform. The extracts are pooled, dried under nitrogen and reconstituted with assay buffer. It is recommended that serial dilutions be assayed because of the wide range of expected values. We have observed a reduction in method blanks with filtration of the reconstituted sample through 0.22 µm Millex™ filter.
In languages like English, the distinction between definite and indefinite NPs are explicitly indi- cated by syntactic devices such as determiners, demonstratives and articles, while such distinctions are blurred in languages like Japanese, with the exception of NPs containing demonstratives, and both of them simply occur as bare nominals (without determiners). English indefinites have been treated as existentially quantified expressions, but they are quite different from universally quan- tified ones like any N or all Ns in that the former often do not obey the island conditions and can take arbitrarily wide scopes and/or function as referential terms. As for the construal of in- definites, several different approaches have been proposed. The first one sticks to the parallel treatment of universal and existential quantifiers, both of which are treated as generalized quanti- fiers, and some new mechanism of assignments deals with peculiar properties of indefinites. The second approach posits two different categories for indefinites (referential nominal and existential quantifier), as proposed by Fodor and Sag (1982). The third one deals with indefinites as discourse referents, suggested by so-called Discourse Representation Theories (Kamp and Reyle, 1993), ar- guing that indefinites do not express existential force, but introduce new discourse referents to the contexts. The last one, which we will adopt in this paper, is to regard indefinites as choice func- tions. Among them, we will explore the use of epsilon terms as a syntactic counterpart of choice function, as proposed by Meyer Viol et al. (1999), Kempson et al. (2001), Cann et al. (2005),
In spite of a general tendency for replacement of radiotracer studies in favour of, for example, stable or affinity tags in areas such as proteomics, metabolomics, and breath testing, tritium has recently seen increased use, particularly in pharmaceutical drug discovery. It is expected that this tendency will continue because the efforts and costs required for the synthesis of radiolabeled compounds is out-balanced by the strong sensitivity increase and high reliability of the data obtained. Consequently, highly efficient, cost-effective, and selective synthesis methods for hydrogen isotope labeling of target molecules are required. As there is no other general option to attach a mass tag or a radioactive label to an organic molecule, it can be expected that isotopically labeled compounds will remain an important tool in lifesciences in the future.
• f (x) = x 2 − 4x + 5, (f is increasing for x > 2; f is decreasing for x < 2) • f (x) = x 3 − 3x − 4. (f is increasing for x < −1, x > 1; f is decreasing for −1 < x < 1) • f (x) = x 5 − 5x 4 + 100 (f is increasing for x < 0, x > 4; f (x) is decreasing for 0 < x < 4)
In this paper, we define a new class of preinvex functions which is called as generalized preinvex functions. We obtain some new quantum bounds which involve primarily the property of generalized preinvexity. Some special cases are also discussed which can be deduced from the main results of the paper. It is expected that interested readers may find some novel applications of generalized preinvex functions and its related inequalities in other fields of pure and applied sciences. This is the main motivation of this paper.
“Artificial Life” (ALife) is a Life made by Human rather than Nature. i.e. The study of man made systems that exhibit characteristics of natural living systems. “ALife is the study of non-organic organisms, beyond the creations of nature, that possess the essential properties of life as we understand it, and whose environment is artificially created in an alternative media, which very often is a programmable machine, i.e. none other than a digital computer.” “ALife is study about the evolution of agents, or populations of computer-simulated life forms in artificial environments.” In particular we describe an attempts concerning three main properties of living beings: Reproduction
Three transgenic Bt rice lines (TT51, T1C-19 and T2A-1) and the non-transgenic parental indica rice line Minghui 63 were selected for field evaluation. TT51 is a transgenic rice line expressing a Bt fusion gene derived from cry1Ab and cry1Ac under the control of the rice actinI promoter . T2A-1 expresses a synthesized cry2A gene, whereas T1C- 19 expresses a synthesized cry1C gene, both driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter [12,20]. All the rice lines were gifted by Lin YongJun, National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Wuhan, China.
A BSTRACT : The research study of the implementation of the philosophy of the competency approach which was carried out in all school curricula; especially the curriculum related to life and earth science, at different levels in the public middle and high schools in Morocco. This has shown significant findings after studying and analyzing the data questionnaire that has been handed out to both public middle and high school teachers in the country. We came to the following findings:
The challenge is to represent, compare and analyze information within and across domains and representation formats, and resulting from various analytical methods in order to produce knowledge bases that are amenable to scientific investigation and clinical application. Ontologies provide formal specifications and harmonized defini- tions of representational units (types, classes, concepts) and thus provide the building blocks for the computable modeling of domain knowledge. Methods in formal ontol- ogy support and enhance the semantic foundation, the standardization and the analysis of concepts related to a domain of reality and underpin the correct formalization of domain knowledge. Additionally, ontologies play an important role in the context of the Semantic Web promoting new paradigms of knowledge representation, processing and distribution.
Compliance and operations in the lifesciences industry is not what is used to be: in the past, US-based lifesciences companies addressed a small number of markets, which meant that the regulatory compliance aspect of their businesses was also limited. This is no longer the case.
For lifesciences sales reps, comprehensive data mining, analysis and visualization can optimize approaches to physicians. Solutions that focus on the analysis of data for the purpose of extracting insights and knowledge streamline such decision-making processes. By bringing together prescription drug data, call planning and CRM data on iPads, your field force will be better prepared to more effectively target and engage the prescribing physician. Such analytic tools also help sales representatives with performance-over-time in therapeutic market prescriptions while identifying valuable new prospects.
In the Oracle LifeSciences Data Hub (Oracle LSH) a Variable is the definition source for both Table Columns and Parameters. Its attributes include data type, length, name, default value, and Nullable (Yes/No). These attributes form the basis of both Columns and Parameters; both Columns and Parameters are instances of Variables. Both have additional attributes. Parameters also serve as definitions for Parameter instances, making the only three-level definitional relationship among Oracle LSH objects. You can use the same Variable as the definition source for multiple Columns and Parameters. This promotes consistency and compatibility: for example, if you base the Study Column of all Tables in a single data flow on the Study Variable, and the Study Parameter of all the Programs that read from and write to those Tables on the same Variable, the Columns and Parameters have the same data type and length, and Nullable setting.
The EuroBioForum is an annual forum where research- ers, funding organisations and other stakeholders thoughout Europe meet to discuss future lifesciences priorities. Identification of these lifesciences topics is based on ideas put forward by the lifesciences com- munity and by public and private funding organisations across Europe via a Call for Expressions of Interest. Following a selection by an international Steering Committee, the programme for each workshop is then defined in close collaboration with the proposers of the selected topic. The objectives of the workshop could be any or a combination of the following: i) to outline the plan for a new research programme, ii) to define a com- mon strategic research agenda, or iii) to update current funders and sponsors and inform potential new ones.
Genomics research arose from the need to know and understand the role of gene sequences, the basic build- ing blocks of biological development, physiology and regulation. The same need exists at the level of the entire biosphere: we cannot hope to understand evolution, ecological processes, or ecosystem functions until we know the basic building blocks – species. Just as the human genome project was enabled by advances in DNA sequencing technology, the new field of DNA barcoding has emerged as a global “horizontal genomics” initiative (i.e. one that is spread across many taxa rather than focusing on one species in great depth). DNA barcoding is based on the observation that species can be distin- guished and identified using a short gene sequence, standardised for each of the main branches of life. In the short span of four years, barcoding has mushroomed into a global enterprise that has already produced barcode sequences for approximately 50 000 species, with many practical applications including protection of endangered species, monitoring environmental quality and tackling disease vectors.