CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
In conclusion this research has served its objective presented in the earlier section of this paper. This project’s objective is to introduce storytelling as the best and most effective mechanism of capturing tacitknowledge. Tacitknowledge is an experience- based knowledge which renders it difficult to capture. Our research focused on studying the improvement that storytelling could bring to companies by doing interview with the staff of the company. Unfortunately due to the restriction caused by insufficiency of time, the research could not conduct as deeply as one would wish to do. The participants of this research were chosen randomly as we were not able to conduct an interview with the primarily chosen staff as they were very busy with their work.
In today’s globally dispersed marketplace, time is a luxury that top companies are scarce of, with each activity taking time out of a project development cycle . Companies often face the problem that knowledge sharing activities are usually not an integral part of an official job description and, therefore, no time resource is allocated for this kind of activity. Furthermore, project teams suffer from time pressures to reach project goals and consequently do not have free time to create new knowledge or share it . This is for both capturing knowledge and looking through readily available knowledge. The principle aim of the developed framework is to utilize social media tools, which are commonly used in our everyday lives, to simplify both the capture and sharing of enterprise knowledge. The framework is now being developed into a tool which will be validated by means of a case study in conjunction with the industrial partner, and will answer the research question of: “Can social media tools be used effectively, at a relatively cheap cost, for companies to capture and share tacitknowledge inside their employee’s minds?”
concept mapping. The goal was preservation of data. Similar to Schank (2010), Eales (2004) sought a different approach. His approach looked at situated learning potential from the perspective of collaborative support provided by colleagues. He argued that we need to move beyond knowledge management and instead move to sharing expertise. Guechtouli (2012) looked at transference of tacitknowledge from experts to newcomers needing the knowledge. She investigated the use of CoP's and concluded that the impact of communicating knowledge is based on how the recipient views the contributor who is providing the knowledge. Guechtouli also noted two different types of knowledge transfer - direct and indirect. Direct transfer correlates to personalization (person-to- person) while indirect transfer correlates to persistent mechanisms, i.e. forums, wikis, and other similar methods. Her research supported that indirect communication enables more powerful knowledge transfer and can be used by different people which increases the ability of the knowledge to spread. Purcell and O’Brien (2015) noted, like others, that tacitknowledge is aligned with competitive advantage. Khan, Prasad, Selvi, et al. (2015) noted that tacitknowledge is difficult to capture or share while Khalid, Shehryar, and Arshad (2015) stated that tacitknowledge cannot be shaped and transported between organizations because of cultural, structural, and goal differences.
Our early KE activities contributed to the establishment of a general KE methodology that is appropriate for the utilities, for capturing tacitknowledge (see Hanes, 2000; Hoffman & Hanes, 2003). Our more recent KE activities have contributed to a notion of "accelerated expertise," that is, the establishment of knowledge bases that can be used to help workers achieve high levels of proficiency in less time that in commonly takes (on the order to 10 years to achieve expertise in some sub-domains) (Ziebell, 2008). IHMC and Perigean Technologies LLC supported a series of workshops for EPRI to help define a research and operational roadmap for accelerating the achievement of expertise within the utilities industry. The workshops introduced cognitive scientists and knowledge elicitation experts to nuclear and utilities industry personnel, and resulted in a series of publications outlining programs for knowledge elicitation and transfer, and an EPRI report on knowledge management issues (Ziebell, 2008).
The conceptual framework for this study was SECI (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). The framework is grounded in (a) knowledge creation theory developed by Nonaka and Takeuchi in 1995 and (b) transformational leadership theory (Burns, 1978). These theories are the basis for understanding leaders’ perspectives on strategies to influence knowledge transfer and identification of potential barriers. I chose a case study so as to explore and capture the participants’ experiences and develop themes from emerging data. Bailey (2014) pointed out that the case study design adopts a step-by-step process for a better understanding of a given outcome. The basis for the use of a case study is to follow the path of constructivism. The view of constructivism centered on how people construct their understanding and knowledge of the world (Tadajewski, 2016). The described position allows me to examine the complexity of views of the research participants rather than the restricted meaning of the few ideas on the phenomenon of interest.
This study established that the official language of communication at the universities is English. A common language is a prerequisite to knowledge transfer (Lemos, 2010). Keglovits (2013) stated that knowledge sharing requires excellent communication skills which is an essential knowledge transfer tool. Weak communication skills might lead to misunderstandings, less conversation and contact between the members in the universities, which prohibits TK flow. It was revealed that universities are using social media as way of transferring and sharing TK. This include Facebook, WhatsApp and short text messaging. Institutional repositories were also identified as a major database for TK transfer and sharing through the university websites. This implies that, technological tools and applications are used by universities to support TK sharing activities. This is supported by Laudon and Laudon (2012) who observe that social networking tools can support TK transfer in out of organizations. Workshops and conferences were also identified as platforms that facilitate TK sharing and transfer. Most universities organise for workshops and conferences to provide a chance to scholars and researchers to have academic discourse. In the process TK is exchanged and the participant are able to learn from the process. Mentorship in the four universities was said to be informal which would be best when structured: “providing a more equitable dispersion of mentoring opportunities and allowing organisational guidance in the information exchange process. Formalised mentoring also facilitates cross-unit mentoring, thus augmenting worker skill sets. However, the prerequisite for all successful mentor programmes includes participation, rewards and support for the worker and mentor” (Banacu et al., 2013, p. 495). Teamwork was found to be among the important strategies for TK creation and capture. During the data collection process, the researcher identified, meeting rooms, open spaces, resting shades, cafeteria and offices that allowed lecturers, students and other administrative staff to hold meetings (formal and informal) and discussions at different levels. However, it was also noted that the current system by the CUE in Kenya, discourages teamwork. This is because the members noted that, the reward scheme was mean, as indicated by the following quote:
Tacitknowledge, on the contrary, is very hard to formalise. Subjective insights, intuitions and hunches fall into this category of knowledge. This form of knowledge is deeply rooted in action, it is tacitly implied in skills possessed by individuals, their experiences and intuition, their relationships, and their understanding (Snowden 1999). Therefore, it is highly contextual and culture-bound (Nonaka et al. 1995). Tacit dimensions of knowledge build up overtime in peoples` heads, hands, and relationships. Knowledge management is challenged because these tacit elements of intangible assets accumulate in the organisation through dynamic, unstructured, and often subtle processes that are not easily codified into formal training programs or captured in information systems (Swap et al. 2001). Personal contacts and interactions are very suitable for transferring tacitknowledge within multinationals (Davenport et al. 1998).
However, one major disadvantage of this tool is that people may not premeditate careful over their actions as simulated spaces are not reality (Chen et al, 2003).
5.2 Collective Cognitive Mapping System
This is an archetype system consisting four key functionalities for exploiting soft knowledge: An episodic memory representing a container of individual cognitive maps; organisational memory representing a reservoir of collective cognitive maps; a local cognitive map generator which translates individual mental models into graphical representations; and a central collective cognitive map generator which exploit cognitive maps of all members and use them for collective problem solving. Chen et al (2003) emphasised that collective cognitive mapping systems have capabilities to assist individual members in an organisation to articulate, share and synthesise their visions with their peers. In other words, collective cognitive mapping systems are tools for replicating the mental model discipline of Senge (1990), as it can support people to unearth their internal pictures of realities, bring them to surface and hold them thoroughly to examination. In this case, individuals’ tacitknowledge become authentic for organisational use thereby confirming the applicability of storytelling technique (Denning, 2000) and, socialisation and externalisation processes of knowledge creation (Nonaka, 1991).
Creswell (2007) has stated that in an explanatory design, a follow-up of the same individuals should be included in both data collections. The approach to be used in this research to capture data from the interviews is that of structured interviews where a list of open-ended questions have been prepared in advance. This form of interview was well suited to covering the sequence of questions to be discussed (Kvale 1996). It was also appropriate for exploring the perceptions and opinions of the interviewees regarding issues pertaining to tacitknowledge transfer. It also enabled probing for more information and clarification of responses too. The interview questions were primarily open-ended questions, designed to expose a diversity of opinions (Jackson & Trochim 2002), and allow the subject to follow their own line of thought (Dick 2000). The open ended questions enabled concentrating on a more in-depth analysis of the practices and behaviours that were raised in the survey instrument. Probe questions were used to elicit more information and to keep the discussion focussed when necessary. The interviews helped in identifying techniques to capturetacitknowledge from people before they disappear with a focus on process and performance improvements.
The thesis supports the statement by Snowden that “storytelling is an old technology with modern use.” 13 Modern organisations are required to come to grips with the knowledge in people’s heads so as to use it for their competitive advantage. This is more so in the case of experts leaving the organisation with the intellectual capital they have gained during their work in that organisation. Essential methodologies should be developed to ensure that the intellectual capital remains within the organisations because allowing these experts to tell stories of their work is one of the ways to draw on the intellectual capital. Telling of stories draws on aspects of human nature of which we are barely aware and makes use of a delivery system that is as old as civilisation itself 14 . Storytelling is technology free and does not require investment in hardware or software as it is essentially about capturing tacitknowledge that resides in people’s heads. Storytelling is the ultimate low-cost high-return technology 15 because when you captureknowledge in people’s heads, what is required is interaction which is in the form of face to face collaboration or virtual collaboration which still involves exchange of tacitknowledge. In addition purposeful storytelling can reach a large number of people very rapidly. Purposeful storytelling is a powerful mechanism for ensuring that knowledge is shared within an organisation and this is acknowledged as part of this thesis.
tacitknowledge is the source of competitive advantage and critical to daily management activities. Tacitknowledge is also divided into two types, cannot be articulated and implicit knowledge, knowledge we know but do not want to express. The division of tacitknowledge into individual and collective is elaborated by Choo (1998). Collins (2001) from the sociology perspective argues that tacitknowledge can be passed through personal contact. Tacitknowledge is an attribute of an individual, unspeakable and unteachable is the definition given by Wagner and Sternberg (1999), from the behaviorist view point. Stenmark (2000) believes that tacitknowledge resides in individuals. Tacitknowledge is valuable and a source of competitive advantage for organizations. Although it resides in individual, organizations must identify and capture the tacitknowledge (Davenport and Prusak, 1997).
either because conditions preclude its existence; the ideological framework for this condition do not exist; or wider environmental factors are extant with this absence. According to Inkpen and Choudary, in a transformative state while strategy may be considered absent it is emerging; until it does though there is no strategy. In an interpretative state, the articulation of transformative strategy suggests that there is a conversation that is tacit (Kogut and Zander 1992). While actors in this transformative state struggle to figure out what exactly is the scope of their ignorance and what they must do about it, they find themselves making decisions in a state of doubt. Peirce provides a useful framework for doubtful decision making (Keyhani 2011). Indeed, military strategists from Sun Tzu to Clausewitz have long spoken of the utility of surprise in catching the opponent off guard and causing “confusion and broken courage in the enemy’s ranks”, and according to Watts this points to doubt in the enemy command as a key advantage (Watts 1996). Strategy artefacts may include mission, vision and value statements; organisational structures; and formal planning processes have a largely symbolic ceremonial role in an implied or explicit state. Meyer and Rowan (1977) believe that the semiotic interpretation of these conditions may inhibit autonomy and self-determination and constrain a desire to be agile and flexible in the face of change; free from the constraints of a costly strategic planning process and its attendant bureaucracy. Strategy made explicit can suffer the perception of codification and hardening expectations. Once expectations are so established, authors of strategy may seek confirming evidence and “tend to be awfully generous in what they accept as evidence that their
successor’s ability or readiness to assume increased control. One founder connected the readiness for the successor to take a larger role in decision-making to the successor’s impact on the company’s performance: “We were doing so good, so well. And then after..., I said, ‘You’ve got half the company” (C-6-TANKIT, FS). This decision rested exclusively with the founder and was based on his perception of contribution, successor readiness, and fairness. In C-1-CAPMAN, the founder managed the succession process by leading a series of “retreats” that were designed by the founder to increase the knowledge base of the successors. In this case, the pace of the succession process, as described by the founder, the successors, and the key observer, was described as “incremental” or as a “process” or “series of steps” (C-1-CAPMAN F, S1, S2, KO). The pace of this process was determined by the founder’s perceptions of the successors’ degree of “trustworthiness” or readiness in terms of assuming increased responsibilities in the firm (C-1-CAPMAN F). When asked about the nature of this trust, the founder clearly had reflected on this phenomenon. He stated: “Not trust, but trustworthy. I’m going to send you a piece of paper on this because I have spent a lot of time on that. Trustworthy is way beyond, you have to be worthy of trust. Which means you need to be loyal, it also means you need to be frank, and of course you need to be honest. All of those pieces.” (C-1-CAPMAN, F)
A qualitative methodology based on the analysis of multiple case studies was used for this research. Eight cases of family business succession were investigated, with data collected from public sources and interviews with founders, successors (family members and non-family members) and key observers. A total of forty interviews were conducted, with interviews focused on the history of the firm and others on the generational transfer of knowledge of the firm. A literature review provided a research foundation and a theoretical context that informed the case selection and interview protocol.
Returning to the question regarding why multiple visits to a CAFO seem to activate defensive responses, the mixed data provides some insight. Participants falling in the Low Change group seemed to have a personal connection or particular interest in industrial livestock production. Some students reported working at a CAFO or knowing people who do, or having superior knowledge regarding agricultural practices. This strong connection to industrial agriculture as a way of life may have elicited defensive responses from these individuals. Their worldview was defined by their relationship with industrial agriculture. When their worldview was challenged by the presentation of contradictory information, their defenses were triggered.
Methods: An integrative review was undertaken of the literature published up to November 2016 in the databases CUIDEN, SciELO, PubMed, Cochrane and CINAHL. The synthesis and interpretation of the data was performed by two researchers through content analysis.
Results: From a total of 819 articles located, 35 articles on tacitknowledge and nursing were chosen. There is no consensus on the name and description of results in tacitknowledge. The main characteristics of tacitknowledge have a personal and social character, which is used from an organised mental structure, called mindline. This structure relates to the use of tacitknowledge on clinical decision-making. Conclusions: Previous studies on tacitknowledge and nursing provide the nursing community with pers- pectives without going into depth. The production of a framework is suggested, as it would clarify implied concepts and its role on the management of nursing knowledge.
Employee behaviour is a complex issue influenced by many factors. It involves trust as well as the capabilities and motivation that give rise to performance behaviour. Trust reduces risk and uncertainty through better communications. Communication and the ability to work in teams are seen as the basis for trust building. Trust forms part of relationships. When individuals work in trusting teams they will have the ability to be flexible and respond to changes in information. This is seen as a very valuable approach in construction, where information may be incomplete at the time of contract and changes often arise as a project progresses. A company that is going to work in trusting teams needs to have the organisation’s leadership support for this approach. Any policy that pursues trust in working relationships between employees has to come from the top. Sako (1992) defined trust as a mutual expectation that partners will not exploit the vulnerabilities created by cooperation, and that the decision over whether to trust or not depends on the interpretations of other parties’ intention and possible behaviour. It is essentially a state of mind; a belief or an explanation held by one trading partner about another that the other would behave in a mutually acceptable manner. Dasgupta (1988) suggests that trust will not evolve in circumstances where an individual does not know fully the motivation of the person with whom he is considering a transaction. Once trust is established, then knowledge sharing is part of every thing in the organisation’s culture (Egan, 1998). The absence of trust within project teams has been highlighted in both the Latham (1994) and Egan (1998) reports as a major factor leading to the failure of construction projects. Communication and the ability to work in teams are seen as the basis for trust building. Due to the project nature of construction, where people form temporary project-based teams, this is not always possible. However, when individuals work in trusting teams they have the ability to be flexible and respond to changes of information. Conflict can build trust if project teams can move away from a ‘blame culture’ to a ‘problem solving culture’. Some of the methods (work practices), as identified from the above discussion, that improve trust between individuals include: face to face interaction; external meeting places; long term relationships; experience (working together); problem solving; shared goals; and reciprocity. These attributes while improving trust also promote tacitknowledge sharing between individuals.
relatively easy and inexpensive way to begin managing knowledge. The essential first step is a relatively simple one -- identify what each individual in the organization believes is the specific kinds of knowledge he or she possesses. Managers can then use this knowledge to assign individuals to key tasks or to compose teams with appropriate sets of knowledge to carry out a project, to improve performance in current processes, or to try to create new knowledge in the organization. As Philips did with its intranet- based “yellow pages,” managers may also elect to create an open database listing the knowledge claimed by individuals in the organization to facilitate knowledge sharing between individuals.
1999). Pandza et. al. (2003) is in agreement with the opinion that individual skills, tacitknowledge and social relations that are embedded in an organization make up competencies. For Van Krogh and Roos (1996), competency has two dimensions, individual and social. Individual competence requires individual knowledge to identify a task, and skills and abilities to solve it. Competence on the social level is attended by using social knowledge, shared on a group, and resolved using skills commonly available throughout a group. Therefore competence evolves through interplay between task execution and knowledge acquisition (Van Krogh and Roos, 1996). Drejer (2001) mentioned that the process of learning to become better develops competency. He added that individual or organizational learning is mostly informal (experiential and non- institutional) or incidental (unintentionally or by- product of other activities). Grant (2002) however views competency as collectively held knowledge and arises from integration of specialized knowledge.
The complex and subjective nature of tacitknowledge and implicit learning can be studied in a more controlled environment, such as a polar workplace, compared with a conventional workplace. The current study uses “conventional workplace” as an antonym of the polar workplace. The polar workplace presents a research opportunity to develop an extensive informal learning model, particularly through incidental learning of tacitknowledge during a polar deployment. Unlike a conventional workplace, the work life of this isolated work community may involve relatively fewer variables or interferences from personal life outside work (Palinkas, 2000, 2002, 2003; Suedfeld & Steel, 2000; Suedfeld & Weiss, 2000b). Firstly, the amount and type of day-to-day activities that individuals have to deal with in this habitat consist of multiple physical, social, and emotional challenges. As there are relatively fewer factors affecting implicit learning data in a polar workplace during a deployment, it is an ideal locale for the study of implicit learning and tacitknowledge. The potential influences may derive mainly from the challenges of isolated, confined extreme (I.C.E.) environments. Physical stressors, psycho-environmental factors, social and temporal factors (Suedfeld, 1987; Palinkas, 2000, 2002, 2003; Suedfeld & Steel, 2000; Taylor, 2002) may affect the acquisition of tacitknowledge by polar personnel. The fact that learning experiences can be clearly defined by the timing of a polar deployment adds value to the use of this context for the current study (D. Paton, personal communication, May 17, 2011).