164 Journal of Development Policy and Practice 3(2) Demand–Supply Gap and Import of Pulses
The pulses production in India has been consistently inadequate in meeting the rising domestic demand. The estimated annual shortage of pulses on the basis of production and consumption data has been estimated to be 2–3 mt on continuous basis between 2000 and 2011 (Chandra & Roy, 2014). The high demand and deficit in local supply of pulses have increased India’s dependence on imports from countries such as Canada, Myanmar, Australia and African nations. The current crisis can be attributed largely to decrease in acreage under pulses, getting these crops pushed to marginal, poorly irrigated and low-quality soils and poor availability of quality seed delivery system, resulting in lower yield. This has resulted in huge import of pulses, but also pushed the prices of pulses to a record level in the international market. Moreover, the true nature of the cooling effect of imports of pigeon pea and chick pea on domestic prices is not so much in terms of bringing prices down but in terms of moderating their rate of increase (Negi & Roy, 2015). Keeping this in view, in July 2016, India had signed a five-year agreement with Mozambique for import of pigeon pea and other pulses amounting to 100,000 tonnes in 2016–2017, with an option to scale it up to 200,000 tonnes by 2020–2021 (PIB, 2016). The overall import of pulses has been growing continuously; it reached 6.55 mt in 2016–2017 and is continuing in 2017– 2018 (Table 3). This is despite a record 23 mt of pulses production in 2016–2017 (Table 4). The almost monophonic status of India in the pulses import market is also triggering stiff competition among major exporters. For instance, the rate for yellow pea corrected down from US$380 to US$300 especially after Russia and Ukraine began to offer lower rates, undercutting Canada. The share in total pulses export to India has dramatically changed in 2016–2017 as compared to the previous year. It is evident from Table 3 that some of the major pulses exporting countries like Myanmar for moong and pigeon pea exports, lost heavily to Tanzania and Mozambique. In case of peas, Canada and Russia lost to Lithuania and France, while in case of chickpea, Australia gained at the cost of Russia.
Rice self-sufficiency is an important programme in Indonesia. The programme has four major targets, i.e. increasing production, stabilizing prices and reserve stocks, and minimizing import. For that purpose, the government gave a mandate to a parastatal, namely National Logistic Agency (Bulog) in implementing the rice policies. Some studies found that involvement of such a parastatal could lead to government failure in budget allocation. The study aimed to estimate social cost of rice self-sufficiency programme based on the implementation of rice instrument policies by Bulog. The study used the national annual data of 2002–2014 period. The method used was the political preference function model to estimate economic rent and dead-weight loss using rice price elasticity of demand and supply. The result showed that in terms of percentage of food security budget, the average of economic rent reached IDR 6.37 trillion per annum (18.54%), while the average of dead-weight loss amounted at IDR 0.90 trillion per annum (2.34%). It proved that rice self-sufficiency programme along with the involvement of Bulog was economically inefficient. The government should provide better agricultural infrastructure, review governmental procurement prices, and stop rice import policy to remedy market failure.
Readers could imagine how crucial it is to know about temperature issue and enumerate policies to stop immediately on Green house gas emission following Kyoto protocol standards.
Naturally, government has to take remedial measures to prevent such disaster or at least safeguard human life and his assets from future perils. Farmers need to be educated about the sustainability and agricultural impacts. It’s must for union government to bring to notice the small and medium peasants about the hazards of chemicals and fertilizers. How they impact on the soil and also the produce. Government has to bring into notice such important issues to the poor farmers to prevent them from future risk. For immediate future the loss due to floods, cyclones and rainfalls are heavy in north and south India. There are no remedial measures for such situations till Independence.
A number of other people have also contributed to the development of the Standard, its calculation, and/ or the writing of state reports over the past 14 years. Jennifer Brooks, Maureen Golga, and kate Farrar, former Directors of Self-Sufficiency Programs and Policies at WOW, have been key to the development of initiatives that promote the concept of self-sufficiency and the use of the Standard, and were instrumental in facilitating and nurturing Family Economic Self-Sufficiency (FESS) state coalitions. Additional past contributors to the Standard have included Laura Henze Russell, Janice Hamilton Outtz, Roberta Spalter- Roth, Antonia Juhasz, Alice Gates, Alesha Durfee, Melanie Lavelle, Nina Dunning, Maureen Newby, and Seook Jeong.
indicating positive and persistent program impacts from JTPA when the training was combined with job search assistance, especially for adult female welfare recipients. This leads him to conclude that wage subsidies combined with training and job development assistance can help disadvantaged adults, but based on the evidence on stigma and low utilization, to express more skepticism (while still suggesting modest benefits) of other narrowly-targeted, stand-alone programs. In more recent evidence on the WOTC, Hamersma (2005b) concludes that any employment effects are small, if they exist at all, and are hard to establish based on the existing evidence. She does find positive effects on earnings (of around 10 percent), although only on the job paying the credit, and not over the course of the year after starting this subsidized job. Dickert-Conlin and Holtz-Eakin (2000) favor the EITC over wage subsidies, based on evidence on the positive labor supply and poverty-reducing effects of the EITC, as well as the limited evidence of effectiveness and utilization of employer-based subsidies.
Figure 5.18 shows the current flow measurements between the robotic modules of organism 2 in
the case C 3 . For a detailed analysis of the collective system behavior during the simulation runs,
it is important to consider the initial energy distribution in the organism, as it defined the current flow between the robotic modules. In this regard, consider the two logical halves of organism 2 − between robot r3 and robot r4. The logical splitting of organism showed that the ratio of energeti- cally healthy and weaker robotic modules in term of their initial SOC in the two halves was almost identical. With this observation, now consider the current flow between the robotic modules with static power sharing policy, because of a single organism’s power bus in the first 15 minutes of the simulation, robot r1 and robot r11 donated their battery charge to the rest of the robotic modules in the organism. Later in the simulation, other robotic modules shared their on-board energy reserve in the organism when the energetic status of robot r1 and robot r11 dropped to their energetic level − battery SOC. In comparison, with the two dynamic power sharing policies, the on-board energy of the robotic modules was consumed locally. From the residual charge of the robotic modules at the end of the simulation runs, it was observed that the on-board energy reserve of robot r1 with the two dynamic power sharing policies was not completely utilized as in the earlier scenario. Because of this, the organism has covered slightly fewer number of motion steps than in the earlier scenario.
Such a situation is not only politically risky but economically untenable in a nation which has abundant, potentially productive land and water resources for food products. In view of the heavy reliance on imported fish, there is a need for a clearer understanding of the import demand of the commodity by Nigeria. Reliable estimates of demand would be necessary to evaluate alternative methods and policies on fish imports. Similarly, a short-run analysis is useful to discover the seasonal demand patterns which can be of value in production planning and marketing. Also, an understanding of the underlying causes of variation in demand would be of considerable interest in assessing the impact of various track reforms instituted in the past as well as differences in the level of imports which are due to factors such as per capita income, population and tariffs.
The “Increased Food Security and Food Self-Sufficiency Strategy” sets forth objectives, policies and actions to increase the amount of locally grown food consumed by Hawaii’s residents. The economic impact of food import replacement is significant. Replacing just 10% of the food Hawaii currently imports would amount to approximately $313 million dollars which would remain in the State. The Strategy recommends actions to market “Buy Local/It Matters” and to brand and label local food products. The Strategy emphasizes increasing production by strengthening agricultural infrastructure i.e. agricultural parks, irrigation systems and distribution systems/facilities. It also recommends actions to provide for food safety, pest prevention and control, workforce training, research and extension services; and policy and organizational support. A critical factor towards successful implementation will be building partnerships with the increasing number of organizations involved in food self-
Individual Development Accounts: For many low-income families, the barriers to self-sufficiency are accentuated by a near or total absence of savings. According to one report, a family with a household income between $10,000 and $25,000, had net financial assets of $1,000, while a family with a household income of less than $10,000 had net financial assets of $10. 40 For these families with no savings, the slightest setback—a car needing repairs, an unexpected hospital bill, a reduction in work hours—can trigger a major financial crisis. These families can be forced to take out small loans at exorbitant interest rates, like payday loans, just to make it to the next paycheck, often resulting in spiraling debt. Too often, public policies work against the promotion of savings by actively penalizing families that manage to put some money aside. For example, in Wisconsin, a parent with more than $2,500 in countable assets (or applicants with car(s) valued at more that $10,000) are ineligible for
Apart from boosting local feed production, attention should be directed towards finding ways of improving aquaculture production in Nigeria. This could be achieved through government intervention in setting up fish feed mills in the major areas of production and/or granting loans with the single-digit interest rate to industrialists willing to go into fish feed-milling. Credible and stable macroeconomic policies must also be directed at increasing the price of import which could be used to check the volume of import. As the price elasticity of import obtained (-0.041) indicates, currency depreciation may likely produce an effective result in reducing the demand for fish import so as to support trade liberalization efforts. Lastly, restrictive allocation of foreign exchange to fish import subsector can be used to check the importation of fish. This is because under foreign exchange constraint, the volume of import will depend on the number of foreign exchange importers can access and priorities should be attached to various imports in foreign exchange allocation. However, to ensure that this policy works, measures should be put in place to safeguard its abuse.
Second, despite the wider range of estimates, the oft-stated assertion that the new minimum wage research fails to support the view that the minimum wage reduces the employment of low-skilled workers is clearly incorrect. Indeed, the preponderance of the evidence points to disemployment effects. Of 102 studies on which we focus, by our reckoning nearly two-thirds give a relatively consistent (although by no means always statistically significant) indication of negative employment effects of minimum wages, while only eight give a relatively consistent indication of positive employment effects. In addition, we identify thirty-three studies that we view as providing the most credible evidence. Among these, twenty- eight (85 percent) point to negative employment effects. Moreover, in research that focuses on the least- skilled groups most likely to be adversely affected by minimum wages, the evidence for disemployment effects seems especially strong, with minimum wages harming the least-skilled workers more than is suggested by the net disemployment effects estimated in many studies. 9 In contrast, we see very few—if any—cases where a study provides convincing evidence of positive employment effects of minimum wages. 10 Overall, this review of the newer literature largely solidifies the conclusion that minimum wages reduce employment of low-skilled workers. 11
One of the efforts to attain the national sugar self- sufficiency in 2025 is by increasing the sugar yield. The advantage of increasing productivity through the sugar yield is eliminating the needs to increase milling capacity and also reducing the costs of freight haul and sugar processing. Figure (2) shows that the WCS demand and supply graph continuously increas during the simulation period. Changes in the supply of national WCS through increas sugar yield have not been able to make the positive supply of WCS from 2010 until the end of the simulation period. In 2010, the availability of WCS with scenario 3 was deficit amounted to 472,555 tons and continued to decrease in the following years up to 139,250 tons in 2025. In general, it can be stated that the policy of increasing the sugar yield by 1.41 percent per year is failed to support the process of achieving national self-sufficiency of WCS in 2025.
On a national level, within the context of energy replacement policies, a delay in exhaustion of reserves, prevention in the rise of import costs and reduction in the impact of gas emissions and particulate matter into the atmosphere, present a great opportunity for the biofuel industry due to in part to the rise in oil prices. This opportunity is supported by a regulatory and legal framework of agro-energy production, including Act 693, of 2001 that proposes an initial 5% replacement of gasoline with alcohol. Later increased to 10% by 2010 and 12% by 2012; with similar proportions for replacing diesel with biodiesel. The same for the use of suitable lands for energy crops such as: sugar cane, cassava, sugar beet, oil palm , castor oil plant and jatropha, all of them with studies and different productivity levels (ton/ha, l/ton). Without denying the possibility of cellulosic biofuels from different sources. In addition to the aforementioned, the National Government has promoted the development and search of new renewable energy sources, sustainable with the increasing pace of life, by partially replacing oil or its derivatives in different uses, especially within the transport sector. This promotion must also consider the implications when allocating millions of hectares for bioenergy production. This reality shows the urgent need for meeting food demands or allocating lands and feedstocks to meet the energy requirements of the automotive industry(Cortés, 2007). Within this context it is proposed that it will promote competition between the different biofuels, with criteria for financial sustainability and energy supply. For these purposes the feasibility and advisability of releasing biofuels prices and promoting removal of import duties on these products. Notwithstanding the aforementioned, the National Development Plan states that in any case the current pricing scheme based on opportunity costs of such energy, their replacements and raw materials used in its production must be considered. While simultaneously promoting strategies for prevention and control of air contamination, by promoting cleaner fuels, including those derived from crops with production potential for biodiesel and alcohol fuels.
Individual Development Accounts: For many low-income families, the barriers to self-sufficiency are accentuated by a near or total absence of savings. According to one report, an average family with a household income between $10,000 and $25,000, had net financial assets of $1,000, while an average family with a household income of less than $10,000 had net financial assets of $10. 23 For these families with no savings, the slightest setback—a car needing repairs, an unexpected hospital bill, a reduction in work hours—can trigger a major financial crisis. These families can be forced to take out small loans at exorbitant interest rates just to make it to the next paycheck, often result- ing in spiraling debt. Too often, public policies work against the promotion of savings by actively penalizing families that manage to put some money aside. For example, in Missouri the general resource exemption limit under Temporary Assistance/TANF for an assis- tance unit is $1,500. 24
shocks, war, and natural disasters than if they accessed local farms or gardens as part of their everyday diet.
During an economic crisis, communities do not have access to farms, gardens, or seeds to grow their own food. An example of an economic shock affecting a place with low food security is the current state of affairs in Venezuela. When the price of oil dropped, Venezuela plunged into its worst economic crisis ever (“Venezuela’s worst economic crisis: What went wrong?,” 2017). With an inflation rate of over 400%, Venezuela is in chaos. A family of five, who are reliant on the global food chain, needed to collect 1.06 million bolivars to purchase basic goods for one month. That is an increase of 424% when compared to 2016. The state tried to ration food and set their prices, but products disappeared from shops to appear on the black market (“Venezuela’s worst economic crisis: What went wrong?,” 2017). When Saudi Arabia and Yemen went to war, Saudi Arabia systematically and deliberately destroyed Yemen’s means of producing, distributing, processing, and storing food. Their weapons have targeted agricultural land, dairy farms, food processing factories, and food markets (Thornberry, 2018). This lead to the death of 85,000 children due to malnutrition and disease (Thornberry, 2018). Natural disasters also fall into tier three threats for two reasons. First, if a natural disaster were to seriously damage one of the 14 food supply chain chokepoints it could take months to years to return the choke point to its current production (Webb, 2017). Second, natural disasters can damage shipping routes on a more local level. Damaged roads, shipping ports, airports, and train tracks can isolate a community that is reliant on the global food supply chain. Also, severe storms, such as blizzards, cyclones, hail, hurricanes, monsoons, tornadoes, typhoons, and wildfires are violent acts of nature that destroy communities cutting them off from food and leaving debris that can take years to clean. Monsoons and seasonal rains can cause extreme damage due to landslides. High rainfall in the Gansu Province of China caused a landslide that contained five million cubic meters of racing water, dirt, and debris blocking a river and causing even more debris and damage from the extensive flooding (Jun, 2010). Severe storms have a tremendous impact on shipping routes after the event is long gone. Additionally, natural disasters weaken financial and economic resources that leave governments prioritizing areas of relief, leaving poor or isolated communities even more overlooked (“How Recovering from a Natural Disaster Impacts Food Security,” 2018).
sustainable approach. The Commission recommended a review of whether the selfsufficiency principle is “…unduly restrictive given the international nature of the health workforce and, if so, how the principle should be interpreted in practice…” (Productivity Commission 40).
In the Commission’s view, “…provided there is compliance with ethical protocols, it is appropriate for Australia to draw on suitably qualified, overseas trained, professionals to supplement the locally trained workforce, and to recognise that its own health workers will migrate to other countries, either temporarily as part of their broader development, or permanently. Importantly, access to
Chiefs of area Kaolock have in 2017 visited Educational polygon for self-sufficiency for a few times; their goal was to establish such learning-educational polygon for gaining direct knowledge. Since we have direct experience with the planning and leading of self-sufficiency systems, we prepared a project to the Senegal representatives. In the project, we joined the experience and new knowledge from the area of ecoremediation and agroecology and placed them into the selected area. Especially necessary is sustainable water management, from collecting to saving it underground, due to huge evapotranspiration, as well as cleaning and reusing it. Particular emphasis must be put in the area of keeping the farming land fertile due to the wind erosion and droughts, which is why the mayor concern will be placed on organic carbon, by which we enrich the soil. For such a result, all biomass will be composted for the purposes of reuse and covering of soil will be used with the purpose to decrease the evaporation of water from the soil. Reforesting in Senegal will be a part of a wider initiative Green layer, that is already taking place in Africa. Senegal was the first country inside the initiative that started the initiative, and it already sews the results. According to the UN Organization for Food and Agriculture (FAO), they have planted 27.000 hectares of exhausted land with 11 million trees. Not to repeat the mistake and to plant new species to this environment, the groups of agronomists, botanists and pedologists carefully selected the right species to plant (focus group data, 2017). Most of the planted trees are a species of acacia Senegalia Senegal, that next to the good influence brings economic value, since her gumi, from the dried juice trunk, is used for medical purposes, mostly with the gums and throat protection, its fruit is used to feed the cattle. The purpose of
Critically reflecting our findings, we wish to emphasise that the results need to be interpreted with some caution. Our analyses in this paper focus on household investments in Germany and Ireland. Our simulation model, however, is generic and transferrable to other countries and consumer groups. Moreover, on the demand side, measurement data were available from the control group of the large-scale time-of-use field trial in Ireland. In absence of such large-scale measurement data sets, modelled demand profiles were used for Germany. However, measurement data from individual households (rather than hundreds) were available and we carried out robustness checks showing that the main findings hold. Furthermore, while we considered the uncertainty on the demand side in terms of overall amount and profiles of electricity consumption through a set of 100 profiles for each household size, our consideration of the supply side uncertainty in relation to the overall amount and profiles of electricity generated from PV is limited to the comparison of Germany and Ireland. Further, our analyses focussed on standard electricity retail tariffs with a constant price in cent/kWh. Future analyses should also explore the impact of dynamic pricing schemes, which may have an impact on the optimal solar PV, battery storage capacities and its optimal operating strategy as well as their profitability. Finally, we quantified costs of self-sufficiency of individual households. Quantifying the societal costs of self-sufficiency of individuals is also a relevant topic for future research.
But the word “simultaneous” may not exactly fit. I am proposing that wecan apprehend the cube in such a way that its differing viewpoints overlap in time as well as in space. But what we actually experience when this happens is not simultaneity in the ordinary sense of static juxtaposition. We do not encounter opposing perspectives with the same immediacy as figures appearing side by side in space, figures that coexist in an instant of time simply common to them (as do the words printed on this page, for example). If the coincidence of the cube's perspectives were limited to that, Merleau-Ponty certainly would be right to say that such opposites could "never reach coincidence." But there is indeed a coincidence in the integrative way of viewing the cube, for perspectives are not related in simple temporal succession (first one, then the other) any more than in spatial simultaneity. If opposing faces are not immediately co-present, neither do they disclose themselves merely seriatim, in the externally mediated fashion of linear sequence. Instead the relation is one of internal mediation, of the mutual permeation of opposites. Perspectives are grasped as penetrating each other in a manner that blends space and time so completely that they are no longer recognizable in their familiar, categorically dichotomized forms. You can see this most readily in viewing Figure 2b. When you pick up on the odd sense of self-penetration of this allegedly “impossible” figure, you experience its two modalities neither simply at once, nor one simply followed by the other, as in the ordinary, temporally broken manner of perception; rather, you apprehend the dynamic merging and separating of perspectives. 1